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Correction of magnetization sextupole and decapole in a 5 centimeter bore SSC dipole using passive superconductor

Description: Higher multipoles due to magnetization of the superconductor in four and five centimeter bore Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) superconducting dipole magnets have been observed. The use of passive superconductor to correct out the magnetization sextupole has been demonstrated on two dipoles built by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This reports shows how passive correction can be applied to the five centimeter SSC dipoles to remove sextupole and decapole caused by magnetization of the dipole superconductor. Two passive superconductor corrector options will be presented. The change in magnetization sextupole and decapole due to flux creep decay of the superconductor during injection can be partially compensated for using the passive superconductor. 9 refs; 5 figs.
Date: May 1, 1991
Creator: Green, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparison of ASTROMAG coils made with aluminum and copper based superconductor

Description: The use of aluminum matrix superconductor in the coils for the ASTROMAG magnet will increase the integrated field for doing particle astrophysics in space as compared to equal mass coils made with copper matrix superconductor. The increased ability to detect charged particles can be achieved without decreasing the current margin of the superconductor in the coils. The use of a low resistivity aluminum matrix conductor increases the energy need to initiate a quench by two orders of magnitude. The current decay time constant during a quench is substantially increased. As a result, the quench energy dumped into the helium tank is reduced (The ASTROMAG coils are thermally decoupled from the helium tank), and the forces on the shields and shells due to eddy currents will be lower. This paper also describes the problems associated with the use of aluminum matrix superconductor in the coils. 8 refs., 5 figs.
Date: September 1, 1990
Creator: Green, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correction of the field in the SSC dipoles using superconductor on the wedges

Description: The SSC colliding beam storage ring requires superconducting magnets capable of producing a magnetic field of 6.6 T which has very high accuracy. For many of the multipoles, that multipole must be reduced (at a radius of 1 centimeter) to the order of 0.2 parts in 10,000. This field accuracy is dictated by the physics of storing very small high-current proton beams at energies ranging from 1 TeV to 20 TeV. Magnetization of the superconductor can cause sextupole field errors of up to 6 parts in 10,000 at an injection field of 0.33 T at a radius of 1 centimeter. Saturation of the magnet iron can induce sextupole field errors of 1 to 2 parts in 10,000 at the full field of 6.6 T. Manufacturing errors can induce other multipole components, both normal and skew. The SSC coil has three wedges separating the superconducting coil blocks on the inner layer of the coil. These wedges must be accurately located. If the wedges have superconductors attached, one can correct all of the magnetic field multipoles (both normal and skew) from N = 1 (dipole) to N = 6 (12 pole). This paper describes this method of correction as it pertains to the SSC dipole magnet. 9 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1987
Creator: Green, M.A. & Talman, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling the cooldown of force-cooled coils

Description: This paper describes a finite difference computer program which simulates the cooldown of force-cooled superconducting coils. The basic theory is discussed and the method of calculation used in the program is described. Some of the problems associated with computer modeling of a cooldown are discussed. The program capability is demonstrated on a three-dimensional model which represents the 1000 kg cryogenic model of the Euratom LCT coil. From computer simulation using the program described here, a method for cooling down large forced cooled superconducting coils can be developed.
Date: March 1, 1981
Creator: Green, M.A.; Mitina, S. & Krafft, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superconducting magnets for muon capture and phase rotation

Description: There are two key systems that must operate efficiently, in order for a muon collider to be a viable option for high energy physics. These systems are the muon production and collection system and the muon cooling system. Both systems require the use of high field superconducting solenoid magnets. This paper describes the supcrconducting solenoid system used for the capture and phase rotation of the pions that are produced on a target in a high intensity proton beam.
Date: July 26, 1999
Creator: Green, M.A. & Weggel, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimization of superconducting bending magnets for a 1.0 to 1.5 GeV compact light source

Description: Compact light sources are being proposed for protein crystallography, medical imaging, nano-machining and other areas of study that require intense sources of x rays at energies up to 35 keV. In order for a synchrotron light source to be attractive, its capital cost must, be kept low. The proposed compact light source has superconducting bending elements to bend the stored beam and produce the x rays. Additional focusing for the machine is provided by conventional quadrupoles. An important part of the cost optimization of a compact light source is the cost of the bending magnets. In the case of a machine with superconducting bending elements, the bending magnet system can represent close to half of the storage ring cost. The compact light source storage rings studied here have a range of stored electron energies from 1.0 to 1.5 GeV. For a number of reasons, it is desirable to keep the storage ring circumference below 30 meters. Cost optimization parameters include: (1) the number of superconducting bending elements in the ring, and (2) the central induction of the dipole. A machine design that features two superconducting dipoles in a single cryostat vacuum vessel is also discussed.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Green, M.A. & Garren, A.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design parameters for a 7.2 tesla bending magnet for a 1.5 GeV compact light source

Description: This report describes the design for a 7.2 tesla superconducting dipole magnet for a compact synchrotron light source. The proposed magnet is a Vobly type modified picture frame dipole that has the flux returned through unsaturated iron. In this magnet, The iron in the pole pieces is highly saturated, Separately powered coils around the pole pieces are used to direct the flux lines until the flux can be returned through the unsaturated iron. The proposed dipole will develop a uniform field over a region that is 80 mm high by 130 mm wide over a range of central induction from 0.4 T to almost 8 T. Each dipole for the compact light source will have a magnetic length of about 0.38 meters.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Green, M. A. & Madura, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress on the superconducting magnet for the time projection chamber experiment (TPC) at PEP

Description: The TPC (Time Projection Chamber) experiment at PEP will have a two meter inside diameter superconducting magnet which creatests a 1.5 T uniform solenoidal field for the TPC. The superconducting magnet coil, cryostat, cooling system, and the TPC gas pressure vessel (which operatests at 11 atm) were designed to be about two thirds of a radiation length thick. As a result, a high current density coil design was chosen. The magnet is cooled by forced flow two phase helium. The TPC magnet is the largest adiabatically stable superconducting magnet built to date. The paper presents the parameters of the TPC thin solenoid and its subsystems. Tests results from the Spring 1980 cryogenic tes are presented. The topics to be dealt with in the paper are cryogenic services and the tests of magnet subsystems such as the folded current leads. Large thin superconducting magnet technology will be important to large detectors to be used on LEP.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Green, M.A.; Eberhard, P.H. & Burns, W.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Forced two phase helium cooling of large superconducting magnets

Description: A major problem shared by all large superconducting magnets is the cryogenic cooling system. Most large magnets are cooled by some variation of the helium bath. Helium bath cooling becomes more and more troublesome as the size of the magnet grows and as geometric constraints come into play. An alternative approach to cooling large magnet systems is the forced flow, two phase helium system. The advantages of two phase cooling in many magnet systems are shown. The design of a two phase helium system, with its control dewar, is presented. The paper discusses pressure drop of a two phase system, stability of a two phase system and the method of cool down of a two phase system. The results of experimental measurements at LBL are discussed. Included are the results of cool down and operation of superconducting solenoids.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Green, M.A.; Burns, W.A. & Taylor, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molecular modeling in the development of metal radiopharmaceuticals. Final progress report, July 15, 1989--July 14, 1993

Description: We began this project with a compilation of a structural library to serve as a data base containing descriptions of the molecular features of metal-labeled radiopharmaceuticals known to efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier. Such a data base is needed in order to identify structural features (size, shape, molecular surface areas and volumes) that are critical in allowing blood-brain barrier penetration. Nine metal complexes have been added to this structural library. We have completed a detailed comparison of four molecular mechanics computer programs QUANTA, SYBYL, BOYD, and MM2DREW to assess their applicability to modeling the structures of low molecular weight metal complexes. We tested the ability of each program to reproduce the crystallographic structures of 38 complexes between nickel(II) and saturated N-donor ligands. The programs were evaluated in terns of their ability to reproduce structural features such as bond lengths, bond angles, and torsion angles. Recently, we investigated the synthesis and characterization of lipophilic cationic gallium complexes with hexadentate bis(salicylaldimine) ligands. This work identified the first gallium-68 radiopharrnaceuticals that can be injected intravenously and that subsequently exhibit significant myocardial uptake followed by prolonged myocardial retention of {sup 68}Ga radioactivity. Tracers of this type remain under investigation as agents for evaluation of myocardial perfusion with positron emission tomography.
Date: October 1, 1993
Creator: Green, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculating the J{sub c}, B, T surface for commercial niobium tin conductors using a reduced state model

Description: This report presents a method for calculating the J{sub c}, B, T critical surface for commercial grade niobium tin given an effective {Tc} and B{sub c2} and J{sub c} over a range of magnetic inductions B. Given the effective {Tc} and B{sub c2} and J{sub c}, one can estimate the J{sub c} over a range of magnetic inductions from 0.1 T to 0.8 times effective B{sub c2} and a range of temperatures from 1.5 K to about 14 K. The effects of conductor strain can also be estimated using the method. A comparison between calculated values of J{sub c} and measurements is illustrated for a number of cases. The method presented in this report can be used to estimate the performance of niobium tin in magnets at temperatures different from those where measured data is available. The method of calculating the J{sub c} can also be used to estimate the effects of superconductor magnetization on the field quality at low fields.
Date: July 1, 1993
Creator: Green, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ground-plane insulation failure in the first TPC superconducting coil

Description: On August 27, 1980, an insulation failure occurred during the testing of the TPC (Time Projection Chamber) thin superconducting solenoid. The accident caused shorts between the ultra pure aluminum (UPA) secondary circuit and the superconducting coil. There were also shorts between the UPA circuit and ground. The results of an analysis of experimental data taken at 5 millisecond intervals by a data logger and a PDP-11 computer are presented. This paper discusses the results of x-ray and ultrasonic tests and the results of the coil autopsy. From the evidence, a most probable cause for the failure is given.
Date: March 1, 1981
Creator: Green, M.A.; Del Pierre, P. & Derby, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculation of the pressure rise in the cooling tube of a two-phase cooling system during a quench of an indirectly cooled superconducting magnet

Description: Large superconducting detector magnets are indirectly cooled with two-phase helium flowing in cooling tubes attached to the coil or its support structure. Large detector magnets often quench such that most of the magnet stored energy ends up as heat stored in the coil package. The time constant for energy deposition in the coil and support structure is often quite short. This paper presents a method for calculating the peak pressure rise in the magnet tow-phase cooling tube during a magnet quench. A comparison of calculated peak pressure rise and measured pressure rise for the PEP-4 solenoid is presented in this report.
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Green, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A large superconducting thin solenoid for the STAR experiment at RHIC

Description: This Report describes the 4.4 meter, warm bore diameter, thin superconducting solenoid, for the proposed STAR experiment at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The STAR solenoid will generate a very uniform central magnetic induction of 0.5 T within a space which is 4.0 meters in diameter by 4.2 meters long. The solenoid and its cryostat will be 0.7 radiation lengths thick over a length of 5.45 meters, about the center of the magnet making it the largest solenoid less than one radiation length to be built. This report describes a proposed design for the solenoid and cryostat, its flux return iron, its cryogenic system and its power supply and quench protection system.
Date: June 1, 1992
Creator: Green, M. A. & Collaboration, STAR
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Mechanical and Thermal Design for the MICE Detector SolenoidMagnet System

Description: The detector solenoid for MICE surrounds a scintillating fiber tracker that is used to analyze the muon beam within the detector. There are two detector magnets for measuring the beam emittance entering and leaving the cooling channel that forms the central part of the experiment. The field in the region of the fiber detectors must be from 2.8 to 4 T and uniform to better than 1 percent over a volume that is 300 mm in diameter by 1000 mm long. The portion of the detector magnet that is around the uniform field section of the magnet consists of two short end coils and a long center coil. In addition, in the direction of the MICE cooling channel, there are two additional coils that are used to match the muon beam in the cooling channel to the beam required for the detectors. Each detector magnet module, with its five coils, will have a design stored-energy of about 4 MJ. Each detector magnet is designed to be cooled using three 1.5 W coolers. This report presents the mechanical and electrical parameters for the detector magnet system.
Date: September 26, 2004
Creator: Fabbricatore, P.; Farinon, S.; Perrella, M.; Bravar, U. & Green,M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Mice Focusing Solenoids and their Cooling System

Description: This report describes the focusing solenoid for the proposed Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) [1]. The focusing solenoid consists of a pair of superconducting solenoids that are on a common bobbin. The two coils, which have separate leads, may be operated in the same polarity or at opposite polarity. This report discusses the superconducting magnet design and the cryostat design for the MICE focusing module. Also discussed is how this superconducting magnet can be integrated with a pair of small 4.2 K coolers.
Date: May 7, 2004
Creator: Green, M.A.; Barr, G.; Lau, W.; Senanayake, R.S. & Yang, S.Q.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quench Protection for the MICE Cooling Channel CouplingMagnet

Description: The MICE coupling coil is fabricated from Nb-Ti, which hashigh quench propagation velocities within the coil in all directionscompared to coils fabricated with other superconductors such as niobiumtin. The time for the MICE coupling coil to become fully normal throughnormal region propagation in the coil is shorter than the time needed fora safe quench (as defined by a hot-spot temperature that is less than 300K). A MICE coupling coil quench was simulated using a code written at theInstitute of Cryogenics and Superconductive Technology (ICST) at theHarbin Institute of Technology (HIT). This code simulates quench backfrom the mandrel as well as normal region propagation within the coil.The simulations included sub-division of the coil. Each sub-division hasa back to back diodes and resistor across the coil. Current flows in theresistor when there is enough voltage across the coil to cause current toflow through the diodes in the forward direction. The effects of thenumber of coil sub-divisions and the value of the resistor across thesub-division on the quench were calculated with and without quench back.Sub-division of the coupling coil reduces the peak voltage to ground, thelayer-to-layer voltage and the magnet hot-spot temperature. Quench backreduces the magnet hot-spot temperature, but the peak voltage to groundand layer-to-layer voltage are increased, because the magnet quenchesfaster. The resistance across the coil sub-division affects both thehot-spot temperature and the peak voltage to ground.
Date: November 20, 2007
Creator: Green, M.A.; Wang, L. & Guo, X.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Three dimensional field calculations for a Short Superconducting Dipole for the UCLA Ultra Compact Synchrotron

Description: The Ultra Compact Synchrotron (UCS), proposed for UCLA, is a compact 1.5 GeV electron light source with superconducting magnets to produce X rays with a critical energy of about 10 keV. The design physical length (cold length) for the dipole is 418 mm. The synchrotron requires that a uniform field be produced in a region that is 180 mm wide by 40 mm high by about 380 mm long. The end regions of the dipole should be short compared to the overall length of the dipole field region. A Vobly H type of dipole was selected for the synchrotron bending magnets. In order for each dipole to bend a 1.5 GeV electron beam 30 degrees, the central induction must be in the range of 6.4 to 6.9 T (depending on the dipole magnetic length). The pole width for the dipole was set so that over 90% of the X rays generated by the magnet can be extracted. The three dimensional field calculations were done using TOSCA. This report shows that a Vobly type of dipole will behave magnetically as a conventional water cooled iron dominated dipole. The uniformity of the integrated magnetic field can be controlled by varying the current in the shield coil with respect to the gap and cross-over coils. The two dimensional field in the center of the magnet can be tuned to be very uniform over a width of 110 to 120 mm. The three dimensional calculations show that the magnetic length along a particle track in the dipole is about 29 mm longer than the length of the iron pole pieces. This report will present the three dimensional design of the UCS Vobly dipole and the results of the field calculations for that magnet.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Green, M.A. & Taylor, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High field solenoids for muon cooling

Description: The proposed cooling system for the muon collider will consist of a 200 meter long line of alternating field straight solenoids interspersed with bent solenoids. The muons are cooled in all directions using a 400 mm long section liquid hydrogen at high field. The muons are accelerated in the forward direction by about 900 mm long, 805 MHz RF cavities in a gradient field that goes from 6 T to -6 T in about 300 mm. The high field section in the channel starts out at an induction of about 2 T in the hydrogen. As the muons proceed down the cooling channel, the induction in the liquid hydrogen section increases to inductions as high as 30 T. The diameter of the liquid hydrogen section starts at 750 mm when the induction is 2 T. As the induction in the cooling section goes up, the diameter of the liquid hydrogen section decreases. When the high field induction is 30 T, the diameter of the liquid hydrogen section is about 80 mm. When the high field solenoid induction is below 8.5 T or 9T, niobium titanium coils are proposed for generating .the magnetic field. Above 8.5 T or 9 T to about 20 T, graded niobium tin and niobium titanium coils would be used at temperatures down to 1.8 K. Above 20 T, a graded bybrid magnet system is proposed, where the high field magnet section (above 20 T) is either a conventional water cooled coil section or a water cooled Bitter type coil. Two types of superconducting coils have been studied. They include; epoxy impregnated intrinsically stable coils, and cable in conduit conductor (CICC) coils with helium in the conduit.
Date: September 8, 1999
Creator: Green, M.A.; Eyssa, Y.; Kenny, S.; Miller, J.R. & Prestemon, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Four Cell Lattice for the UCLA Compact Light Source Synchrotron

Description: The 1.5 GeV compact light source UCS proposed for UCLA must fit into a shielded vault that is 9.144 meters (30 feet) wide. In order for the machine to fit into the allowable space, the ring circumference must be reduced 36 meters, the circumference of the six cell lattice, to something like 26 or 27 meters. The four cell lattice described in this report has a ring circumference of 27.0 meters.
Date: March 12, 1999
Creator: Garren, A.A. & Green, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The design and construction of a gradient solenoid for the high powered RF cavity experiment for the muon collider

Description: This report describes the construction and test of a split solenoid that has a warm bore of 440 mm and a cryostat length of 1088 mm. (A 750 mm section contains the magnetic field.) When the coils are hooked so the fields are additive, the central induction is 5.0 T at its design current. When the coils are hooked so that the fields are in opposition, the induction at the center of the solenoid is zero and the peak induction on the solenoid axis is {+-}3.7 T. The on-axis induction gradient is 25 T per meter when the coils are hooked in opposition. When the coils are operated at their design currents in opposition, the force pushing the two coils apart is about 3 MN. The force pushing the coils apart is carried by the aluminum coil mandrel and a solid aluminum sheath outside of the superconducting winding. The coil was wound as a wet lay-up coil using alumina filled epoxy (Stycast). A layer of hard aluminum wire wound on the outside of the superconducting coil carries some of the hoop forces and limits the strain so that training does not occur. At design current, at both polarities, the peak induction in the windings is about 7 T. This report describes the solenoid magnet system and its construction.
Date: September 5, 1999
Creator: Green, M.A.; Chen, J.Y. & Wang, S.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department