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Analysis of the October 5, 1979 lithium spill and fire in the Lithium Processing Test Loop

Description: On October 5, 1979, the Lithium Processing Test Loop (LPTL) developed a lithium leak in the electromagnetic (EM) pump channel, which damaged the pump, its surrounding support structure, and the underlying floor pan. A thorough analysis of the causes and consequences of the pump failure was conducted by personnel from CEN and several other ANL divisions. Metallurgical analyses of the elliptical pump channel and adjacent piping revealed that there was a significant buildup of iron-rich crystallites and other solid material in the region of the current-carrying bus bars (region of high magnetic field), which may have resulted in a flow restriction that contributed to the deterioration of the channel walls. The location of the failure was in a region of high residual stress (due to cold work produced during channel fabrication); this failure is typical of other cold work/stress-related failures encountered in components operated in forced-circulation lithium loops. Another important result was the isolation of crystals of a compound characterized as Li/sub x/CrN/sub y/. Compounds of this type are believed to be responsible for much of the Fe, Cr, and Ni mass transfer encountered in lithium loops constructed of stainless steel. The importance of nitrogen in the mass-transfer mechanism has long been suspected, but the existence of stable ternary Li-M-N compounds (M = Fe, Cr, Ni) had not previously been verified.
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: Maroni, V.A.; Beatty, R.A.; Brown, H.L.; Coleman, L.F.; Foose, R.M.; McPheeters, C.C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Covariance matrices and applications to the field of nuclear data

Description: A student's introduction to covariance error analysis and least-squares evaluation of data is provided. It is shown that the basic formulas used in error propagation can be derived from a consideration of the geometry of curvilinear coordinates. Procedures for deriving covariances for scaler and vector functions of several variables are presented. Proper methods for reporting experimental errors and for deriving covariance matrices from these errors are indicated. The generalized least-squares method for evaluating experimental data is described. Finally, the use of least-squares techniques in data fitting applications is discussed. Specific examples of the various procedures are presented to clarify the concepts.
Date: November 1, 1981
Creator: Smith, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual design of the INTOR first-wall system

Description: The design concept and performance characteristics of the first-wall design for the phase-1 INTOR (International Tokamak Reactor) study is described. The reference design consists of a water-cooled stainless steel panel. The major uncertainty regarding the performance of the bare stainless steel wall relates to the response of a thin-melt layer predicted to form on limited regions during a plasma disruption. A more-complex backup design, which incorporates radiatively cooled graphite tiles on the inboard wall, is briefly described.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Smith, D.L.; Majumdar, S.; Mattas, R.F.; Turner, L.; Jung, J.; Abdou, M.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physical sputtering code for fusion applications

Description: A computer code, DSPUT, has been developed to compute the physical sputtering yields for various plasma particles incident on candidate fusion-reactor first-wall materials. The code, which incorporates the energy and angular-dependence of the sputtering yield, treats both high- and low-Z incident particles bombarding high- and low-Z wall materials. The physical sputtering yield is expressed in terms of the atomic and mass numbers of the incident and target atoms, the surface binding energy of the wall materials, and the incident angle and energy of the particle. An auxiliary code has been written to provide sputtering yields for a Maxwellian-averaged incident particle flux. The code DSPUT has been used as part of a Monte Carlo code for analyzing plasma-wall interactions.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Smith, D.L.; Brooks, J.N. & Post, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials selection for the US INTOR divertor collector plate

Description: The divertor collector plate in the INTOR reactor will be subjected to high heat, particle, and neutron fluxes, making it the most severely damaged torus component. The collector plate is composed of a protection plate, which is directly exposed to the particle flux, and a heat sink which provides support for the protection plate and carries the water coolant. The high-Z refractory metals have been considered for use as the protection plate material, and austenitic stainless steels and copper alloys have been considered as the heat sink material. Tungsten and Type 316 stainless steels have been selected for the protection plate and heat sink, respectively. The protection plate has a sputtering lifetime of 1.75 y at a 50% duty factor, while the heat sink is expected to last the lifetime of the reactor.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Mattas, R.F.; Misra, B.; Smith, D.L.; Morgan, G.D.; Delaney, M. & Gold, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Blanket materials for DT fusion reactors

Description: This paper presents an overview of the critical materials issues that must be considered in the development of a tritium breeding blanket for a tokamak fusion reactor that operates on the D-T-Li fuel cycle. The primary requirements of the blanket system are identified and the important criteria that must be considered in the development of blanket technology are summarized. The candidate materials are listed for the different blanket components, e.g., breeder, coolant, structure and neutron multiplier. Three blanket concepts that appear to offer the most potential are: (1) liquid-metal breeder/coolant, (2) liquid-metal breeder/separate coolant, and (3) solid breeder/separate coolant. The major uncertainties associated with each of the design concepts are discussed and the key materials R and D requirements for each concept are identified.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Smith, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Important material considerations in INTOR

Description: A number of important material-related problems were identified and analyzed during the Phase-I study for INTOR. The first wall and divertor collector plate are subjected to severe normal and off-normal conditions. A melt layer is predicted to develop in a bare stainless steel wall under plasma disruptions. Graphite tiles will not melt but they introduce other serious uncertainties into the design. The design strategy for the divertor collector plate focused on separating the surface and high heat flux problems and on utilizing a novel mechanical design concept for attaching tungsten tiles to a stainless steel (or copper) heat sink.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Abdou, M.A.; Mattas, R.F. & Smith, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department