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Nondestructive evaluation techniques for silicon carbide heat-exchanger tubing

Description: The adequacy of various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for inspecting silicon carbide heat-exchanger tubing is discussed. These methods include conventional ultrasonics, acoustic microscopy, conventional and dye-enhanced radiography, holographic interferometry and infrared scanning techniques. On the basis of current test results and an examination of the discussions in available literature, these techniques were compared with respect to (a) effectiveness in detecting cracks, pitting, inclusions, and voids, (b) effectiveness in characterizing detected flaws, (c) adaptability to tube geometry, (d) adaptability to in-service inspection, (e) reliability, and (f) extent of development required for commercialization.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Kupperman, D.S.; Deininger, W.D.; Lapinski, N.P.; Sciammarella, C. & Yuhas, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detection and location of leaks in district heating steam systems: Survey and review of current technology and practices

Description: This report presents the results of a survey undertaken to identify and characterize current practices for detecting and locating leaks in district heating systems, particular steam systems. Currently used technology and practices are reviewed. In addition, the survey was used to gather information that may be important for the application of acoustic leak detection. A few examples of attempts to locate leaks in steam and hot water pipes by correlation of acoustic signals generated by the leaks are also discussed.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Kupperman, D.S.; Raptis, A.C. & Lanham, R.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NDE of stainless steel and on-line leak monitoring of LWRs

Description: The GARD/ANL acoustic leak detection system is under evaluation in the laboratory. Results of laboratory tests with simulated acoustic leak signals and acoustic signals from field-induced intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCCs) indicate that cross-correlation techniques can be used to locate the position of a leak. Leaks from a 2-in. ball valve and a flange were studied and compared with leaks from IGSCCs and fatigue cracks. The dependence of acoustic signal on flow rate and frequency for the valve and the flange was comparable to that of fatigue cracks (thermal and mechanical) and different from that of IGSCCs. Two pipe-to-endcap weldments with overlays were examined. Because the amount of cracking in the specimens was limited, the emphasis was on trying understand the nature of crack overcalling. Four 60-mm-thick cast stainless steel plates with microstructures ranging from equiaxed to primarily columnar grains have been examined with ultrasonic waves. 13 refs., 23 figs.
Date: October 1, 1985
Creator: Kupperman, D.S.; Claytor, T.N.; Mathieson, T. & Prine, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research perspectives on the evaluation of steam generator tube integrity.

Description: Industry effects have been largely successful in managing degradation of steam generator tubes due to wastage, pitting, and denting, but fretting, SCC and intergranular attack have proved more difficult to manage. Although steam generator replacements are proceeding there is substantial industry interest in operating with degraded steam generators, and significant numbers of plants will continue to do so. In most cases degradation of steam generator tubing by stress corrosion cracking is still managed by plug or repair on detection, because current NDE techniques for characterization of flaws are not accurate enough to permit continued operation. This paper reviews some of the historical background that underlies current steam generator degradation management strategies and outlines some of the additional research that must be done to provide more effective management of degradation in current generators and provide greater assurance of satisfactory performance in replacement steam generators.
Date: February 22, 2001
Creator: Muscara, J.; Diercks, D. R.; Majumdar, S.; Kupperman, D. S.; Bakhtiari, S. & Shack, W. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

X-ray microdiffraction studies to measure strain fields in a metal matrix composite

Description: An x-ray diffraction microscope has been used to map the strain field in a fiber-reinforced composite material. The monochromatic x-ray (11 keV) beam was focused by a phase zone plate to produce a focal spot of 1 x 4 {micro}m{sup 2} on the specimen. The change in the peak position of diffraction patterns due to interatomic spacing change, caused by stress in the sample, was measured by using a two-dimensional CCD detector. The radial residual strain field in the fiber-reinforced composite (SCS-6/Ti-14Al-21Nb) was measured from diffraction patterns with a sensitivity of {approximately} 10{sup {minus}4} and an average standard deviation of 9.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Lee, H.R.; Yun, W.; Cai, Z.; Rodrigues, W. & Kupperman, D.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques for Silicon Carbide Heat-Exchanger Tubes : Annual Report, October 1977-September 1978

Description: This report discusses the adequacy of several nondestructive evaluation techniques for the detection of flaws in silicon carbide heat-exchanger tubing. Experimental results have been obtained for conventional ultrasonic testing, acoustic microscopy, conventional and dye-enhanced radiography, holographic interferometry, infrared scanning and internal-friction measurements.
Date: March 1979
Creator: Kupperman, D. S.; Yuhas, D.; Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Lapinski, N. P. & Fiore, N. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques for High-Temperature Ceramic Heat Exchanger Components : Third Annual Report, October 1979-September 1980

Description: The goals of the present program are not only to develop hardware and procedures for efficiently inspecting ceramic heat-exchanger components in conventional ways, but also to develop advanced NDE techniques that will allow effective failure prediction. The main objectives in FY 1980 have been to (a) develop a computer-interfaced ultrasonic bore-side probe for pre-service and in-service inspection, (b) develop and assess techniques for inspection of SiC tubing by acoustic microscopy, and (c) carry out preliminary tests to compare ultrasonic, holographic, and infrared techniques with more conventional dye-penetrant and radiographic methods for inspection of butt joints in ceramic tubes. Circumferential notches, 125 microns deep x 250 microns long, on the inner and outer surfaces of sintered and siliconized SiC tubes were successfully detected with an ultrasonic bore-side probe. The acoustic microscope was modified to handle 30- as well as 100-MHz sound waves, since the lower-frequency waves give better penetration of Sic tube walls. The modification decreased the acoustic noise. The ability to detect a notch only 250 x 125 x 75 microns in size was demonstrated. Efforts to examine a butt joint with dye-penetrant, radiographic, ultrasonic, and holographic-interferometry techniques revealed that while holography seemed to identify more clearly the presence of a crack-like inner surface flaw, ultrasonic pulse-echo and pitch-catch techniques at 22 MHz also indicated the presence of an anomaly; the ultrasonic and holographic results agreed with regard to angular location of the flaw.
Date: 1980
Creator: Kupperman, D. S.; Yuhas, D.; Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Caines, M. J. & Winiecki, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Welding Procedure and Aging on Ultrasonic Wave Propagation in Austenitic Stainless Steel

Description: Various types of austenitic stainless steel (SS) were aged for up to 2500 h at a temperature of 600C to determine whether the resultant microstructural changes would affect the ultrasonic velocity and attenuation and thus the reliability of ultrasonic in-service inspections. Samples of Type 304 and 316 SS as well as 308, 308CRE, and 316 weld metal were examined. Velocity variations were less than 1%, and attenuation variations at frequencies below 10 MHz were not significant except in the anomalous case of one Type 316 SS weldmetal sample. That change may be due to unexpected microstructural changes associated with aging. The variation in the samples attributed to aging is therefore not expected to have a deleterious effect on ultrasonic in-service inspection of stainless steel reactor components.
Date: July 1980
Creator: Kupperman, D. S.; Caines, M. J.; Reimann, K. J. & Fiore, N. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detection and Location of Leaks in District Heating Steam Systems: Survey and Review of Current Technology and Practices

Description: This report presents the results of a survey undertaken to identify and characterize current practices for detecting and locating leaks in district heating systems, particular steam systems. Currently used technology and practices are reviewed. In addition, the survey was used to gather information that may be important for the application of acoustic leak detection. A few examples of attempts to locate leaks in steam and hot water pipes by correlation of acoustic signals generated by the leaks are also discussed.
Date: March 1992
Creator: Kupperman, D. S.; Raptis, A. C. & Lanham, R. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Eddy current analysis round robin using the NRC steam generator mockup.

Description: This paper discusses round-robin exercises to assess inspection reliability using the NRC steam generator (SG) mock-up at Argonne National Laboratory. The purpose of the round robins is to assess the current reliability of SG tubing inservice inspection, determine the probability of detection (POD) as function of flaw size or severity, and assess the capability for sizing of flaws. The mock-up contains hundreds of cracks and simulations of artifacts such as corrosion deposits and tube support plates that make detection and characterization of cracks more difficult in operating steam generators than in most laboratory situations. Eddy current signals from the laboratory-grown cracks used in the mock-up have been reviewed to ensure that they provide reasonable simulations of those obtained in the field. The mock-up contains 400 tube openings. Each tube contains nine 22.2-mm (7/8-in.) diameter, 30.5-cm (1-ft) long, Alloy 600 test sections. The flaws are located in the tube sheet near the roll transition zone (RTZ), in the tube support plate (TSP), and in the freespan. The flaws are primarily intergranular stress corrosion cracks (axial and circumferential, ID and OD). In addition to the simulated tube sheet and TSP the mock-up has simulated sludge and magnetite deposits. A validated multiparameter eddy current algorithm that provided a detailed isometric plot for every flaw was used to establish the reference state of defects in the mock-up. The detection results for the 11 teams were used to develop POD curves as a function of maximum depth, voltage and the parameter m{sub p}, for the various types of flaws. The 95% one-sided confidence limits (OSL), which include errors in maximum depth estimates, are presented along with the POD curves. For the second round robin a reconfigured mock-up is being used to evaluate the effectiveness of eddy current arrays.
Date: February 20, 2002
Creator: Kupperman, D. S.; Muscara, J.; Bakhtiari, S.; Park, J. Y. & Shack, W. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of NDE methods to green ceramics: initial results

Description: This paper describes a preliminary investigation to assess the effectiveness of microradiography, ultrasonic methods, nuclear magnetic resonance, and neutron radiography for the nondestructive evaluation of green (unfired), ceramics. Objective is to obtain useful information on defects, cracking, delaminations, agglomerates, inclusions, regions of high porosity, and anisotropy.
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Kupperman, D.S.; Karplus, H.B.; Poeppel, R.B.; Ellingson, W.A.; Berger, H.; Robbins, C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of NDE methods to green ceramics: initial results

Description: The effectiveness of microradiography, ultrasonic methods, unclear magnetic resonance, and neutron radiography was assessed for the nondestructive evaluation of green (unfired) ceramics. The application of microradiography to ceramics is reviewed, and preliminary experiments with a commercial microradiography unit are described. Conventional ultrasonic techniques are difficult to apply to flaw detection green ceramics because of the high attenuation, fragility, and couplant-absorbing properties of these materials. However, velocity, attenuation, and spectral data were obtained with pressure-coupled transducers and provided useful informaion related to density variations and the presence of agglomerates. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging techniques and neutron radiography were considered for detection of anomalies in the distribution of porosity. With NMR, areas of high porosity might be detected after the samples are doped with water. In the case of neutron radiography, although imaging the binder distribution throughout the sample may not be feasible because of the low overall concentration of binder, regions of high binder concentration (thus high porosity) should be detectable.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Kupperman, D.S.; Karplus, H.B.; Poeppel, R.B.; Ellingson, W.A.; Berger, H.; Robbins, C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steam generator tube integrity program: Annual report, August 1995--September 1996. Volume 2

Description: This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on the Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program from the inception of the program in August 1995 through September 1996. The program is divided into five tasks: (1) assessment of inspection reliability, (2) research on ISI (inservice-inspection) technology, (3) research on degradation modes and integrity, (4) tube removals from steam generators, and (5) program management. Under Task 1, progress is reported on the preparation of facilities and evaluation of nondestructive evaluation techniques for inspecting a mock-up steam generator for round-robin testing, the development of better ways to correlate failure pressure and leak rate with eddy current (EC) signals, the inspection of sleeved tubes, workshop and training activities, and the evaluation of emerging NDE technology. Results are reported in Task 2 on closed-form solutions and finite-element electromagnetic modeling of EC probe responses for various probe designs and flaw characteristics. In Task 3, facilities are being designed and built for the production of cracked tubes under aggressive and near-prototypical conditions and for the testing of flawed and unflawed tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe-accident conditions. Crack behavior and stability are also being modeled to provide guidance for test facility design, develop an improved understanding of the expected rupture behavior of tubes with circumferential cracks, and predict the behavior of flawed and unflawed tubes under severe accident conditions. Task 4 is concerned with the acquisition of tubes and tube sections from retired steam generators for use in the other research tasks. Progress on the acquisition of tubes from the Salem and McGuire 1 nuclear plants is reported.
Date: February 1998
Creator: Diercks, D. R.; Bakhtiari, S.; Kasza, K. E.; Kupperman, D. S.; Majumdar, S.; Park, J. Y. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microstructural Effects and Signal-Enhancement Techniques in Ultrasonic Examination of Stainless Steel

Description: Ultrasonic inspection of large-grain stainless steel and stainless steel welds is difficult, and the results obtained are not easily interpreted. In the present study, the effects of stainless steel microstructure on ultrasonic test results are described, and several signal-processing techniques for enhancing ultrasonic flaw signals are discussed.
Date: September 1976
Creator: Kupperman, D. S. & Reimann, K. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nondestructive-Evaluation Needs for Coal Liquefaction

Description: Nondestructive-evaluation (NDE) needs for coal liquefaction have been identified by acquiring information from site visits, a literature review, and discussions with government personnel. Nondestructive evaluation has been highly rated in importance as a way to help alleviate problems in coal-conversion systems. The primary problems are associated with highly erosive and corrosive slurries being transferred throughout the coal-conversion process. Applicable NDE techniques for both pre-service and in-service inspection include high-temperature ultrasonics, acoustic emission, radiography, acoustic holography, and ultrasonic spectroscopy.
Date: 1977?
Creator: Kupperman, D. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultrasonic Wave-Propagation Characteristics and Polarization in Stainless Steel Weld Metal

Description: Ultrasonic inspections of austenitic stainless steel weld metal are particularly difficult because of the dendritic structure and anisotropy of the material. The acoustic properties of stainless steel weld metal are discussed. Data on frequency spectra and variations in longitudinal and shear velocities with wave-propagation direction are presented. The difference in detectability of artificial reflectors using shear waves of varying polarization is presented, and it is demonstrated that, in some cases, horizontally polarized shear waves can detect a reflector in the weld metal, whereas the traditional vertically polarized shear waves cannot.
Date: March 1978
Creator: Kupperman, D. S. & Reimann, K. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal strains in titanium aluminide and nickel aluminide composites

Description: Neutron diffraction was used to measure residual thermal strains developed during postfabrication cooling in titanium aluminide and nickel aluminide intermetallic matrix composites. Silicon carbide /Ti 14Al-21Nb, tungsten and sapphire/NiAl, and sapphire and SiC-coated sapphire/NiAl{sub 25}Fe{sub 10} composites were investigated. The thermal expansion coefficient of the matrix is usually greater than that of the fibers. As such, during cooldown, compressive residual strains are generated in the fibers and tensile residual strains are generated in the matrix, parallel to the fibers. Liquid-nitrogen dipping and thermal cycling tend to reduce the fabrication-induced residual strains in silicon carbide-fiber-reinforced titanium aluminide matrix composites. However, matrix cracking can occur as a result of these processes. The axial residual strains in the matrix were lower in the nickel aluminide matrix than in the titanium aluminide matrix. As the matrix undergoes plastic deformation, residual thermal strains are related to the yield stress of the matrix.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Saigal, A. (Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering) & Kupperman, D.S. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of neutron diffraction to measure residual strains in high temperature composites

Description: An experimental neutron diffraction technique was used to measure residual thermal strains developed in high temperature composites during postfabrication cooling. Silicon carbide fiber-reinforced titanium aluminide (over the temperature range 20--950{degree}C) and tungsten and saphikon fiber-reinforced nickel aluminide composites (at room temperature) were investigated. As a result of thermal expansion mismatch, compressive residual strains and stresses were generated in the silicon carbide fibers during cooldown. The axial residual strains were tensile in the matrix and were lower in nickel aluminide matrix as compared to those in titanium aluminide matrix. The average transverse residual strains in the matrix were compressive. Liquid-nitrogen dipping and thermal-cycling tend to reduce the fabrication-induced residual strains in silicon carbide fiber-reinforced titanium aluminide matrix composite. However, matrix cracking can occur as a result of these processes. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Saigal, A. (Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering) & Kupperman, D.S. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strength and flexibility of bulk high-{Tc} superconductors

Description: Strength, fracture toughness, and elastic modulus data have been gathered for bulk high-temperature superconductors, commercial 99.9% Ag, and a 1.2 at.% Mg/Ag alloy. These data have been used to calculate fracture strains for bulk conductors. The calculations indicate that the superconducting cores of clad tapes should begin to fracture at strains below 0.2%. In addition, residual strains in Ag-clad (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} tapes have been measured by neutron diffraction. An explanation is offered for why many tapes appear to be able to tolerate large strains before exhibiting a reduction in current transport.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Goretta, K.C.; Jiang, M.; Kupperman, D.S.; Lanagan, M.T.; Singh, J.P.; Vasanthamohan, N. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Evaluation of Several Nondestructive-Evaluation Techniques for Silicon Nitride Gas-Turbine Rotors

Description: Several nondestructive-evaluation (NDE) techniques have been examined to establish their effectiveness for detecting critically sized flaws in silicon nitride gas-turbine rotors. Preliminary results have been obtained for holographic interferometry, acoustic microscopy, dye-enhanced radiography, acoustic emission, and acoustic-impact testing techniques. This report discusses the relative effectiveness of these techniques in terms of their applicability to the rotor geometry and ability to detect critically sized flaws. Where feasible, flaw indications were verified by alternative NDE techniques or destructive examination. This study has indicated that, since the various techniques have different advantages, ultimately a reliable interrogation of ceramic rotors may require the application of several NDE methods.
Date: 1978?
Creator: Kupperman, D. S.; Sciammarella, C.; Lapinski, N. P.; Sather, A.; Yuhas, D.; Kessler, L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: October-December 1979

Description: Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes efforts directed toward understanding and improving components of molten carbonate fuel cells and have included operation of 10-cm square cells.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Pierce, R. D.; Kucera, G. H.; Kupperman, D. S.; Poeppel, R. B.; Sim, J. W.; Singh, R. N. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sodium Heat Engine Development Program

Description: The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of {beta}{double prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system, engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Singh, J.P.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cracking and Healing Behavior of UO2 as Related to Pellet-Cladding Mechanical Interaction : Interim Report, July 1976

Description: A direct-electrical-heating apparatus has been designed and fabricated to investigate those nuclear-fuel-related phenomena involved in the gap closure-bridging annulus formation mechanism that can be reproduced in an out-of-reactor environment. Prototypic light-water-reactor uranium dioxide fuel-pellet temperature profiles have been generated utilizing high flow rates (approximately 700 liters/min) of helium coolant gas, and a re-circulating system has been fabricated to permit tests of up to 1000 h. Simulated light-water-reactor single- and multiple-thermal-cycle experiments will be conducted on both unclad and ceramic (fused silica) clad uranium dioxide pellet stacks. A laser dilatometer is used to measure pellet dimensional increase continuously during thermal cycling. Acoustic emissions from thermal-gradient cracking have been detected and correlated with crack length and crack area. The acoustic emissions are monitored continuously to provide instantaneous information about thermal-gradient cracking. Post-test metallography and fracture-mechanics measurements are utilized to characterize cracking and crack healing.
Date: October 1976
Creator: Kennedy, C. R.; Yaggee, F. L.; Voglewede, J. C.; Kupperman, D. S.; Wrona, B. J.; Ellingson, W. A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of residual strain in composites by means of time-of- flight neutron diffraction

Description: Neutron diffraction time-of-flight measurements using the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source at Argonne National Laboratory have been employed to study strain in various metal- and ceramic-matrix composites. For example, measurements carried out to 900 C on a composite composed of a titanium alloy matrix and silicon carbide fibers have been used to validate theoretical assumptions in the prediction of fabrication-induced residual stress. Sapphire reinforced nickel aluminide composites have also been studied. Studies of a high-temperature ceramic superconducting composite consisting of yttrium barium copper oxide and silver with various volume fractions of silver have also been carried out. The results of these studies have provided information on the effect of Ag content on interface bonding. In addition, ceramic-matrix composites with randomly dispersed ceramic whiskers with varying fiber content have been investigated.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Richardson, J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials and Components Technology Div.) & Saigal, A. (Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department