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Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes

Description: Ventilation reduces occupant exposure to indoor contaminants by diluting or removing them. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, every zone will have different dilution rates and contaminant source strengths. The total ventilation rate is the most important factor in determining occupant exposure to given contaminant sources, but the zone-specific distribution of exhaust and supply air and the mixing of ventilation air can play significant roles. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of mixing depending on several factors such as air leakage, air distribution system, and contaminant source and occupant locations. Most U.S. and Canadian homes have central heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, which tend to mix the air; thus, the indoor air in different zones tends to be well mixed for significant fractions of the year. This article reports recent results of investigations to determine the impact of air mixing on exposures of residential occupants to prototypical contaminants of concern. We summarize existing literature and extend past analyses to determine the parameters than affect air mixing as well as the impacts of mixing on occupant exposure, and to draw conclusions that are relevant for standards development and for practitioners designing and installing home ventilation systems. The primary conclusion is that mixing will not substantially affect the mean indoor air quality across a broad population of occupants, homes, and ventilation systems, but it can reduce the number of occupants who are exposed to extreme pollutant levels. If the policy objective is to minimize the number of people exposed above a given pollutant threshold, some amount of mixing will be of net benefit even though it does not benefit average exposure. If the policy is to minimize exposure on average, then mixing air in homes is detrimental and should not be encouraged. We also conclude that ...
Date: January 1, 2010
Creator: Sherman, Max H. & Walker, Iain I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessing the Impacts of Reduced Noise Operations of Wind Turbines on Neighbor Annoyance: A Preliminary Analysis in Vinalhaven, Maine

Description: Neighbors living near the 3 turbine, 4.5 MW Vinalhaven, Maine wind power facility, which began operations in late 2009, have complained that the noise from the turbines is unwelcome and annoying. Fox Islands Wind, the owner of the facility, hypothesized that implementing a Noise Reduced Operation (NRO) for the turbines, which effectively limits the turbines maximum rpm and power output, would reduce the sound levels produced by the turbines, and therefore might also reduce the degree to which the neighbors report being annoyed by those sounds. To test this hypothesis in a preliminary fashion, a pilot study was conducted in early 2010, the results of which are the subject of this brief report. The study included asking near-by residents - those within roughly 3000 feet - to rate the sounds and the degree to which they were annoyed by them using logs which they filled out at multiple times during the day on as many days as were possible in the 35 day study period in February and March, 2010. Meanwhile, FIW adjusted the NRO settings of the turbines in a random fashion in the evenings during the same period, but in a pattern that the respondents were not made aware of. Ultimately, nine individuals turned in roughly 200 log entries (i.e., responses), each of which was time coded to allow testing if the response was correlated with the wind facility operating conditions at that time. The analysis of these data found small, non-statistically-significant differences in self-reported turbine loudness and annoyance ratings between the periods when the NRO was enacted and when it was not, after controlling for many of the relationships that could independently influence perceived loudness and annoyance (e.g., wind direction, time of day). Possible explanations for these small differences in self-reported turbine loudness and annoyance ratings include: ...
Date: June 23, 2010
Creator: Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan & Eckholdt, Haftan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

Description: With the current movement toward net zero energy buildings, many technologies are promoted with emphasis on their superior energy efficiency. The variable refrigerant flow (VRF) and ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are probably the most competitive technologies among these. However, there are few studies reporting the energy efficiency of VRF systems compared with GSHP systems. In this article, a preliminary comparison of energy efficiency between the air-source VRF and GSHP systems is presented. The computer simulation results show that GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRF system for conditioning a small office building in two selected US climates. In general, GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRV system, especially when the building has significant heating loads. For buildings with less heating loads, the GSHP system could still perform better than the air-source VRF system in terms of energy efficiency, but the resulting energy savings may be marginal.
Date: November 1, 2009
Creator: Hong, Tainzhen & Liu, Xaiobing
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Green Prison: The Santa Rita Jail Campus Microgrid

Description: A large microgrid project is nearing completion at Alameda County’s twenty-two-year-old 45 ha 4,000-inmate Santa Rita Jail, about 70 km east of San Francisco. Often described as a green prison, it has a considerable installed base of distributed energy resources (DER) including an eight-year old 1.2 MW PV array, a five-year old 1 MW fuel cell with heat recovery, and considerable efficiency investments. A current US$14 M expansion adds a 2 MW-4 MWh Li-ion battery, a static disconnect switch, and various controls upgrades. During grid blackouts, or when conditions favor it, the Jail can now disconnect from the grid and operate as an island, using the on-site resources described together with its back-up diesel generators. In other words, the Santa Rita Jail is a true microgrid, or μgrid, because it fills both requirements, i.e. it is a locally controlled system, and it can operate both grid connected and islanded. The battery’s electronics includes Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology (CERTS) Microgrid technology. This enables the battery to maintain energy balance using droops without need for a fast control system.
Date: January 22, 2012
Creator: Marnay, Chris; DeForest, Nicholas & Lai, Judy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

Description: Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.
Date: May 14, 2010
Creator: Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve & Letschert, Virginie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Performance Building Facade Solutions PIER Final Project Report

Description: Building facades directly influence heating and cooling loads and indirectly influence lighting loads when daylighting is considered, and are therefore a major determinant of annual energy use and peak electric demand. Facades also significantly influence occupant comfort and satisfaction, making the design optimization challenge more complex than many other building systems.This work focused on addressing significant near-term opportunities to reduce energy use in California commercial building stock by a) targeting voluntary, design-based opportunities derived from the use of better design guidelines and tools, and b) developing and deploying more efficient glazings, shading systems, daylighting systems, facade systems and integrated controls. This two-year project, supported by the California Energy Commission PIER program and the US Department of Energy, initiated a collaborative effort between The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and major stakeholders in the facades industry to develop, evaluate, and accelerate market deployment of emerging, high-performance, integrated facade solutions. The LBNL Windows Testbed Facility acted as the primary catalyst and mediator on both sides of the building industry supply-user business transaction by a) aiding component suppliers to create and optimize cost effective, integrated systems that work, and b) demonstrating and verifying to the owner, designer, and specifier community that these integrated systems reliably deliver required energy performance. An industry consortium was initiated amongst approximately seventy disparate stakeholders, who unlike the HVAC or lighting industry, has no single representative, multi-disciplinary body or organized means of communicating and collaborating. The consortium provided guidance on the project and more importantly, began to mutually work out and agree on the goals, criteria, and pathways needed to attain the ambitious net zero energy goals defined by California and the US.A collaborative test, monitoring, and reporting protocol was also formulated via the Windows Testbed Facility in collaboration with industry partners, transitioning industry to focus on the importance ...
Date: December 31, 2009
Creator: Lee, Eleanor & Selkowitz, Stephen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE FLOW FIELD OF A TWO DIMENSIONAL PREMIXED TURBULENT FLAME

Description: A turbulent reacting shear layer in a premixed propane/air flow has been studied in a two dimensional combustor, with the flame stabilized behind a rearward facing streamlined step. Spark shadowgraphs show that in the range of velocities (7.5 to 22.5 m/sec corresponding to Reynolds numbers of .5 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup -1} to 1. 5 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup -1} ) and equivalence ratios (0.4 to 0.7) studied, the mixing layer is dominated by Brown~ Roshko type large coherent structures in both reacting and nonreacting flows. High speed schlieren movies show that these eddies are convected downstream and increase their size and spacing by combustion and coalescence with neighboring eddies. Tracing individual eddies shows, in the reacting shear layer, that, on the average, eddies accelerate as they move downstream with the highest acceleration close to the origin of the shear layer. Combustion is confined to these large structures which develop as a result of vortical action of the shear flow. On the average, the reacting eddies have a lower growth rate than nonreacting eddies. A turbulent boundary layer created by means of a tripping wire upstream of the edge of the step virtually eliminates the large coherent structures in the shear layer, while for the case in which the wire could not trigger the transition to turbulence, the large coherent structures dominated the reacting and nonreacting flows.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Ganji, A.R. & Sawyer, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FLAT FLAME BURNER ANALYSES

Description: Velocity and temperature fields in the sintered material surrounding an embedded cooling coil in a Kaskan type flat flame burner are predicted. An approximate two-dimensional velocity field is obtained in closed form using a potential flow analogy. The velocity profile above the burner surface will be flat if the distance from the burner surface to the plane of the coil is sufficiently large that the coil wake is ameliorated. Quantitative results for this minimum distance are presented. Several approximations to the temperature field are discussed. Detailed temperature profiles are given for the simplest - one-dimensional with uniform velocity - and the most complex - two-dimensional with potential flow velocity field. The influence of the burner and cooling geometries, fuel type and stoichiometry, flow rate, ambient and cooling water temperatures and sintered material properties, are all described by a small set of dimensionless parameters. Optimization of burner performance in terms of these parameters is discussed. It is hoped that the results will be useful in the design of burners for flame structure studies.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Pagni, P.J.; Ortega, A. & Toossi, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures

Description: When policy makers propose new policies, there is a need to assess the costs and benefits of the proposed policy measures, to compare them to existing and alternative policies, and to rank them according to their effectiveness. In the case of equipment energy efficiency regulations, comparing the effects of a range of alternative policy measures requires evaluating their effects on consumers’ budgets, on national energy consumption and economics, and on the environment. Such an approach should be able to represent in a single framework the particularities of each policy measure and provide comparable results. This report presents an integrated methodological framework to assess prospectively the energy, economic, and environmental impacts of energy efficiency policy measures. The framework builds on the premise that the comparative assessment of energy efficiency policy measures should (a) rely on a common set of primary data and parameters, (b) follow a single functional approach to estimate the energy, economic, and emissions savings resulting from each assessed measure, and (c) present results through a set of comparable indicators. This framework elaborates on models that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has used in support of its rulemakings on mandatory energy efficiency standards. In addition to a rigorous analysis of the impacts of mandatory standards, DOE compares the projected results of alternative policy measures to those projected to be achieved by the standards. The framework extends such an approach to provide a broad, generic methodology, with no geographic or sectoral limitations, that is useful for evaluating any type of equipment energy efficiency market intervention. The report concludes with a demonstration of how to use the framework to compare the impacts estimated for twelve policy measures focusing on increasing the energy efficiency of gas furnaces in the United States.
Date: May 24, 2011
Creator: Blum, Helcio; Atkinson, Barbara & Lekov, Alex
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homeowner Best Practices Guide for Residential Retrofits

Description: This best practices guide for HV AC system retrofits is aimed at homeowners who want guidance on upgrading their heating, cooling and ventilation (HVAC) systems and integrating these upgrades with other changes to their home. It has been developed around the idea of having packages of changes to the building HV AC system and building envelope that are climate and house construction dependent. These packages include materials procedures and equipment, and are designed to remove some of the guesswork when selecting a builder, contractor, or installer. The packages are not meant to be taken as rigid requirements - instead they are systems engineered guidelines that form the basis for energy efficient retrofits. Similar approaches have been taken previously for new construction, where a systems engineering approach has been used to develop extremely energy-efficient homes that are comfortable safe and durable, and often cost less than standard construction. This approach is best epitomized by the Building America program, whose partners have built thousands of residences throughout the U.S. using these principles. The differences between retrofitting and new construction tend to limit the changes one can make to a building, so these packages rely on relatively simple and non-intrusive technologies and techniques. The retrofits also focus on changes to a building that will give many years of service to the occupants. Another key aspect of these best practices is that we need to know how a house is working so that we know what parts have the potential for improvement. To do this we have put together a set of simple tests that a homeowner can perform on their own together with checklists and questionnaires. The measured test results, observations and homeowner answers to questions are used to direct us towards the best retrofits applicable to each individual house. The retrofits will ...
Date: September 1, 2005
Creator: Walker, Iain S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: A REVIEW OF GOVERNMENTAL AND PRIVATE AGENCY ENERGY CONSERVATION INITIATIVES

Description: This report presents the results of a recent research project originally concerned with review of governmental initiatives for changes to hospital design and operation standards at both the federal and state levels. However. it quickly became apparent that concern with energy conservation was not impacting hospital environmental standards, especially at the state level, irrespective of the energy implications. Consequently, the study was redirected to consider all energy conservation initiatives directed toward design and operating practices unique to the hospital environment. The scope was limited to agency programs (i.e., not undertaken at the initiative of individual hospitals), applicable to non-federal public and private hospitals.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Banks, Robert S. & Rainer, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HUD PowerSaver Pilot Loan Program

Description: The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) recently announced the creation of a pilot loan program for home energy improvements. The PowerSaver loan program is a new, energy-focused variant of the Title I Property Improvement Loan Insurance Program (Title I Program) and is planned for introduction in early 2011. The PowerSaver pilot will provide lender insurance for secured and unsecured loans up to $25,000 to single family homeowners. These loans will specifically target residential energy efficiency and renewable energy improvements. HUD estimates the two-year pilot will fund approximately 24,000 loans worth up to $300 million; the program is not capped. The Federal Housing Administration (FHA), HUD's mortgage insurance unit, will provide up to $25 million in grants as incentives to participating lenders. FHA is seeking lenders in communities with existing programs for promoting residential energy upgrades.
Date: December 10, 2010
Creator: Zimring, Mark & Hoffman, Ian
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE HUNDRED BILLION DOLLAR BONUS: Global Energy Efficiency Lessons from India

Description: At a time when India and other nations are grappling with myriad energy-related challenges, including unstable, costly power sources and growing greenhouse gas emissions, energy efficiency offers an alternative at a fraction of the cost of other new sources of energy. A consortium of leading Indian regulators, nongovernmental organizations, and international experts has recognized this opportunity and is working to develop effective policies that will bring significant domestic benefits to India while accelerating the global transition to energy efficiency.
Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Paul, Seema & Sathaye, Jayant
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE

Description: Low cost material is needed for grouting abandoned retorts. Experimental work has shown that a hydraulic cement can be produced from Lurgi spent shale by mixing it in a 1:1 weight ratio with limestone and heating one hour at 1000°C. With 5% added gypsum, strengths up to 25.8 MPa are obtained. This cement could make an economical addition up to about 10% to spent shale grout mixes, or be used in ordinary cement applications.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P. & Fox, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Frequency Control Performance Measurement and Requirements

Description: Frequency control is an essential requirement of reliable electric power system operations. Determination of frequency control depends on frequency measurement and the practices based on these measurements that dictate acceptable frequency management. This report chronicles the evolution of these measurements and practices. As technology progresses from analog to digital for calculation, communication, and control, the technical basis for frequency control measurement and practices to determine acceptable performance continues to improve. Before the introduction of digital computing, practices were determined largely by prior experience. In anticipation of mandatory reliability rules, practices evolved from a focus primarily on commercial and equity issues to an increased focus on reliability. This evolution is expected to continue and place increased requirements for more precise measurements and a stronger scientific basis for future frequency management practices in support of reliability.
Date: December 20, 2010
Creator: Illian, Howard F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Future Roles of Milli-, Micro-, and Nano- Grids

Description: Although it has slowed considerably, consumption of electricity continues to grow in developed economies. Further, there are some unknowns which might accelerate this growth, such as electrification of vehicle fleets and geothermal heat pump space and water heating. Most analysts anticipate that distributed energy resources (DER) will provide a large share of the expanded generation capacity required to meet this seemingly inexorably increasing electricity demand. Further, given the urgency of tackling the climate change problem, most of the added assets must be carbonfree renewables or nuclear, end-use efficiency improvements, or highly efficient fossil-fired technologies. In developed economies worldwide, the current power delivery paradigm has been in place for more than a century, i.e. since the emergence of polyphase AC systems around the turn of the last century. A key feature of this structure is that, in principle, universal service is delivered at a consistent level of power quality and reliability (PQR) throughout large regions. This paper describes a future possible structure for the electricity generation and delivery system that leaves the existing high voltage meshed grid paradigm in place, but involves radical reorganization of parts of the distribution network and customer sites. Managing a much more diverse dispersed system poses major challenges to the current centralized grid paradigm, particularly since many of these assets are small to tiny by macrogrid standards and they may ultimately number in the millions. They are also not ones that centralized control can rely upon to function in traditionally dependable ways, e.g. renewable generation can be highly variable and changes in output of generators are not independent. Although most involved in the industry agree that a paradigm shift is both necessary and desirable to manage the new system, the nature of the future system remains quite unclear. In the possible structure described here, the traditional ...
Date: July 1, 2011
Creator: Marnay, Chris; Nordman, Bruce & Lai, Judy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas and Particulate Sampling of Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds

Description: The denuder surfaces of the gas and particle (GAP) sampler (developed at the Atmospheric Environment Service of Environment Canada) have been modified by coating with XAD-4 resin, using techniques developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for the lower capacity integrated organic vapor/particle sampler (IOVPS). The resulting high capacity integrated organic gas and particle sampler (IOGAPS) has been operated in ambient air at 16.7 L min{sup -1} for a 24-hour period in Berkeley, California, USA. Simultaneous measurements were made at the same collection rate with a conventional sampler that used a filter followed by two sorbent beds. Gas and particle partition measurements were determined for 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) ranging from 2-ring to 6-ring species. The IOGAPS indicated a higher particle fraction of these compounds than did the conventional sampler, suggesting that the conventional sampler suffered from 'blow-off' losses from the particles collected on the filter.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Lane, D.A. & Gundel, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE LIFETIME OF AEROSOL DROPLETS IN AMBIENT AIR: CONSIDERATION OF THE EFFECTS OF SURFACTANTS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Description: The relatively long lifetime of droplets in atmospheric haze and fog in comparison to similar droplets of pure water is attributed to the presence of a monolayer of surfactant film and to the accumulation of soluble salts from chemical reactions. The lifetime of these droplets is a significant factor in the evaluation of the role of heterogeneous aqueous chemical reactions occurring in the troposphere. A new formulation is given which includes both these processes. As an example, the catalytic oxidation of SO{sub 2} in the presence of liquid water droplets is investigated.
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Toossi, R. & Novakov, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LIGHTING CONTROLS: SURVEY OF MARKET POTENTIAL

Description: This study describes the impact of lighting management systems that dynamically control lights in accordance with the needs of occupants. Various control strategies are described: scheduling, tuning, lumen depreciation, and daylighting. From initial experimental results, the energy savings provided by each of the above strategies are estimated to be 26, 12, 14, and 15%, respectively. Based upon a cost of $0.05-0.10 per kWh for electric energy and a 2-, 3-, or 4-yr payback, target costs for a simple and a sophisticated lighting management system are found to be $0.24 and 1.89 per ft{sup 2}, respectively, for a cost-effective investment. A growth model, based upon an extrapolation of the increase in building stock since 1975, indicates that the commercial and industrial (C and I) building stock will grow from 40 x 10{sup 9} ft{sup 2} in 1980 to about 67 x 10{sup 9} ft{sup 2} by the year 2000. Even with the use of more efficient lighting components, the energy required for this additional C and I stock will be 307 x 10{sup 9} kWh, an increase of only 13 x 10{sup 9} kWh above current use. The specified information is used to analyze the economic impacts that using these systems will have on the lighting industry, end users, utility companies, and the nation's economy. A $1 - 4 x 10{sup 9} annual lighting control industry can be generated, creating many jobs. The estimated return on investment (ROI) for controls for end users would be between 19 and 38%. Utilities will be able to make smaller additions to capacity and invest less capital at 7-10% ROI. Finally, the annual energy savings, up to $3.4 x 10{sup 9} for end users and about $5 x 10{sup 9} for utilities, representing unneeded generating capacity, will be available to capitalize other areas of the ...
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Verderber, R.R. & Rubinstein, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Low Carbon Development Guide for Local Government Actions in China

Description: Local level actions are crucial for achieving energy-saving and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. Yet it is challenging to implement new policies and actions due to a lack of information, funding, and capacity. This is particularly the case in developing countries such as China. Even though national energy intensity and carbon intensity targets have been set, most local governments do not have the knowledge regarding actions to achieve the targets, the cost-effectiveness of policies, the possible impact of policies, or how to design and implement a climate action plan. This paper describes a guidebook that was developed to motivate and provide local governments in China with information to create an action plan to tackle climate change and increase energy efficiency. It provides a simple step-by-step description of how action plans can be established and essential elements to be included - from preparing a GHG emission inventory to implementation of the plan. The guidebook also provides a comprehensive list of successful policies and best practices found internationally and in China to encourage low carbon development in industry, buildings, transportation, electric power generation, agriculture and forestry. This paper also presents indicators that can be used to define low-carbon development, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of actions taken at an aggregated (city) level, and at a sectoral or end use level. The guidebook can also be used for low carbon development by local governments in other developing countries.
Date: May 1, 2011
Creator: Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Price, Lynn & Ohshita, Stephanie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Market and behavioral barriers to energy efficiency: A preliminary evaluation of the case for tariff financing in California

Description: Consumers regularly forgo purchases of high efficiency appliances that appear to be cost effective at a reasonable rate of return. While some argue that this is a true revelation of preferences for appliance features, this 'efficiency gap' can be largely explained by a combination of market and behavioral failures that reduce consumers ability to evaluate the relative value of appliances and skew preferences toward initial cost savings, undervaluing future reductions in operating costs. These failures and barriers include externalities of energy use, imperfect competition between manufacturers, asymmetric information, bounded rationality, split incentives, and transaction costs (Golove 1996). Recognizing the social benefit of energy conservation, several major methods are used by policymakers to ensure that efficient appliances are purchased: minimum efficiency standards, Energy Star labeling, and rebates and tax credits. There is no single market for energy services; there are hundreds of uses, thousands of intermediaries, and millions of users, and likewise, no single appropriate government intervention (Golove 1996). Complementary approaches must be implemented, considering policy and institutional limitations. In this paper, I first lay out the rationale for government intervention by addressing the market and behavioral failures and barriers that arise in the context of residential energy efficiency. I then consider the ways in which some of these failures and barriers are addressed through major federal programs and state and utility level programs that leverage them, as well as identifying barriers that are not addressed by currently implemented programs. Heterogeneity of consumers, lack of financing options, and split incentives of landlords and tenants contribute significantly to the under-adoption of efficient appliances. To quantify the size of the market most affected by these barriers, I estimate the number of appliances, and in particular the number of outdated appliances, in California rental housing. Appliances in rental housing are on average older than ...
Date: June 23, 2011
Creator: Fujita, K. Sydny
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Market Trial: Selling Off-Grid Lighting Products in Rural Kenya

Description: In this study, we performed a market trial of off-grid LED lighting products in Maai Mahiu, arural Kenyan town. Our goals were to assess consumer demand and consumer preferences with respect to off-grid lighting systems and to gain feedback from off-grid lighting users at the point of purchase and after they have used to products for some time.
Date: June 21, 2010
Creator: Tracy, Jennifer; Alstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne & Mills, Evan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design

Description: It is well established that energy efficiency is most often the lowest cost approach to reducing national energy use and minimizing carbon emissions. National investments in energy efficiency to date have been highly cost-effective. The cumulative impacts (out to 2050) of residential energy efficiency standards are expected to have a benefit-to-cost ratio of 2.71:1. This project examined energy end-uses in the residential, commercial, and in some cases the industrial sectors. The scope is limited to appliances and equipment, and does not include building materials, building envelopes, and system designs. This scope is consistent with the scope of DOE's appliance standards program, although many products considered here are not currently subject to energy efficiency standards. How much energy could the United States save if the most efficient design options currently feasible were adopted universally? What design features could produce those savings? How would the savings from various technologies compare? With an eye toward identifying promising candidates and strategies for potential energy efficiency standards, the Max Tech and Beyond project aims to answer these questions. The analysis attempts to consolidate, in one document, the energy savings potential and design characteristics of best-on-market products, best-engineered products (i.e., hypothetical products produced using best-on-market components and technologies), and emerging technologies in research & development. As defined here, emerging technologies are fundamentally new and are as yet unproven in the market, although laboratory studies and/or emerging niche applications offer persuasive evidence of major energy-savings potential. The term 'max tech' is used to describe both best-engineered and emerging technologies (whichever appears to offer larger savings). Few best-on-market products currently qualify as max tech, since few apply all available best practices and components. The three primary analyses presented in this report are: Nevertheless, it is important to analyze best-on-market products, since data on truly max tech technologies are ...
Date: July 20, 2011
Creator: Desroches, Louis-Benoit & Garbesi, Karina
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION

Description: The purpose of this project is to provide measurements and analyses of the solar and circumsolar radiation for application to solar energy systems that employ lenses or mirrors to concentrate the incident sunlight. Circumsolar radiation results from the scattering of direct sunlight through small angles by atmospheric aerosols (e.g., dust, water-droplets or ice crystals in thin clouds). Concentrating solar energy systems will typically collect all of the direct solar radiation (that originating from the disk of the sun) plus some fraction of the circumsolar radiation. The exact fraction depends upon many factors, but primarily upon the angular size (field-of-view) of the receiver. A knowledge of the circumsolar radiation is then one factor in predicting or evaluating the performance of concentrating systems. The project employs unique instrument systems (called Circumsolar Telescopes) that were designed and fabricated at LBL. The basic measurements are (1) the "circumsolar scan", the brightness of the sun and circumsolar region as a function of angular distance from the center of the sun and (2) the usual "normal incidence" measurement of a pyrheliometer. Both measurements are made for the entire solar spectrum, and (via colored filters) for eight essentially contiguous wavelength bands. Thus the measurements are applicable to systems in which the receiver is essentially wavelength-insensitive (e.g., central receiver) and to wavelength-sensitive systems (e.g., concentrating photovoltaics). A secondary purpose of the project is to relate the data to the atmospheric processes that attenuate the solar radiation available to terrestrial solar energy systems.
Date: October 1, 1980
Creator: Grether, Donald; Evans, David; Hunt, Arlon & Wahlig, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department