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Using Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) to Fund a Residential Energy Efficiency Loan Program: Case Study on Saint Louis County, MO

Description: Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) are federally-subsidized debt instruments that enable state, tribal, and local government issuers to borrow money to fund a range of qualified energy conservation projects. QECBs offer issuers very attractive borrowing rates and long terms, and can fund low-interest energy efficiency loans for home and commercial property owners. Saint Louis County, MO recently issued over $10 million of QECBs to finance the Saint Louis County SAVES residential energy efficiency loan program. The county's experience negotiating QECB regulations and restrictions can inform future issuers.
Date: June 23, 2011
Creator: Zimring, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Value of Energy Performance and Green Attributes in Buildings: A Review of Existing Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

Description: Labels, certifications, and rating systems for energy efficiency performance and “green” attributes of buildings have been available in the U.S. for over 10 years, and used extensively in the European Union and Australia for longer. Such certifications and ratings can make energy efficiency more visible, and could help spur demand for energy efficiency if these designations are shown to have a positive impact on sales or rental prices. This policy brief discusses the findings and methodologies from recent studies on this topic, and suggests recommendations for future research. Although there have been just a handful of studies within the last 10 years that have investigated these effects, a few key findings emerge: To maximize sales price impact, label or rating information must be disclosed early and visibly in the sales process; The approach to evaluating energy efficiency labels (e.g., ENERGY STAR) and general “green” certifications (e.g., LEED or GreenPoint Rated) may need to be different, depending on the type, vintage and market penetration of the label; Collaborative efforts to promote label adoption and build a large dataset of labeled buildings will be required to produce reliable study results.
Date: September 7, 2011
Creator: Stuart, Elizabeth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A View on Future Building System Modeling and Simulation

Description: This chapter presents what a future environment for building system modeling and simulation may look like. As buildings continue to require increased performance and better comfort, their energy and control systems are becoming more integrated and complex. We therefore focus in this chapter on the modeling, simulation and analysis of building energy and control systems. Such systems can be classified as heterogeneous systems because they involve multiple domains, such as thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, electrical systems, control systems and communication systems. Also, they typically involve multiple temporal and spatial scales, and their evolution can be described by coupled differential equations, discrete equations and events. Modeling and simulating such systems requires a higher level of abstraction and modularisation to manage the increased complexity compared to what is used in today's building simulation programs. Therefore, the trend towards more integrated building systems is likely to be a driving force for changing the status quo of today's building simulation programs. Thischapter discusses evolving modeling requirements and outlines a path toward a future environment for modeling and simulation of heterogeneous building systems.A range of topics that would require many additional pages of discussion has been omitted. Examples include computational fluid dynamics for air and particle flow in and around buildings, people movement, daylight simulation, uncertainty propagation and optimisation methods for building design and controls. For different discussions and perspectives on the future of building modeling and simulation, we refer to Sahlin (2000), Augenbroe (2001) and Malkawi and Augenbroe (2004).
Date: April 1, 2011
Creator: Wetter, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM: CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1979

Description: Solar energy has become a major alternative for supplying a substantial fraction of the nation's future energy needs. The Department of Energy (DOE) supports activities ranging from the demonstration of existing technology to research on future possibilities; and at LBL projects are in progress which span that range of activities. To assess various solar applications it is important to quantify the solar resource. In one project, LBL is cooperating with the Pacific Gas and Electric Company in the implementation and operation of a solar radiation data collection network in northern California. Special instruments have been developed and are now in use to measure the solar and circumsolar (around the sun) radiation. These measurements serve to predict the performance of solar designs which use focusing collectors (mirrors or lenses) to concentrate the sunlight. Efforts are being made to assist DOE in demonstrating existing solar technology. DOE's San Francisco Operations Office (SAN) has been given technical support for its management of commercial-building solar demonstration projects. The installation of a solar hot water and space heating system on an LBL building established model techniques and procedures as part of the DOE Facilities Solar Demonstration Program. Technical support is also provided for SAN in a DOE small scale technology pilot program in which grants are awarded to individuals and organizations to develop and demonstrate solar technologies appropriate to small scale use. In the near future it is expected that research will exert a substantial impact in the areas of solar heating and cooling. An absorption air conditioner is being developed that is air cooled yet suitable for use with temperatures available from flat plate collectors. With inexpensive but sophisticated micro-electronics to control their operation, the performance of many-component solar heating and cooling systems may be improved, and work is under way to develop such ...
Date: October 1, 1980
Creator: Authors, Various
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ROUTINE SPECTRAL MEASUREMENTS OF INFRARED RADIATION FROM THE ATMOSPHERE

Description: Infrared radiative cooling is a natural process continually underway in our environment. Thus, this process contributes in an important manner to the heat balance of buildings. An increase in radiative losses during the summer or a reduction of radiative losses during the winter will reduce energy consumption. A quantitative knowledge of the infrared radiative transfer between the atmosphere and a building's surface requires detailed information regarding the angular and spectral distribution of the radiation from the atmosphere. Routine information of this type has apparently never been gathered; most observations are limited to several days in time. The filter spectrometer system described here is intended to provide data records at 30 minute intervals for weeks and months of continuous operation. The spectrometer design incorporates a Barnes Corporation model 12-880 radiometer equipped with an eight-position filter wheel, germanium lens, and pyroelectric detector. Of the eight filter positions, one is an open hole and one is a closed hole used to determine the instrument's zero offset. The remaining 6 filter positions contain infrared interference filters with 'halfpower' cut-on and cut-off points given in microns by (8.1, 13.7), (8.3, 9.1), (9.4, 9.9), (10.0, 11.4), (14.0, 15.8), and (16.6, 21.6). In addition to a stepping mechanism which allows the filter wheel to be positioned automatically, the instrument contains a rotating mirror assembly which allows the instrument's 2{sup o} field of view to be directed into the vertical direction or into a 70 C black body cavity. The entire instrument is under microprocessor control and is accessible to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory through a MODEM telephone link. The accumulating data is transmitted over this link at intervals of one to three days. Three radiometers are located in the field at the time of this writing. Systems were installed at Tucson, Arizona in August, 1978; at San Antonio, ...
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Berdahl, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Financing Non-Residential Photovoltaic Projects: Options and Implications

Description: Installations of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States have increased dramatically in recent years, growing from less than 20 MW in 2000 to nearly 500 MW at the end of 2007, a compound average annual growth rate of 59%. Of particular note is the increasing contribution of 'non-residential' grid-connected PV systems--defined here as those systems installed on the customer (rather than utility) side of the meter at commercial, institutional, non-profit, or governmental properties--to the overall growth trend. Although there is some uncertainty in the numbers, non-residential PV capacity grew from less than half of aggregate annual capacity installations in 2000-2002 to nearly two-thirds in 2007. This relative growth trend is expected to have continued through 2008. The non-residential sector's commanding lead in terms of installed capacity in recent years primarily reflects two important differences between the non-residential and residential markets: (1) the greater federal 'Tax Benefits'--including the 30% investment tax credit (ITC) and accelerated tax depreciation--provided to commercial (relative to residential) PV systems, at least historically (this relative tax advantage has largely disappeared starting in 2009) and (2) larger non-residential project size. These two attributes have attracted to the market a number of institutional investors (referred to in this report as 'Tax Investors') seeking to invest in PV projects primarily to capture their Tax Benefits. The presence of these Tax Investors, in turn, has fostered a variety of innovative approaches to financing non-residential PV systems. This financial innovation--which is the topic of this report--has helped to overcome some of the largest barriers to the adoption of non-residential PV, and is therefore partly responsible (along with the policy changes that have driven this innovation) for the rapid growth in the market seen in recent years.ii Specifically, due to financial innovation, non-residential entities interested in PV no longer face prohibitively ...
Date: January 9, 2009
Creator: Bolinger, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Generic Optimization Program User Manual Version 3.0.0

Description: GenOpt is an optimization program for the minimization of a cost function that is evaluated by an external simulation program. It has been developed for optimization problems where the cost function is computationally expensive and its derivatives are not available or may not even exist. GenOpt can be coupled to any simulation program that reads its input from text files and writes its output to text files. The independent variables can be continuous variables (possibly with lower and upper bounds), discrete variables, or both, continuous and discrete variables. Constraints on dependent variables can be implemented using penalty or barrier functions. GenOpt uses parallel computing to evaluate the simulations. GenOpt has a library with local and global multi-dimensional and one-dimensional optimization algorithms, and algorithms for doing parametric runs. An algorithm interface allows adding new minimization algorithms without knowing the details of the program structure. GenOpt is written in Java so that it is platform independent. The platform independence and the general interface make GenOpt applicable to a wide range of optimization problems. GenOpt has not been designed for linear programming problems, quadratic programming problems, and problems where the gradient of the cost function is available. For such problems, as well as for other problems, special tailored software exists that is more efficient.
Date: May 11, 2009
Creator: Wetter, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Opportunities for Saving Energy and Improving Air Quality in Urban Heat Islands

Description: World energy use is the main contributor to atmospheric CO2. In 2002, about 7.0 giga metric tons of carbon (GtC) were emitted internationally by combustion of gas, liquid, and solid fuels (CDIAC, 2006), 2 to 5 times the amount contributed by deforestation (Brown et al., 1988). The share of atmospheric carbon emissions for the United States from fossil fuel combustion was 1.6 GtC. Increasing use of fossil fuel and deforestation together have raised atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration some 25% over the last 150 years. According to global climate models and preliminary measurements, these changes in the composition of the atmosphere have already begun raising the Earth's average temperature. If current energy trends continue, these changes could drastically alter the Earth's temperature, with unknown but potentially catastrophic physical and political consequences. During the last three decades, increased energy awareness has led to conservation efforts and leveling of energy consumption in the industrialized countries. An important byproduct of this reduced energy use is the lowering of CO{sub 2} emissions. Of all electricity generated in the United States, about one-sixth is used to air-condition buildings. The air-conditioning use is about 400 tera-watt-hours (TWh), equivalent to about 80 million metric tons of carbon (MtC) emissions, and translating to about $40 billion (B) per year. Of this $40 B/year, about half is used in cities that have pronounced 'heat islands'. The contribution of the urban heat island to the air-conditioning demand has increased over the last 40 years and it is currently at about 10%. Metropolitan areas in the United States (e.g., Los Angeles, Phoenix, Houston, Atlanta, and New York City) have typically pronounced heat islands that warrant special attention by anyone concerned with broad-scale energy efficiency (HIG, 2006). The ambient air is primarily heated through three processes: direct absorption of solar radiation, convection of ...
Date: July 1, 2007
Creator: Akbari, Hashem
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance Evaluation for a Modular, Scalable Passive Cooling System in Data Centers

Description: Scientific and enterprise data centers, IT equipment product development, and research data center laboratories typically require continuous cooling to control inlet air temperatures within recommended operating levels for the IT equipment. The consolidation and higher density aggregation of slim computing, storage and networking hardware has resulted in higher power density than what the raised-floor system design, coupled with commonly used computer rack air conditioning (CRAC) units, was originally conceived to handle. Many existing data centers and newly constructed data centers adopt CRAC units, which inherently handle heat transfer within data centers via air as the heat transfer media. This results in energy performance of the ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal. Understanding the current trends toward higher power density in IT computing, more and more IT equipment manufacturers are designing their equipment to operate in 'conventional' data center environments, while considering provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either their equipment or supplemental cooling in rack or row systems. In the meanwhile, the trend toward higher power density resulting from current and future generations of servers has created significant opportunities for precision cooling to engineer and manufacture packaged modular and scalable systems. The modular and scalable cooling systems aim at significantly improving efficiency while addressing the thermal challenges, improving reliability, and allowing for future needs and growth. Such pre-engineered and manufactured systems may be a significant improvement over current design; however, without an energy efficiency focus, their applications could also lead to even lower energy efficiencies in the overall data center infrastructure. The overall goal of the project supported by California Energy Commission was to characterize four commercially available, modular cooling systems installed in a data center. Such modular cooling systems are all scalable localized units, and will be evaluated in terms of their operating energy efficiency in a ...
Date: May 1, 2009
Creator: Xu, TengFang
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in Data Centers

Description: Scientific and enterprise data centers, IT equipment product development, and research data center laboratories typically require continuous cooling to control inlet air temperatures within recommended operating levels for the IT equipment. The consolidation and higher density aggregation of slim computing, storage and networking hardware has resulted in higher power density than what the raised-floor system design, coupled with commonly used computer rack air conditioning (CRAC) units, was originally conceived to handle. Many existing data centers and newly constructed data centers adopt CRAC units, which inherently handle heat transfer within data centers via air as the heat transfer media. This results in energy performance of the ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal. Understanding the current trends toward higher power density in IT computing, more and more IT equipment manufacturers are designing their equipment to operate in 'conventional' data center environments, while considering provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either their equipment or supplemental cooling in rack or row systems. In the meanwhile, the trend toward higher power density resulting from current and future generations of servers has created significant opportunities for precision cooling suppliers to engineer and manufacture packaged modular and scalable systems. The modular and scalable cooling systems aim at significantly improving efficiency while addressing the thermal challenges, improving reliability, and allowing for future needs and growth. Such pre-engineered and manufactured systems may be a significant improvement over current design; however, without an energy efficiency focus, their applications could also lead to even lower energy efficiencies in the overall data center infrastructure. The overall goal of the project supported by California Energy Commission was to characterize four commercially available, modular cooling systems installed in a data center. Such modular cooling systems are all scalable localized units, and will be evaluated in terms of their operating energy efficiency in ...
Date: May 1, 2009
Creator: Xu, TengFang
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Networks in Buildings: Which Path Forward?

Description: To date, digital networks have principally been installed for connecting information technology devices, with more modest use in consumer electronics, security, and large building control systems. The next 20 years will see much greater deployment of networks in buildings of all types, and across all end uses. Most of these are likely to be introduced primarily for reasons other than energy efficiency, and add energy use for network interfaces and network products. Widespread networking could easily lead to increased energy use, and experience with IT and CE networks suggests this may be likely. Active engagement by energy efficiency professionals in the architecture and design of future networks could lead to their being a large and highly cost-effective tool for efficiency. However, network standards are complex and take many years to develop and negotiate so that lack of action on this in the near term may foreclose important opportunities for years or decades to come. Digital networks need to be common globally, providing another challenge to building systems and elements that are more commonly designed only for national or regional markets. Key future networks are lighting, climate control, and security/presence. This paper reviews some examples of past network designs and use and the lessons they hold for future building networks. It also highlights key needed areas for research, policy, and standards development.
Date: August 17, 2008
Creator: Nordman, Bruce
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Modelica-based Model Library for Building Energy and Control Systems

Description: This paper describes an open-source library with component models for building energy and control systems that is based on Modelica, an equation-based objectoriented language that is well positioned to become the standard for modeling of dynamic systems in various industrial sectors. The library is currently developed to support computational science and engineering for innovative building energy and control systems. Early applications will include controls design and analysis, rapid prototyping to support innovation of new building systems and the use of models during operation for controls, fault detection and diagnostics. This paper discusses the motivation for selecting an equation-based object-oriented language. It presents the architecture of the library and explains how base models can be used to rapidly implement new models. To demonstrate the capability of analyzing novel energy and control systems, the paper closes with an example where we compare the dynamic performance of a conventional hydronic heating system with thermostatic radiator valves to an innovative heating system. In the new system, instead of a centralized circulation pump, each of the 18 radiators has a pump whose speed is controlled using a room temperature feedback loop, and the temperature of the boiler is controlled based on the speed of the radiator pump. All flows are computed by solving for the pressure distribution in the piping network, and the controls include continuous and discrete time controls.
Date: April 7, 2009
Creator: Wetter, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modelica-based Modeling and Simulation to Support Research and Development in Building Energy and Control Systems

Description: Traditional building simulation programs possess attributes that make them difficult to use for the design and analysis of building energy and control systems and for the support of model-based research and development of systems that may not already be implemented in these programs. This article presents characteristic features of such applications, and it shows how equation-based object-oriented modelling can meet requirements that arise in such applications. Next, the implementation of an open-source component model library for building energy systems is presented. The library has been developed using the equation-based object-oriented Modelica modelling language. Technical challenges of modelling and simulating such systems are discussed. Research needs are presented to make this technology accessible to user groups that have more stringent requirements with respect to the numerical robustness of simulation than a research community may have. Two examples are presented in which models from the here described library were used. The first example describes the design of a controller for a nonlinear model of a heating coil using model reduction and frequency domain analysis. The second example describes the tuning of control parameters for a static pressure reset controller of a variable air volume flow system. The tuning has been done by solving a non-convex optimization problem that minimizes fan energy subject to state constraints.
Date: February 12, 2009
Creator: Wetter, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

Description: While there is general agreement that demand response (DR) is a valued component in a utility resource plan, there is a lack of consensus regarding how to value DR. Establishing the value of DR is a prerequisite to determining how much and what types of DR should be implemented, to which customers DR should be targeted, and a key determinant that drives the development of economically viable DR consumer technology. Most approaches for quantifying the value of DR focus on changes in utility system revenue requirements based on resource plans with and without DR. This ''utility centric'' approach does not assign any value to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve reliability, lower system and network operating costs, produce better air quality, and provide improved customer choice and control. Proper valuation of these benefits requires a different basis for monetization. The review concludes that no single methodology today adequately captures the wide range of benefits and value potentially attributed to DR. To provide a more comprehensive valuation approach, current methods such as the Standard Practice Method (SPM) will most likely have to be supplemented with one or more alternative benefit-valuation approaches. This report provides an updated perspective on the DR valuation framework. It includes an introduction and four chapters that address the key elements of demand response valuation, a comprehensive literature review, and specific research recommendations.
Date: February 1, 2009
Creator: Heffner, Grayson
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of a rural water provision system to decrease arsenic exposure in Bangladesh

Description: Researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have invented ARUBA (Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash) a material that effectively and affordably removes high concentrations of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. The technology is cost-effective because the substrate?bottom ash from coal fired power plants?is a waste material readily available in South Asia. During fieldwork in four sub-districts ofBangladesh, ARUBA reduced groundwater arsenic concentrations as high as 680 ppb to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Key results from three trips in Bangladesh and one trip to Cambodia include (1) ARUBA removes more than half of the arsenic from contaminated water within the first five minutes of contact, andcontinues removing arsenic for 2-3 days; (2) ARUBA?s arsenic removal efficiency can be improved through fractionated dosing (adding a given amount of ARUBA in fractions versus all at once); (3) allowing water to first stand for two to three days followed by treatment with ARUBA produced final arsenic concentrations ten times lower than treating water directly out of the well; and (4) the amount of arsenic removed per gram of ARUBA is linearly related to the initial arsenic concentrationof the water. Through analysis of existing studies, observations, and informal interviews in Bangladesh, eight design strategies have been developed and used in the design of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to remove arsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analyzed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than $2 per day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.
Date: January 7, 2009
Creator: Mathieu, Johanna
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM AT POTENTIAL OTEC SITES

Description: Ecologically sound operations of projected Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plants can be insured by careful attention to the marine environment during the design phase. this requires quality information from regions of potential OTEC interest, coordinated with required assessment studies to insure legal compliance. Currently, preliminary or actual surveys and laboratory studies are being conducted in the waters of Puerto Rico, the Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii, and Guam for potential moored or seacoast OTEC plants and in the equatorial South Atlantic for proposed plant-ship operations to provide such benchmark and baseline data. These data plus existing archival information can be used to model effects of OTEC operations based on projected design schemes. Four major areas of concerns (1) redistribution of oceanic properties, (2) chemical pollution, (3) structural effects, and (4) socio-legal-economic; and 11 key issues associated with OTEC deployment and operation have been identified. In general mitigating strategies can be used to alleviate many deleterious environmental effects of operational problems as biostimulation, outgassing, etc. Various assessment research studies on toxicity, biocide releases, etc., are under way or are planned to investigate areas where no clear mitigating strategy is available. Data from the monitoring and assessment programs is being integrated into a series of environmental compliance documents including a comprehensive programmatic environmental impact assessment.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Wilde, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards

Description: The purpose of ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant could be exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago. The vast majority of homes in the United States and indeed the world are ventilated through natural means such as infiltration caused by air leakage. Newer homes in the western world are tight and require mechanical ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate norunder-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 specifies how much mechanical ventilation is considered necessary to provide acceptable indoor air quality, but that standard is weak on how infiltration can contribute towards meeting the total requirement. In the past ASHRAE Standard 136 was used to do this, but new theoretical approaches and expanded weather data have made that standard out of date. This article will describe how to properly treat infiltration as an equivalent ventilation approach and then use new data and these new approaches to demonstrate how these calculations might be done both in general and to update Standard 136.
Date: October 1, 2008
Creator: Sherman, Max
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IFC BIM-Based Methodology for Semi-Automated Building Energy Performance Simulation

Description: Building energy performance (BEP) simulation is still rarely used in building design, commissioning and operations. The process is too costly and too labor intensive, and it takes too long to deliver results. Its quantitative results are not reproducible due to arbitrary decisions and assumptions made in simulation model definition, and can be trusted only under special circumstances. A methodology to semi-automate BEP simulation preparation and execution makes this process much more effective. It incorporates principles of information science and aims to eliminate inappropriate human intervention that results in subjective and arbitrary decisions. This is achieved by automating every part of the BEP modeling and simulation process that can be automated, by relying on data from original sources, and by making any necessary data transformation rule-based and automated. This paper describes the new methodology and its relationship to IFC-based BIM and software interoperability. It identifies five steps that are critical to its implementation, and shows what part of the methodology can be applied today. The paper concludes with a discussion of application to simulation with EnergyPlus, and describes data transformation rules embedded in the new Geometry Simplification Tool (GST).
Date: July 1, 2008
Creator: Bazjanac, Vladimir
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of the U.S. National Building Information Model Standard (NBIMS) on Building Energy Performance Simulation

Description: The U.S. National Institute for Building Sciences (NIBS) started the development of the National Building Information Model Standard (NBIMS). Its goal is to define standard sets of data required to describe any given building in necessary detail so that any given AECO industry discipline application can find needed data at any point in the building lifecycle. This will include all data that are used in or are pertinent to building energy performance simulation and analysis. This paper describes the background that lead to the development of NBIMS, its goals and development methodology, its Part 1 (Version 1.0), and its probable impact on building energy performance simulation and analysis.
Date: August 1, 2007
Creator: Bazjanac, Vladimir
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM

Description: This report presents an analysis of the technical performance and cost effectiveness of nine small wind energy conversion systems (SWECS) funded during FY 1979 by the U.S. Department of Energy. Chapter 1 gives an analytic framework with which to evaluate the systems. Chapter 2 consists of a review of each of the nine projects, including project technical overviews, estimates of energy savings, and results of economic analysis. Chapter 3 summarizes technical, economic, and institutional barriers that are likely to inhibit widespread dissemination of SWECS technology.
Date: April 1, 1982
Creator: Kay, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of China's Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels for Appliances and International Collaboration

Description: China first adopted minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in 1989. Today, there are standards for a wide range of domestic, commercial and selected industrial equipment. In 1999, China launched a voluntary endorsement label, which has grown to cover over 40 products including water-saving products (See Figure 1). Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label (also referred to as the 'Energy Label'). Today, the Energy Label is applied to four products including: air conditioners; household refrigerators; clothes washers; and unitary air conditioners (See Figure 2). MEPS and the voluntary endorsement labeling specifications have been updated and revised in order to reflect technology improvements to those products in the market. These programs have had an important impact in reducing energy consumption of appliances in China. Indeed, China has built up a strong infrastructure to develop and implement product standards. Historically, however, the government's primary focus has been on the technical requirements for efficiency performance. Less attention has been paid to monitoring and enforcement with a minimal commitment of resources and little expansion of administrative capacity in this area. Thus, market compliance with both mandatory standards and labeling programs has been questionable and actual energy savings may have been undermined as a result. The establishment of a regularized monitoring system for tracking compliance with the mandatory standard and energy information label in China is a major area for program improvement. Over the years, the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP) has partnered with several Chinese institutions to promote energy-efficient products in China. CLASP, together with its implementing partner Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), has assisted China in developing and updating the above-mentioned standards and labeling programs. Because of the increasing need for the development of a monitoring system to track compliance with standards and labeling, CLASP, with support from ...
Date: March 1, 2008
Creator: Zhou, Nan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sustainable Scientists

Description: Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.
Date: December 31, 2008
Creator: Mills, Evan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wireless Demand Response Controls for HVAC Systems

Description: The objectives of this scoping study were to develop and test control software and wireless hardware that could enable closed-loop, zone-temperature-based demand response in buildings that have either pneumatic controls or legacy digital controls that cannot be used as part of a demand response automation system. We designed a SOAP client that is compatible with the Demand Response Automation Server (DRAS) being used by the IOUs in California for their CPP program, design the DR control software, investigated the use of cellular routers for connecting to the DRAS, and tested the wireless DR system with an emulator running a calibrated model of a working building. The results show that the wireless DR system can shed approximately 1.5 Watts per design CFM on the design day in a hot, inland climate in California while keeping temperatures within the limits of ASHRAE Standard 55: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy.
Date: June 30, 2009
Creator: Federspiel, Clifford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical Emissions of Residential Materials and Products: Review of Available Information

Description: This report is prepared in the context of a larger program whose mission is to advance understanding of ventilation and indoor air quality in U.S. homes. A specific objective of this program is to develop the scientific basis ? through controlled experiments, monitoring and analysis ? for health risk-based ventilation standards. Appropriate and adequate ventilation is a basic element of a healthy home. Ventilation provides outdoor air and in the process removes indoor odors and contaminants including potentially unhealthful chemicals emitted by indoor materials, products and activities. Ventilation traditionally was assured to occur via infiltration of outdoor air through cracks and other leakage pathways in the residential building envelope. As building air tightness is improved for energy efficiency, infiltration can be reduced to inadequate levels. This has lead to the development of standards requiring mechanical ventilation. Though nominally intended to ensure acceptable indoor air quality, the standards are not explicitly tied to health risk or pollutant exposure targets. LBNL is currently designing analyses to assess the impact of varying ventilation standards on pollutant concentrations, health risks and energy use. These analyses require information on sources of chemical pollutant emissions, ideally including emission rates and the impact of ventilation on emissions. Some information can be obtained from recent studies that report measurements of various air contaminants and their concentrations in U.S. residences. Another way to obtain this information is the bottom-up approach of collecting and evaluating emissions data from construction and interior materials and common household products. This review contributes to the latter approach by summarizing available information on chemical emissions from new residential products and materials. We review information from the scientific literature and public sources to identify and discuss the databases that provide information on new or low-emission materials and products. The review focuses on the primary chemical or ...
Date: September 15, 2010
Creator: Willem, Henry & Singer, Brett
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department