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3-D computer simulations of EM field sin the APS vacuum chamber. Part 2: Time-domain analysis

Description: Our simulations suggest that the strong peak around 4 GHz in the narrow gap observed in the measurements is generated by TE modes. Therefore, one should not worry about this peak insofar as the coupling impedance is concerned. On the other hand, some discrepancies between our simulations and the measurements are noticed and remain to be resolved.
Date: January 20, 1989
Creator: Chou, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

3-D computer simulations of EM fields in the APS vacuum chamber: Part 1, Frequency-domain analysis

Description: The vacuum chamber proposed for the storage ring of the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) basically consists of two parts: the beam chamber and the antechamber, connected to each other by a narrow gap. A sector of 1-meter-long chamber with dosed end plates, to which are attached the 1-inch-diameter beampipes centered at the beam chamber, has been built for experimental purposes. The 3-D code MAFIA has been used to simulate the frequency-domain behaviors of EM fields in this setup. The results are summarized in this note and are compared with that previously obtained from 2-D simulations and that from network analyzer measurements. They are in general agreement. A parallel analysis in the time-domain is reported in a separate note. The method of our simulations can be briefly described as follows. The 1-inch diameter beampipes are terminated by conducting walls at a length of 2 cm. The whole geometry can thus be considered as a cavity. The lowest RF modes of this geometry are computed using MAFIA. The eigenfrequencies of these modes are a direct output of the eigenvalue solver E3, whereas the type of each mode is determined by employing the postprocessor P3. The mesh sizes are chosen such that they are small enough for computations in the frequency region in which we are interested (the sampling theorem), while the total number of mesh points is still well within the range that our computer system can cope with.
Date: September 4, 1990
Creator: Chou, W. & Bridges, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

3-D numerical analysis of a high-gain free-electron laser

Description: We present a novel approach to the 3-dimensional high-gain free- electron laser amplifier problem. The method allows us to write the laser field as an integral equation which can be efficiently and accurately evaluated on a small computer. The model is general enough to allow the inclusion of various initial electron beam distributions to study the gain reduction mechanism and its dependence on the physical parameters. 16 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.
Date: October 19, 1988
Creator: Gallardo, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

450-Mev/C K$sup -$ and /Anti p/ Beams at the Northwest Target Area of the Bevatron Separated by the Coaxial Velocity Spectrometer

Description: Enriched beams of 450 Mev/c K/sup -/ mesons and antiprotons have been produced by separation with the coaxial static electromagnetic velocity spectrometer. Characteristics of the final separated beams as observed in the 15- inch hydrogen bubble chamber are given together with a detailed description of the beam optics and apparatas. (auth)
Date: June 1, 1958
Creator: Horwitz, N.; Murray, J.J.; Ross, R.R. & Tripp, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

805 MHz and 201 MHz RF cavity development for MUCOOL

Description: A muon cooling channel calls for very high acceleratinggradient RF structures to restore the energy lost by muons in theabsorbers. The RF structures have to be operated in a strong magneticfield and thus the use of superconducting RF cavities is excluded. Toachieve a high shunt impedance while maintaining a large enough apertureto accommodate a large transverse emittance muon beam, the cavity designadopted is a pillbox-like geometry with thin Be foils to terminate theelectromagnetic field at the cavity iris. The possibility of using gridsof thin-walled metallic tubes for the termination is also being explored.Many of the RF-related issues for muon cooling channels are being studiedboth theoretically and experimentally using an 805 MHz cavity that has apillbox-like geometry with thin Be windows to terminate the cavityaperture. The design and performance of this cavity are reported here.High-power RF tests of the 805 MHz cavity are in progress at Lab G inFermilab. The cavity has exceeded its design gradient of 30 MV/m,reaching 34 MV/m without external magnetic field. No surface damage wasobserved at this gradient. The cavity is currently under conditioning atLab G with an external magnetic field of 2.5 T. We also present here a201 MHz cavity design for muoncooling channels. The proposed cavitydesign is also suitable for use in a proof-of-principle Muon IonizationCooling Experiment (MICE).
Date: October 10, 2002
Creator: DLi@lbl.gov
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Acceleration theorems

Description: Electromagnetic fields can be separated into near and far components. Near fields are extensions of static fields. They do not radiate, and they fall off more rapidly from a source than far fields. Near fields can accelerate particles, but the ratio of acceleration to source fields at a distance R, is always less than R/{lambda} or 1, whichever is smaller. Far fields can be represented as sums of plane parallel, transversely polarized waves that travel at the velocity of light. A single such wave in a vacuum cannot give continuous acceleration, and it is shown that no sums of such waves can give net first order acceleration. This theorem is proven in three different ways; each method showing a different aspect of the situation.
Date: June 1, 1994
Creator: Palmer, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Acceleration using total internal reflection

Description: This report considers the use of a dielectric slab undergoing total internal reflection as an accelerating structure for charged particle beams. We examine the functional dependence of the electromagnetic fields above the surface of the dielectric for polarized incident waves. We present an experimental arrangement for testing the performance of the method, using apparatus under construction for the Grating Acceleration experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: June 7, 1991
Creator: Fernow, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced methods for the computation of particle beam transport and the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions

Description: The University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group carries out research in two broad areas: the computation of charged particle beam transport using Lie algebraic methods and advanced methods for the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions. Important improvements in the state of the art are believed to be possible in both of these areas. In addition, applications of these methods are made to problems of current interest in accelerator physics including the theoretical performance of present and proposed high energy machines. The Lie algebraic method of computing and analyzing beam transport handles both linear and nonlinear beam elements. Tests show this method to be superior to the earlier matrix or numerical integration methods. It has wide application to many areas including accelerator physics, intense particle beams, ion microprobes, high resolution electron microscopy, and light optics. With regard to the area of electromagnetic fields and beam cavity interactions, work is carried out on the theory of beam breakup in single pulses. Work is also done on the analysis of the high behavior of longitudinal and transverse coupling impendances, including the examination of methods which may be used to measure these impedances. Finally, work is performed on the electromagnetic analysis of coupled cavities and on the coupling of cavities to waveguides.
Date: November 1, 1990
Creator: Dragt, A.J. & Gluckstern, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced methods for the computation of particle beam transport and the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Maryland, College Park Maryland]

Description: The University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group has been carrying out long-term research work in the general area of Dynamical Systems with a particular emphasis on applications to Accelerator Physics. This work is broadly divided into two tasks: Charged Particle Beam Transport and the Computation of Electromagnetic Fields and Beam-Cavity Interactions. Each of these tasks is described briefly. Work is devoted both to the development of new methods and the application of these methods to problems of current interest in accelerator physics including the theoretical performance of present and proposed high energy machines. In addition to its research effort, the Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group is actively engaged in the education of students and postdoctoral research associates.
Date: June 1, 1993
Creator: Dragt, A. J. & Gluckstern, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced methods for the computation of particle beam transport and the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions. Final report

Description: The University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group carries out research in two broad areas: the computation of charged particle beam transport using Lie algebraic methods and advanced methods for the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions. Important improvements in the state of the art are believed to be possible in both of these areas. In addition, applications of these methods are made to problems of current interest in accelerator physics including the theoretical performance of present and proposed high energy machines. The Lie algebraic method of computing and analyzing beam transport handles both linear and nonlinear beam elements. Tests show this method to be superior to the earlier matrix or numerical integration methods. It has wide application to many areas including accelerator physics, intense particle beams, ion microprobes, high resolution electron microscopy, and light optics. With regard to the area of electromagnetic fields and beam cavity interactions, work is carried out on the theory of beam breakup in single pulses. Work is also done on the analysis of the high frequency behavior of longitudinal and transverse coupling impedances, including the examination of methods which may be used to measure these impedances. Finally, work is performed on the electromagnetic analysis of coupled cavities and on the coupling of cavities to waveguides.
Date: November 1, 1992
Creator: Dragt, A. J. & Gluckstern, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced methods for the computation of particle beam transport and the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions. Progress report, August 1992--June 1993

Description: The University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group has been carrying out long-term research work in the general area of Dynamical Systems with a particular emphasis on applications to Accelerator Physics. This work is broadly divided into two tasks: Charged Particle Beam Transport and the Computation of Electromagnetic Fields and Beam-Cavity Interactions. Each of these tasks is described briefly. Work is devoted both to the development of new methods and the application of these methods to problems of current interest in accelerator physics including the theoretical performance of present and proposed high energy machines. In addition to its research effort, the Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group is actively engaged in the education of students and postdoctoral research associates.
Date: June 1, 1993
Creator: Dragt, A. J. & Gluckstern, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced methods for the computation of particle beam transport and the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions. Progress report, July 1993--August 1994

Description: The University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group has been carrying out long-term research work in the general area of Dynamical Systems with a particular emphasis on applications to Accelerator Physics. This work is broadly divided into two tasks: the computation of charged particle beam transport and the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions. Each of these tasks is described briefly. Work is devoted both to the development of new methods and the application of these methods to problems of current interest in accelerator physics including the theoretical performance of present and proposed high energy machines. In addition to its research effort, the Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group is actively engaged in the education of students and postdoctoral research associates. Substantial progress in research has been made during the past year. These achievements are summarized in the following report.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Dragt, A. J. & Gluckstern, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced visualization technology for terascale particle accelerator simulations

Description: This paper presents two new hardware-assisted rendering techniques developed for interactive visualization of the terascale data generated from numerical modeling of next generation accelerator designs. The first technique, based on a hybrid rendering approach, makes possible interactive exploration of large-scale particle data from particle beam dynamics modeling. The second technique, based on a compact texture-enhanced representation, exploits the advanced features of commodity graphics cards to achieve perceptually effective visualization of the very dense and complex electromagnetic fields produced from the modeling of reflection and transmission properties of open structures in an accelerator design. Because of the collaborative nature of the overall accelerator modeling project, the visualization technology developed is for both desktop and remote visualization settings. We have tested the techniques using both time varying particle data sets containing up to one billion particle s per time step and electromagnetic field data sets with millions of mesh elements.
Date: November 16, 2002
Creator: Ma, K-L; Schussman, G.; Wilson, B.; Ko, K.; Qiang, J. & Ryne, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advances in 3D electromagnetic finite element modeling

Description: Numerous advances in electromagnetic finite element analysis (FEA) have been made in recent years. The maturity of frequency domain and eigenmode calculations, and the growth of time domain applications is briefly reviewed. A high accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will also be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis is also discussed.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Nelson, E.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Algorithm for Computation of Electromagnetic Fields of An Accelerated Short Bunch Inside a Rectangular Chamber

Description: We discuss the feasibility of an application of an implicit finite-difference approximation to calculate the fields of a relativistic bunch moving with no restriction inside a vacuum chamber. We assume that a bunch trajectory is not straight but is inside a vacuum chamber or its branch. The bunch can be deflected by the fields of bending magnets. The bunch can be short enough to produce coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Accelerator physicists believe that electromagnetic phenomena of charged beams are governed by Maxwell's equations together with Newton's equations for particle dynamics. To understand the behavior of the beams and radiated fields we just need to find a solution to these equations for the case, which can fully describe the real accelerator environment. So, at first we make a model, which contains all the necessary components, but at the same time can be easily 'inserts' into the equations. Sometimes, it is possible to find analytical solutions, but usually they are only work for one-dimensional cases and rarer for two-dimension cases. To find a solution in general we may transform the equations into a equivalent finite-difference form and solve them using computers. We can find a lot of finite-difference schemes, which approximate Maxwell's equations since the first one that was published in 1966. Most of them are so called explicit schemes. That means that the value of the field at the new time step is calculated only by the field values at the previous time step. Stability conditions for these schemes do not allow a time step to be greater than or equal to a space (mesh) step. This limitation brings an additional troublesome effect for short wavelengths compared a mesh step. We state that this effect works like a frequency dispersion media, which is 'hidden' in the finite-difference equation.
Date: September 14, 2010
Creator: Novokhatski, Alexander & Sullivan, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alpha-Decay Studies in the Heavy-Element Region

Description: Using primarily a 75-cm radius of curvature 60 deg symmetrical electromagnetic analyzer, a study of the complexity of the following alpha spectra was made: Es/sup 253/, Cf/sup 246/, Cm/sup 244/, Am/sup 243/, Pu/sup 236,242/, Pa/sup 231/ , Th/sup 227,230/, Ac/sup 225/, At/sup 209/ and Po/sup 206/. An investigation of the gamma rays associated with the following isotopes was also madei /sup 236/, and Pa/sup 231/. Decay schemes have been suggested for most of the isotopes included in this study. Those for the even-even isotopes were found to conform well with the previously existing systematics for that group of nuclides. Many of the decay features of the odd-mass isotopes seemed to conform well with presently expanding theories. (auth)
Date: July 1, 1956
Creator: Hummel, J. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Conductor Impedances Accounting for Skin Effect and Nonlinear Permeability

Description: It is often necessary to protect sensitive electrical equipment from pulsed electric and magnetic fields. To accomplish this electromagnetic shielding structures similar to Faraday Cages are often implemented. If the equipment is inside a facility that has been reinforced with rebar, the rebar can be used as part of a lighting protection system. Unfortunately, such shields are not perfect and allow electromagnetic fields to be created inside due to discontinuities in the structure, penetrations, and finite conductivity of the shield. In order to perform an analysis of such a structure it is important to first determine the effect of the finite impedance of the conductors used in the shield. In this paper we will discuss the impedances of different cylindrical conductors in the time domain. For a time varying pulse the currents created in the conductor will have different spectral components, which will affect the current density due to skin effects. Many construction materials use iron and different types of steels that have a nonlinear permeability. The nonlinear material can have an effect on the impedance of the conductor depending on the B-H curve. Although closed form solutions exist for the impedances of cylindrical conductors made of linear materials, computational techniques are needed for nonlinear materials. Simulations of such impedances are often technically challenging due to the need for a computational mesh to be able to resolve the skin depths for the different spectral components in the pulse. The results of such simulations in the time domain will be shown and used to determine the impedances of cylindrical conductors for lightning current pulses that have low frequency content.
Date: July 20, 2011
Creator: Perkins, M P; Ong, M M; Brown, C G & Speer, R D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of rf modes in the ANL APS vacuum chamber using computer simulation, electron beam excitation, and perturbation techniques

Description: The APS vacuum consists of a nearly elliptical beam chamber coupled to an antechamber through a 1-cm-high, 10-cm-long pumping slot over most of the 1104 m of storage ring circumference. Nonevaporable getter (NeG) strips in the antechamber are the pumping element. The 1-cm-high slot has two functions: to provide good conductance for vacuum pumping and for transmission of the photons into the beam ports. We thought that coupling of the beam to the antechamber might occur through the slot. Since the beam fields are transverse magnetic to the beam (TM/sub z/), no coupling occurs below the TM cutoff of the slot (15 GHz for 1 cm) because no wall currents are interrupted. Also, the frequency spectrum of a rigid bunch is well below 15 GHz. Both computer calculations and measurements were done to verify that no coupling occurs. Computer calculations in the frequency domain and two-arm wire measurements with picosecond pulses were previously reported. The wire measurements confirmed that little coupling occurs between the two chambers. In addition to those earlier studies, a real-time MAFIA-T3 study in 3D was done, and a measurement of modes excited by a 38-ps, 20-MeV electron beam has been completed. These results are the primary topic of this paper. Some measurements made with a network analyzer and bead perturbation equipment will also be discussed. 8 refs., 11 figs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Kustom, R.; Bridges, J.; Chou, W.; Cook, J.; Mavrogenes, G. & Nicholls, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the slot heating of the Coupled Cavity Linac cavity.

Description: CCL cavities are figures of revolution about the beam axis. An automated tuning program sets up the geometry for a symmetric accelerating cavity and runs SUPERFISH repetitively, varying the geometry to tune each cavity to the desired frequency for the electromagnetic fields. SUPERFISH solves Maxwell's equations in 2-D. A large portion of the RF power (60-80%) applied to accelerate protons is a waste heat deposited on the inside of the copper cavity. This waste heat is removed most efficiently with water circulating through cooling passages. The waste heat needs to be removed in order to minimize thermal deformations and with it control the resonance of the cavities. A slot between the main cavity and coupled cavity receives additional heating that is not captured in the 2-D analysis. This heating causes deformation of the region and with it frequency shift. This paper covers the estimation of the slot heating and three-dimensional thermal and structural analysis of the CCL cavity.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Konecni, S. (Snezana) & Bultman, N. K. (Nathan K.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of Quadrature Methods for Re-Weighting in Lattice QCD

Description: Re-weighting is a useful tool that has been employed in Lattice QCD in different contexts including, tuning the strange quark mass, approaching the light quark mass regime, and simulating electromagnetic fields on top of QCD gauge configurations. In case of re-weighting the sea quark mass, the re-weighting factor is given by the ratio of the determinants of two Dirac operators D{sub a} and D{sub b}. A popular approach for computing this ratio is to use a pseudofermion representation of the determinant of the composite operator {Omega} = D{sub a}(D{sub b}{sup {dagger}}D{sub b}){sup -1} D{sub a}{sup {dagger}}. Here, we study using quadrature methods together with noise vectors to compute the ratio of determinants. We show that, with quadrature methods each determinant can be computed separately using the operators {Omega}{sub a} = D{sub a}{sup {dagger}}D{sub a} and {Omega}{sub b} = D{sub b}{sup {dagger}} D{sub b}. We also discuss using bootstrap re-sampling to remove the bias from the determinant estimator.
Date: December 1, 2011
Creator: Abdou Abdel-Rehim, William Detmold, Kostas Orginos
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of structural-mechanics methods to the design of large tandem-mirror fusion devices (MFTF-B)

Description: The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory requires state-of-the-art structural-mechanics methods to deal with access constraints for plasma heating and diagnostics, alignment requirements, and load complexity and variety. Large interactive structures required an integrated analytical approach to achieve a reasonable level of overall system optimization. The Tandem Magnet Generator (TMG) creates a magnet configuration for the EFFI calculation of electromagnetic-field forces that, coupled with other loads, form the input loading to magnet and vessel finite-element models. The analytical results provide the data base for detailed design of magnet, vessel, foundation, and interaction effects.
Date: March 4, 1985
Creator: Karpenko, V.N. & Ng, D.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applications of the computer codes FLUX2D and PHI3D for the electromagnetic analysis of compressed magnetic field generators and power flow channels

Description: We present herein the results of three electromagnetic field problems for compressed magnetic field generators and their associated power flow channels. The first problem is the computation of the transient magnetic field in a two-dimensional model of helical generator during loading. The second problem is the three-dimensional eddy current patterns in a section of an armature beneath a bifurcation point of a helical winding. Our third problem is the calculation of the three-dimensional electrostatic fields in a region known as the post-hole convolute in which a rod connects the inner and outer walls of a system of three concentric cylinders through a hole in the middle cylinder. While analytic solutions exist for many electromagnetic field problems in cases of special and ideal geometries, the solutions of these and similar problems for the proper analysis and design of compressed magnetic field generators and their related hardware require computer simulations. In earlier studies, computer models have been proposed, several based on research oriented hydrocodes to which uncoupled or partially coupled Maxwell's equations solvers are added. Although the hydrocode models address the problem of moving, deformable conductors, they are not useful for electromagnetic analysis, nor can they be considered design tools. For our studies, we take advantage of the commercial, electromagnetic computer-aided design software packages FLUX2D nd PHI3D that were developed for motor manufacturers and utilities industries. 4 refs., 6 figs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Hodgdon, M.L.; Oona, H.; Martinez, A.R.; Salon, S.; Wendling, P.; Krahenbuhl, L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Argonne plasma wake-field acceleration experiments

Description: Four years after the initial proposal of the Plasma Wake-field Accelerator (PWFA), it continues to be the object of much investigation, due to the promise of the ultra-high accelerating gradients that can exist in relativistic plasma waves driven in the wake of charged particle beams. These wake-fields are of interest both in the laboratory, for acceleration and focusing of electrons and positrons in future linear colliders, and in nature as a possible cosmic ray acceleration mechanism. The purpose of the present work is to review the recent experimental advances made in PWFA research at Argonne National Laboratory. Some of the topics discussed are: the Argonne Advanced Accelerator Test Facility; linear plasma wake-field theory; measurement of linear plasma wake-fields; review of nonlinear plasma wave theory; and experimental measurement of nonlinear plasma wake-fields. 25 refs., 11 figs.
Date: March 14, 1989
Creator: Rosenzweig, J.B.; Cole, B.; Gai, W.; Konecny, R.; Norem, J.; Schoessow, P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department