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Summary talk: experimental.

Description: No Description Available.
Date: January 1, 1972
Creator: Kienle, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the impacts of energy conservation codes in new single-family homes

Description: Within the 50 states some form of federal code or standard for energy conservation in new building construction is typically incorporated into state and local codes. Two of these codes, the Model Energy Code (MEC) and the proposed ASHRAE standard 90.2P are of special importance to the residential data base developed by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) because they influence thermal requirements and have either been recently updated or will be revised in 1992. In this study, we evaluate the impacts of these two thermal codes on the energy performance and energy consumption of prototypical new single-family buildings. Base case buildings, with characteristics typical of current building practices, are modified to meet the thermal envelope standards and are simulated with the DOE-2.1D building energy simulation program. In addition, we also model the effects of appliance and heating and cooling equipment efficiencies promulgated under the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) of 1987 and of the NAECA Amendments of 1988. We compare heating and cooling loads and energy use for the prototypical house for several cases: the base case, with 1980s vintage thermal envelope and appliance and equipment efficiencies; with ASHRAE 90 thermal requirements; with Model Energy Code thermal requirements; with NAECA appliance and HVAC efficiencies; and with combinations of the ASHRAE 90 Standard or Model Energy Code and the NAECA appliance and equipment efficiency improvements. The results provide a glimpse of how these standards will affect future end-use energy consumption in new single-family buildings.
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Ritschard, R.L.; Hanford, J.W. & Sezgen, A.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of precise surface-gravity measurements for monitoring the response of a geothermal reservoir to exploitation

Description: Recommendations for carrying out surveys which achieve 15, 10 and 5 microgal precisions are presented. Achieving the smaller standard deviations will require more field effort and will be more costly. For a 60 station survey, at commercial rates in 1981, typical costs are estimated to be $20,000, $26,000 and $35,000 respectively, for data collection, reduction and interpretation. These figures exclude instrument purchase or rental. Twenty geothermal areas in the western United States which might be suitable for precise repetitive gravity monitoring were evaluated. The evaluation criteria included capability for subsidence on a geological basis, estimated electrical production, environmental impact, and anticipation of production in the near future. It is felt that the most promising areas in order of priority are: (1) the Salton Sea field, California; (2) Valles Caldera, New Mexico; (3) The Geysers-Clear Lake; and (4) Westmorland, California; (5) Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah; and (6) Heber; (7) Brawley; and (8) Long Valley, California.
Date: June 1, 1981
Creator: Grannell, R.B.; Whitcomb, J.H.; Aronstam, P.S. & Clover, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of precipitation on contaminant dissolution and transport: Analytic solutions

Description: We analysed the effect of precipitation on the dissolution and transport rates of a nondecaying contaminant. Precipitation near the waste surface can have a profound effect on dissolution and transport rates. The mass-transfer rate at the waste surface is controlled by the solid-liquid reaction rate to an extent determined by the modified reaction-rate modulus, ..cap alpha... At later times extending to steady state, the mass-transfer rate depends on the location of the precipitation front r/sub p/ and on the solubility ratio C/sub o//C/sub p/. A precipitation front very near the waste surface can change the dissolution mechanism from solubility-diffusion-controlled to chemical-reaction-rate controlled. Precipitation limits the concentration of the contaminant at r > r/sub p/ to C/sub p/, steepening the concentration gradient for dissolution on the waste package side of the front and flattening the gradient for transport in the region outside the front. This increases the rate of contaminant transport from the waste to the front while decreasing the rate of transport away from the front, when compared to the situation without precipitation. The difference in the transport rates at the front is the rate of precipitation. For large changes in solubility, most of the contaminant is immobilized by precipitation, as was observed in a parallel study. The effect of a precipitation front located nearby in surrounding rock is to increase the release rate at the waste surface/rock interface. The increase in release rate at the waste surface is greater the closer the precipitation and the larger the ratio C/sub o//C/sub p/, also observed by others. The release rates of other waste constituents that dissolve congruently with the solubility-controlling matrix can be increased by a local high-solubility region between the waste surface and the precipitation front. 10 refs., 5 figs.
Date: September 1, 1988
Creator: Light, W.B.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H. & Lee, W.W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-R Window Technology Development : Phase II Final Report.

Description: Of all building envelope elements, windows always have had the highest heat loss rates. However, recent advances in window technologies such as low-emissivity (low-E) coatings and low- conductivity gas fillings have begun to change the status of windows in the building energy equation, raising the average R-value (resistance to heat flow) from 2 to 4 h-ft{sup 2}-{degrees}F/Btu. Building on this trend and using a novel combination of low-E coatings, gas-fills, and three glazing layers, the authors developed a design concept for R-6 to R-10 super'' windows. Three major window manufacturers produced prototype superwindows based this design for testing and demonstration in three utility-sponsored and -monitored energy-conserving homes in northwestern Montana. This paper discusses the design and tested performance of these three windows and identifies areas requiring further research if these window concepts are to be successfully developed for mass markets.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Arasteh, Dariush
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy-efficient incandescent lamp. Final report

Description: The status of the Energy Efficient Light Bulb (EELB) development at the beginning of the subcontract was characterized by a newly introduced lamp construction based on an optimum optical quality envelope consisting of two hemispheres or hemi-ellipsoids bonded together. Considerable progress was made concerning the output of the continuous process heat mirror coating machine, the reproducibility of the film characteristics, and the durability of the coating over long periods of lamp operation. The bonding assembly processes were improved to the point where they are suitable for full mechanization and high speed production. A new concept for dimensioning the required compact and mechanically stable filaments was introduced by using diodes in series that reduce the effective operating voltage to 83 volts. This has led to filament designs of greater stability and greater compactness than any obtained before. The efficacy and energy saving data of the prototype lamps delivered at the end of the subcontract were close to the target values established at the beginning.
Date: April 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-to-moderate-temperature hydrothermal reservoir engineering handbook

Description: Guidelines are provided for evaluating reservoir characteristics containing setions on reservoir classification, conceptual modeling, testing during drilling, current theory of testing, test planning and methodology, instrumentation, and a sample computer program. Sections on test planning and methodology, geochemistry, reservoir monitoring, and the appendixes, containing technical detail, are included. Background information needed to monitor the program of reservoir evaluation is provided.
Date: June 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computer simulation of high resolution transmission electron micrographs: theory and analysis

Description: Computer simulation of electron micrographs is an invaluable aid in their proper interpretation and in defining optimum conditions for obtaining images experimentally. Since modern instruments are capable of atomic resolution, simulation techniques employing high precision are required. This thesis makes contributions to four specific areas of this field. First, the validity of a new method for simulating high resolution electron microscope images has been critically examined. Second, three different methods for computing scattering amplitudes in High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) have been investigated as to their ability to include upper Laue layer (ULL) interaction. Third, a new method for computing scattering amplitudes in high resolution transmission electron microscopy has been examined. Fourth, the effect of a surface layer of amorphous silicon dioxide on images of crystalline silicon has been investigated for a range of crystal thicknesses varying from zero to 2 1/2 times that of the surface layer.
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Kilaas, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charge distributions for the /sup 86/Kr + /sup 139/La system at 505, 610, and 710 MeV

Description: Nuclear charge distributions for projectile-like and fission-fragment-like reaction products were measured as a function of angle and energy loss at each of the three bombarding energies E/sub L/ = 505, 610, and 710 MeV for the /sup 86/Kr + /sup 139/La reaction. The charge distributions at most angles and energy losses are dominated by a peak centered close to the Z of the projectile. The variances of the Z distributions of this component exhibit a different dependence on energy loss at each of the three bombarding energies. A nucleon exchange model incorporating the effects of the Fermi motion and Pauli Principle is quite successful in accounting for the rate of energy loss per exchange deduced from the charge distriction data. This result suggests that nucleon exchange is the major mechanism for energy dissipation in these collisions. The data are also analyzed in the framework of a phenomenological model, from which diffusion constants are obtained. For large energy losses a second peak appears in the charge distribution with a most probable Z equal to one-half the sum of the projectile and target Z. This component is attributed to fusion-fission. The magnitude of the fusion-fission cross section at 505 and 610 MeV is larger than TDHF predictions. 12 figures, 2 tables.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Dyer, P.; Webb, M.P.; Puigh, R.J.; Vandenbosch, R.; Thomas, T.D. & Zisman, M.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

Description: In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings.
Date: February 1, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternative positron-target design for electron-positron colliders

Description: Current electron-positron linear colliders are limited in luminosity by the number of positrons which can be generated from targets presently used. This paper examines the possibility of using an alternate wire-target geometry for the production of positrons via an electron-induced electromagnetic cascade shower. 39 refs., 38 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: April 1, 1991
Creator: Donahue, R.J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)) & Nelson, W.R. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fracture detection in crystalline rock using ultrasonic reflection techniques: Volume 1

Description: This research was initiated to investigate using ultrasonic seismic reflection techniques to detect fracture discontinuities in a granitic rock. Initial compressional (P) and shear (SH) wave experiments were performed on a 0.9 {times} 0.9 {times} 0.3 meter granite slab in an attempt to detect seismic energy reflected from the opposite face of the slab. It was found that processing techniques such as deconvolution and array synthesis could improve the standout of the reflection event. During the summers of 1979 and 1980 SH reflection experiments were performed at a granite quarry near Knowles, California. The purpose of this study was to use SH reflection methods to detect an in situ fracture located one to three meters behind the quarry face. These SH data were later analyzed using methods similar to those applied in the laboratory. Interpretation of the later-arriving events observed in the SH field data as reflections from a steeply-dipping fracture was inconclusive. 41 refs., 43 figs., 7 tabs.
Date: November 1, 1982
Creator: Palmer, S.P. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrocatalysts for oxygen electrodes

Description: The objectives of the research were: to develop further understanding of the factors controlling O{sub 2} reduction and generation on various electrocatalysts, including transition metal macrocycles and oxides: to use this understanding to identify and develop much higher activity catalysts, both monofunction and bifunction; and to establish how catalytic activity for a given O{sub 2} electrocatalyst depends on catalyst-support interactions and to identify stable catalyst supports for bifunctional electrodes.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Yeager, E.B. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lie algebraic methods for particle tracking calculations

Description: A study of the nonlinear stability of an accelerator or storage ring lattice typically includes particle tracking simulations. Such simulations trace rays through linear and nonlinear lattice elements by numerically evaluating linear matrix or impulsive nonlinear transformations. Using the mathematical tools of Lie groups and algebras, one may construct a formalism which makes explicit use of Hamilton's equations and which allows the description of groups of linear and nonlinear lattice elements by a single transformation. Such a transformation will be exactly canonical and will describe finite length linear and nonlinear elements through third (octupole) order. It is presently possible to include effects such as fringing fields and potentially possible to extend the formalism to include nonlinearities of higher order, multipole errors, and magnet misalignments. We outline this Lie algebraic formalism and its use in particle tracking calculations. A computer code, MARYLIE, has been constructed on the basis of this formalism. We describe the use of this program for tracking and provide examples of its application. 6 references, 3 figures.
Date: August 1, 1983
Creator: Douglas, D.R. & Dragt, A.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Search for flow in the reaction Ar + Pb. [0. 8 GeV/u]

Description: Interactions between Ar projectiles and lead are studied in terms of global observables. The Streamer Chamber at the Berkeley BEVALAC was used to record all charged particles produced in collisions between 0.8 GeV/u Ar projectiles with a Pb/sub 3/O/sub 4/ target. A hardware trigger selected central collisions with Pb nuclei corresponding to a trigger cross section of 1 barn. In a geometrical picture this is equivalent to an impact parameter range of 0 to 5 fm.
Date: August 1, 1983
Creator: Renfordt, R.E.; Brockmann, R.; Harris, J.W.; Maier, M.; Riess, F.; Sandoval, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-gain free electron lasers as generators of short wavelength coherent radiation

Description: The development of coherent radiation in high-gain free electron lasers, either from initial noise or from low-power input radiation, is analyzed in terms of three-dimensional Maxwell-Klimontovich equations. Exponential growth and saturation, transverse radiation profiles, transverse coherence and spectral features are discussed. Two possible systems of high-gain free electron lasers, one based on a storage ring and by-pass, another based on a linac and damping rings, are considered for the generation of 400 A radiation.
Date: May 1, 1986
Creator: Kim, K.J. & Pellegrini, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

500-kW DCHX pilot-plant evaluation testing

Description: Field tests with the 500 kW Direct Contact Pilot Plant were conducted utilizing brine from well Mesa 6-2. The tests were intended to develop comprehensive performance data, design criteria, and economic factors for the direct contact power plant. The tests were conducted in two phases. The first test phase was to determine specific component performance of the DCHX, turbine, condensers and pumps, and to evaluate chemical mass balances of non-condensible gases in the IC/sub 4/ loop and IC/sub 4/ in the brine stream. The second test phase was to provide a longer term run at nearly fixed operating conditions in order to evaluate plant performance and identify operating cost data for the pilot plant. During these tests the total accumulated run time on major system components exceeded 1180 hours with 777 hours on the turbine prime mover. Direct contact heat exchanger performance exceeded the design prediction.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Hlinak, A.; Lee, T.; Loback, J.; Nichols, K.; Olander, R.; Oshmyansky, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Angular distribution and atomic effects in condensed phase photoelectron spectroscopy

Description: A general concept of condensed phase photoelectron spectroscopy is that angular distribution and atomic effects in the photoemission intensity are determined by different mechanisms, the former being determined largely by ordering phenomena such as crystal momentum conservation and photoelectron diffraction while the latter are manifested in the total (angle-integrated) cross section. In this work, the physics of the photoemission process is investigated in several very different experiments to elucidate the mechanisms of, and correlation between, atomic and angular distribution effects. Theoretical models are discussed and the connection betweeen the two effects is clearly established. The remainder of this thesis, which describes experiments utilizing both angle-resolved and angle-integrated photoemission in conjunction with synchrotron radiation in the energy range 6 eV less than or equal to h ..nu.. less than or equal to 360 eV and laboratory sources, is divided into three parts.
Date: November 1, 1981
Creator: Davis, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photodissociation processes in molecular beams

Description: A description is presented of a study of the photodissociation dynamics of molecules in a molecular beam. Photo-fragmentation translational spectroscopy has been utilized to observe the photodissociation dynamics of ozone. Using a supersonic molecular beam and a 10 nanosecond pulsed laser at lambda = 266 nm, the velocities of the fragment products are measured by the method of time of flight. The resolution of the time of flight spectrum of ozone is sufficiently high that the electronic and vibrational states are clearly resolved and identified. Above the threshold (lambda < 310 nm), the quantum yield for the production of O(/sup 1/D) has been estimated in the past to be unity for the process O/sub 3/ (/sup 1/A/sub 1/) + h..nu..)lambda < 300 nm) ..-->.. O/sub 3/(/sup 1/B/sub 2/) ..-->.. O/sub 2/(/sup 1/..delta../sub g/) + O(/sup 1/D). However a small production of O/sub 2/ (/sup 3/..sigma../sub g//sup -/) + O(/sup 3/P) has been observed in this study. The O/sub 2/(/sup 1/..delta../sub g/) product yields four vibrational states (v = 0, 1, 2, 3) which yields a vibrational temperature of 2700/sup 0/K along with narrow energy distributions of rotational levels. These energy distributions are compared with photodissociation models along with the polarization dependence of the dissociative process which was also measured. 143 references.
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: Carlson, L.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department