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3rd African Drought Adaptation Forum report, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 17-19 September 2008

Description: The Third African Drought Adaptation Forum was held in September 2008 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The Forum was organized so that participants could exchange practical experiences, findings and ideas on how to adapt to the increasing threat of drought and climate change in the drylands of Africa. The report contains a summary of sessions and outlines key themes that emerged from the discussions.
Date: September 2008
Creator: UNDP Drylands Development Centre; United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction & Economic Commission for Africa
Partner: UNT Libraries

Adaptation that Accelerates Development

Description: This brochure summarizes how the United Nations Development Programme promotes pro-poor and pro-growth adaptation that encourages sustainable economic development and livelihoods in the face of climate change.
Date: December 2009
Creator: United Nations Development Programme
Partner: UNT Libraries

Adapting Water Management A Primer on Coping with Climate Change

Description: This primer is intended as a guide to some of the basic issues surrounding water management from a climate change perspective. It includes information on climate change impacts on various freshwater ecosystems as well as precipitation. Also addressed is how the assessment of vulnerability should distinguish between impacts assessment, which attempts to project future biophysical and ecological changes in a deterministic manner, and vulnerability assessment, which attempts to combine an assessment of future suites of change with an assessment of the resilience of ecosystems and management institutions.
Date: March 2009
Creator: Matthews, John H. & Quesne, Tom Le
Partner: UNT Libraries

Advanced Computational Approaches for Characterizing Stochastic Cellular Responses to Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Exposures

Description: OAK - B135 This project final report summarizes modeling research conducted in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Low Dose Radiation Research Program at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute from October 1998 through June 2003. The modeling research described involves critically evaluating the validity of the linear nonthreshold (LNT) risk model as it relates to stochastic effects induced in cells by low doses of ionizing radiation and genotoxic chemicals. The LNT model plays a central role in low-dose risk assessment for humans. With the LNT model, any radiation (or genotoxic chemical) exposure is assumed to increase one¡¯s risk of cancer. Based on the LNT model, others have predicted tens of thousands of cancer deaths related to environmental exposure to radioactive material from nuclear accidents (e.g., Chernobyl) and fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Our research has focused on developing biologically based models that explain the shape of dose-response curves for low-dose radiation and genotoxic chemical-induced stochastic effects in cells. Understanding the shape of the dose-response curve for radiation and genotoxic chemical-induced stochastic effects in cells helps to better understand the shape of the dose-response curve for cancer induction in humans. We have used a modeling approach that facilitated model revisions over time, allowing for timely incorporation of new knowledge gained related to the biological basis for low-dose-induced stochastic effects in cells. Both deleterious (e.g., genomic instability, mutations, and neoplastic transformation) and protective (e.g., DNA repair and apoptosis) effects have been included in our modeling. Our most advanced model, NEOTRANS2, involves differing levels of genomic instability. Persistent genomic instability is presumed to be associated with nonspecific, nonlethal mutations and to increase both the risk for neoplastic transformation and for cancer occurrence. Our research results, based on applications of NEOTRANS2, indicate that nonlinear threshold-type, dose-response relationships for excess stochastic effects (problematic nonlethal mutations, ...
Date: June 27, 2003
Creator: Scott, Bobby, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Buying Time: A User’s Manual for Building Resistance and Resilience to Climate Change in Natural Systems

Description: This publication is meant for Protected Areas Managers. It gives detailed information about assessing occurring and possible damage from climate change and fending off the damage - buying time for our protected areas while the world works out the only long-term solution - reducing CO2 emissions.
Date: August 2003
Creator: Hansen, L. J.; Biringer J.L. & Hoffman J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

China Climate Change Partnership Framework

Description: .Mainstreaming of climate change mitigation and adaptation into national and sub-national policies, planning, and investment frameworks. Establishment of innovative partnerships and dissemination of dissemination of technologies to mitigate climate change and increase local access to sustainable energy. Accelerated action by China in assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation plans and mechanisms.
Date: April 29, 2008
Creator: The MDG Achievement Fund
Partner: UNT Libraries

Climate Change Adaptation: Information on Selected Federal Efforts To Adapt To a Changing Climate (GAO-10-114SP, October 7, 2009), an E-supplement to GAO-10-113

Description: Other written product issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "This is a supplement to GAO-10-113. We obtained information from 13 selected federal departments and agencies on their current and planned climate change adaptation efforts as part of a broader review of climate change adaptation (see GAO-10-113). We present this information to provide a more complete picture of the activities that federal agencies consider to be related to climate change adaptation than has been available publicly. We obtained this information directly from the agencies participating in the U.S. Global Change Research Program. Importantly, we did not modify the content of the agency submissions (except to remove references to named individuals) or assess its validity. In addition, because this information represents the efforts of a selected group of federal agencies, the agency activities compiled in this report should not be considered a comprehensive list of all recent and ongoing climate change adaptation efforts across the federal government."
Date: October 7, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Climate Change Adaptation: Strategic Federal Planning Could Help Government Officials Make More Informed Decisions

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Changes in the climate attributable to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases may have significant impacts in the United States and the world. For example, climate change could threaten coastal areas with rising sea levels. Greenhouse gases already in the atmosphere will continue altering the climate system into the future, regardless of emissions control efforts. Therefore, adaptation--defined as adjustments to natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climate change--is an important part of the response to climate change. GAO was asked to examine (1) what actions federal, state, local, and international authorities are taking to adapt to a changing climate; (2) the challenges that federal, state, and local officials face in their efforts to adapt; and (3) actions that Congress and federal agencies could take to help address these challenges. We also discuss our prior work on similarly complex, interdisciplinary issues. This report is based on analysis of studies, site visits to areas pursuing adaptation efforts, and responses to a Web-based questionnaire sent to federal, state, and local officials."
Date: October 7, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Climate Change Adaptation: Strategic Federal Planning Could Help Officials Make More Informed Decisions

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "This testimony discusses our report to this committee on climate change adaptation and the role strategic federal planning could play in government decision making. Changes in the climate attributable to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases may have significant impacts in the United States and internationally. For example, climate change could threaten coastal areas with rising sea levels. In recent years, climate change adaptation--adjustments to natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climate change--has begun to receive more attention because the greenhouse gases already in the atmosphere are expected to continue altering the climate system into the future, regardless of efforts to control emissions. According to a recent report by the National Research Council (NRC), however, individuals and institutions whose futures will be affected by climate change are unprepared both conceptually and practically for meeting the challenges and opportunities it presents. In this context, adapting to climate change requires making policy and management decisions that cut across traditional economic sectors, jurisdictional boundaries, and levels of government. This testimony is based on our October 2009 report, which is being publicly released today, and addresses three issues: (1) what actions federal, state, local, and international authorities are taking to adapt to a changing climate; (2) the challenges that federal, state, and local officials face in their efforts to adapt; and (3) the actions that Congress and federal agencies could take to help address these challenges. We also provide information about our prior work on similarly complex, interdisciplinary issues."
Date: October 22, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

College Student Adaptability and Greek Membership: A Single Institution Case Study

Description: Since the birth of the United States in 1776, Greek-letter societies have been an integral part of American higher education. Research on the impact of Greek membership varies at best, and often is in conflict from study to study. This study surveyed students affiliated with Greek-letter organizations at the University of North Texas. The research examined the college adaptability of Greek students by gender in five areas: Overall adjustment, academic adjustment, personal-emotional adjustment, social adjustment, and attachment to the institution. The study, conducted in the spring of 2006 at the University of North Texas had 80 respondents. The Student Adaptability to College Questionnaire (SACQ) consisted of 67 items on a 9-point scale. The SACQ is designed to assess how well students adapt to the demands of the college experience. Raw scores and percentile rankings were determined by t-test calculations. Test scores were expressed through t-scores in relation to the standardized sample. Data show no statistical significance in any of the five areas studied: Overall adjustment, academic adjustment, personal-emotional adjustment, social adjustment, or attachment to the institution. Female participants scored higher on all scales than male participants, indicating a slightly higher level of adjustment, though not enough to be significant. Both males and females scored highest in attachment to the institution and social adjustment, while both scored lowest in personal-emotional adjustment.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Ayres, Amy R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A comparison of global optimization algorithms with standard benchmark functions and real-world applications using Energy Plus

Description: There is an increasing interest in the use of computer algorithms to identify combinations of parameters which optimise the energy performance of buildings. For such problems, the objective function can be multi-modal and needs to be approximated numerically using building energy simulation programs. As these programs contain iterative solution algorithms, they introduce discontinuities in the numerical approximation to the objective function. Metaheuristics often work well for such problems, but their convergence to a global optimum cannot be established formally. Moreover, different algorithms tend to be suited to particular classes of optimization problems. To shed light on this issue we compared the performance of two metaheuristics, the hybrid CMA-ES/HDE and the hybrid PSO/HJ, in minimizing standard benchmark functions and real-world building energy optimization problems of varying complexity. From this we find that the CMA-ES/HDE performs well on more complex objective functions, but that the PSO/HJ more consistently identifies the global minimum for simpler objective functions. Both identified similar values in the objective functions arising from energy simulations, but with different combinations of model parameters. This may suggest that the objective function is multi-modal. The algorithms also correctly identified some non-intuitive parameter combinations that were caused by a simplified control sequence of the building energy system that does not represent actual practice, further reinforcing their utility.
Date: September 1, 2009
Creator: Kamph, Jerome Henri; Robinson, Darren & Wetter, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Finance Services

Description: This document outlines how UNDP is helping governments to attract and drive private investment towards sustainable solutions by combining and sequencing various financial instruments to effect policy change. These environmental finance services of UNDP offer an innovative and robust approach to addressing climate change, and other environmental and sustainable development concerns.
Date: June 2009
Creator: United Nations Development Programme
Partner: UNT Libraries

PROGRESS ON ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES AN ANALYSIS OF BROAD TRENDS

Description: This paper provides an assessment of broad trends in progress on assessment and implementation of adaptation to climate change in “developed countries”, defined here as being Member states of the OECD and/or Parties listed under Annex I of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Primary inputs to this analysis are the National Communications (NCs) by these countries to the UNFCCC. NCs follow a standardised reporting format which facilitates cross-national comparison. They also reflect “whole government” perspectives. At the same time, however, the coverage of particular issues within these documents need not be comprehensive, nor might it necessarily reflect policy priorities on the ground. Therefore, this paper also examines other policies and projects which highlight progress on implementing adaptation, but which have not been reflected in the NCs.
Date: May 2006
Creator: Frédéric Gagnon-Lebrun & Shardul Agrawala
Partner: UNT Libraries

Proteomic Insights: Cryoadaption of Permafrost Bacteria

Description: The permafrost microbial community has been described as 'a community of survivors' (Friedman 1994). Because of the permanently cold condition and the long term isolation of the permafrost sediments, the permafrost microorganisms have acquired various adaptive features in the membrane, enzymes, and macromolecular synthesis. This chapter reviews the different adaptive mechanisms used by permafrost microorganisms with a focus on the proteomic level of cryoadaptation that have recently been identified during the low temperature growth in permafrost bacteria.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Qiu, Yinghua; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A. & Lubman, David M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The relationship between training in learning style adaptation and successful completion of entry-level community college classes.

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between training in learning style adaptation and successful completion of community college courses. The rationale for conducting this study was based on the need for students to learn how to adapt their learning style in order to more effectively learn in any situation. It is also important that community colleges implement strategies that assist in student retention. The learning styles of entry-level community college students were measured using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory Version 3. Students enrolled in entry-level college courses at a small North Texas community college were studied. The Chi-square Test of Independence with a 2 x 2 design was employed. Findings indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in the relationship between students receiving training in learning styles adaptation and successful completion of entry-level college courses, and that students who attended a learning styles training session and those who did not attend a learning styles training session had an equal chance of succeeding in entry-level community college courses. Findings also indicated that students with Accommodating and Assimilating learning styles are less likely to successfully complete an entry-level college course than are students with Diverging or Converging learning styles, yet students with Diverging and Converging learning styles might withdraw from a course rather than risk being unsuccessful. Finally, findings indicated that students who are dissatisfied with the college course and with the instructor of the college course withdraw from college courses.
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Date: December 2002
Creator: Ferrell, Dawn M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Research at JRC in support of EU Climate Change Policy Making

Description: The present (third edition) of “Research at the JRC in Support of EU Climate Change Policy Making” provides overview of the Joint Research Centre research activities in support of EU climate change policy making. This document also presents activities, coordinated within the JRC’s Climate Change Priority Area, that will contribute to a sound foundation of scientific information for future policy actions.
Date: 2008
Creator: Institute for Environment and Sustainability (European Commission. Joint Research Centre)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Slow:Fast substitution ratio reveals changing patterns of natural selection in gamma-proteobacterial genomes

Description: Different microbial species are thought to occupy distinct ecological niches, subjecting each species to unique selective constraints, which may leave a recognizable signal in their genomes. Thus, it may be possible to extract insight into the genetic basis of ecological differences among lineages by identifying unusual patterns of substitutions in orthologous gene or protein sequences. We use the ratio of substitutions in slow versus fast-evolving sites (nucleotides in DNA, or amino acids in protein sequence) to quantify deviations from the typical pattern of selective constraint observed across bacterial lineages. We propose that elevated S:F in one branch (an excess of slow-site substitutions) can indicate a functionally-relevant change, due to either positive selection or relaxed evolutionary constraint. In a genome-wide comparative study of gamma-proteobacterial proteins, we find that cell-surface proteins involved with motility and secretion functions often have high S:F ratios, while information-processing genes do not. Change in evolutionary constraints in some species is evidenced by increased S:F ratios within functionally-related sets of genes (e.g., energy production in Pseudomonas fluorescens), while other species apparently evolve mostly by drift (e.g., uniformly elevated S:F across most genes in Buchnera spp.). Overall, S:F reveals several species-specific, protein-level changes with potential functional/ecological importance. As microbial genome projects yield more species-rich gene-trees, the S:F ratio will become an increasingly powerful tool for uncovering functional genetic differences among species.
Date: April 15, 2009
Creator: Alm, Eric & Shapiro, B. Jesse
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strategic Environmental Assessment and Adaptation to Climate Change

Description: This is one in a series of Advisory Notes that supplement the OECD/DAC Good Practice Guidance on Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) (OECD/DAC 2006). The focus of this Advisory Note is to show how Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) approaches can help mainstream adaptation to climate change into strategic planning. It is used to integrate considerations related to climate change into national development or sectoral management planning or policymaking processes.
Date: October 2008
Creator: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Partner: UNT Libraries