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Annual environmental monitoring report, January--December 1977

Description: Environmental monitoring results continue to demonstrate that, except for penetrating radiation, environmental radiological impact due to SLAC operation is not distinguishable from natural environmantal sources. During 1977, the maximum neutron dose near the site boundary was 8.2 mrem. This represents about 8.2% of the annual dose from natural sources at this elevation, and 1.6% of the technical standard of 500 mrem per person annually.
Date: May 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual environmental monitoring report, January--December 1978. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center]

Description: Environmental monitoring results continue to demonstrate that, except for penetrating radiation, environmental radiological impact due to SLAC operation is not distinguishable from natural environmental sources. During 1978, the maximum neutron dose near the site boundary was 6.6 mrem. This represents about 6.6% of the annual dose from natural sources at this elevation, and 1.3% of the technical standard of 500 mrem per person annually. There have been no measurable increases in radioactivity in ground water attributable to SLAC operations since 1966. Because of major new construction, well water samples were not collected and analyzed during 1978. Construction activities have also temporarily placed our sampling stations for the sanitary and storm sewers out of service. They will be re-established as soon as construction activities permit. Airborne radioactivity released from SLAC continues to make only a negligible environmental impact, and results in a site boundary annual dose of less than 0.01 mrem; this represents less than 0.01% of the annual dose from the natural radiation environment, and about 0.002% of the technical standard.
Date: April 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) for long-term assessment of operating releases from the nuclear power industry

Description: The application of the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) methodology to the long-term assessment of operating releases from the nuclear power industry was investigated. Gaussian calculations had been previously compared with MATHEW/ADPIC calculations for a simulated 24-hr release in the Hudson River Valley and an area in the southeast. Considerable differences were noted in the comparisons, which were attributed to the more realistic simulation of the time and space varying wind fields by the MATHEW/ADPIC computer codes.
Date: November 1, 1978
Creator: Dickerson, M.H.; Walton, J.J. & Tuerpe, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applications of complex terrain meteorological models to emergency response management

Description: The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), US Department of Energy (DOE), has supported the development of mesoscale transport and diffusion and meteorological models for several decades. The model development activities are closely tied to the OHER field measurement program which has generated a large amount of meteorological and tracer gas data that have been used extensively to test and improve both meteorological and dispersion models. This paper briefly discusses the history of the model development activities associated with the OHER atmospheric science program. The discussion will then focus on how results from this program have made their way into the emergency response community in the past, and what activities are presently being pursued to improve real-time emergency response capabilities. Finally, fruitful areas of research for improving real-time emergency response modeling capabilities are suggested. 35 refs., 5 figs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Yamada, Tetsuji; Leone, J.M. Jr.; Rao, K.S.; Dickerson, M.H.; Bader, D.C. & Williams, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ARAC: a centralized computer assisted emergency planning, response, and assessment system for atmospheric releases of toxic material

Description: The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) is an emergency planning, response, and assessment service, developed by the US Departments of Energy and Defense, and focused, thus far, on atmospheric releases of nuclear material. For the past 14 years ARAC has responded to over 150 accidents, potential accidents, and major exercises. The most notable accident responses are the COSMOS 954 reentry, the Three Mile Island (TMI-2) accident and subsequent purge of /sup 85/Kr from the containment vessel, the recent UF/sub 6/ accident at the Kerr-McGee Plant, Gore, Oklahoma, and the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union. Based on experience in the area of emergency response, developed during the past 14 years, this paper describes the cost effectiveness and other advantages of a centralized emergency planning, response, and assessment service for atmospheric releases of nuclear material.
Date: October 1, 1986
Creator: Dickerson, M.H. & Knox, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of the radon concentrations in air caused by emissions from multiple sources in a uranium mining and milling region. A case study of the Ambrosia Lake region of New Mexico

Description: The Ambrosia Lake uranium mining and milling operations were selected to characterize the relative importance of these sources on ambient atmospheric radon concentrations. All uranium mines at Ambrosia Lake are underground. The comparisons of interest were both between the sources and between the sources and background concentrations. The results show that vents are by far the greatest source of the computed radon concentrations in the immediate area of the operations. The computed radon concentrations at receptor points were largely influenced by the closer sources, rather than by more distant stronger sources. The area where computed radon concentrations significantly exceed the background is confined to the general area around the vents and mills. A comparison between computed radon concentrations and monitoring data at selected points demonstrates order of magnitude agreement.
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: Droppo, J.G. & Glissmeyer, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC): update 1977. [Atmospheric monitoring of effluents from DOE nuclear facilities]

Description: The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) is a service to facilities requiring a means of realtime prediction of the extent of health hazards that may result from a release of radionuclides or other toxic materials. The ARAC system, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE), consists of a network of serviced facilities and a central facility at the University of California, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL). Since 1973, when the concept was initiated, a joint feasibility study of the ARAC system has been conducted by LLL and the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and research and development was initiated to implement this service for DOE nuclear facilities. The present system of three sites (LLL, Savannah River Plant and the Rocky Flats Plant) is now being tested and evaluated with the Mound Laboratory scheduled to join the network in the fall of 1977. Plans are presently being formulated to implement the ARAC service for additional DOE sites during the next several years. This article briefly describes the ARAC concept, discusses progress to date and outlines future plans for completing the system's development and operating the service.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Dickerson, M.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Background information on sources of low-level radionuclide emissions to air

Description: This report provides a general description and reported emissions for eight low-level radioactive source categories, including facilties that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Agreement States, and non-Department of Energy (DOE) federal facilities. The eight categories of low-level radioactive source facilities covered by this report are: research and test reactors, accelerators, the radiopharmaceutical industry, source manufacturers, medical facilities, laboratories, naval shipyards, and low-level commercial waste disposal sites. Under each category five elements are addressed: a general description, a facility and process description, the emission control systems, a site description, and the radionuclides released to air (from routine operations).
Date: September 1, 1983
Creator: Corbit, C.D.; Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Stout, L.A. & Corley, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building shielding effects on radiation doses from routine radionuclide releases

Description: In calculating population doses from the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere, it is usually assumed that man spends all of his time outdoors standing on a smooth infinite plane. Realistically, however, man spends most of the time indoors, so that substantial reductions in radiation doses may result compared with the usual estimates. Calculational models were developed to study the effects of building structures on radiation doses from routine releases of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Both internal dose from inhaled radionuclides and external photon dose from airborne and surface-deposited radionuclides are considered. The effect of building structures is described quantitatively by a dose reduction factor, which is the ratio of the dose inside a structure to the corresponding dose with no structure present. The internal dose from inhaled radionuclides is proportional to the radionuclide concentration in the air. Assuming that the outdoor airborne concentration is constant with time, the time-dependence of the indoor airborne concentration in terms of the structure air ventilation rate, the deposition velocities for radionuclides on the inside floor, walls, and ceiling, and the radioactive decay constant, were calculated.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Kocher, D.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Catalogue of monitoring activities at Rocky Flats: 1978, 1979

Description: A listing of environmental surveillance sampling endeavors for the years 1978 and 1979 is given in which sampling media, i.e., ambient air, stack effluent air, water, and soil are considered. Sampling locations, frequency of sampling, parameters analyzed, and control limits also are given. The objectives of the sampling are considered in defining the program.
Date: June 20, 1980
Creator: Werkema, M. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterizing dispersion on a climatological basis. [Effects of climatological factors on atmospheric transport of radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants]

Description: Normalized concentrations of pollutants downwind of various nuclear power reactor sites have been predicted with onsite meteorological data and a computer code developed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (Sagendorf and Goll, 1977). These results, grouped by calendar year of meteorological data, were compared and the maximum concentrations were found to vary by a factor of approx. 5 between groups and approx. 3 within groups. Mean values of normalized concentrations of pollutant for each group were found to vary by a factor of approx. 2. Results of this study confirm earlier analysis by Hosler (1964) which indicated that differences in atmospheric dilution among data sites, based on the average effects of wind speed and vertical thermal stability, are small.
Date: June 1, 1978
Creator: Sandusky, W.F. & Nickola, P.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computer code to assess accidental pollutant releases

Description: A computer code was developed to calculate the cumulative frequency distributions of relative concentrations of an air pollutant following an accidental release from a stack or from a building penetration such as a vent. The calculations of relative concentration are based on the Gaussian plume equations. The meteorological data used for the calculation are in the form of joint frequency distributions of wind and atmospheric stability.
Date: July 1, 1980
Creator: Pendergast, M.M. & Huang, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy Facilities: the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Addendum 1

Description: The purpose of this addendum is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency on existing technology at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) for the control of radionuclide emissions to the atmosphere and on possible additional control technology that could further reduce these emissions. Emission of short-lived air activation products from the LAMPF in 1983 increased substantially over 1981 and 1982 to a total of 464 thousand curies, resulting in a maximum site boundary dose calculated by the US Department of Energy to be 48.4 millirem per year. Existing control technology consists of an air collection system and a stack which provides for some holdup and decay of the short-lived isotopes produced at the beam stop and in target areas. Modifications are presently being installed at the beam stop to improve experimental conditions, which will also reduce the formation of air activation products at the beam stop and provide some additional holdup time. Also under consideration is the installation of a new air tunnel and stack, at a different location, to further increase holdup time of air activation products produced at the beam stop. Alternate control technology suggested by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory includes a holdup tank system to reduce LAMPF stack emissions. The estimated costs and efficiencies in reducing radionuclide emissions are discussed. 5 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Moore, E.B. & Fullam, H.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critique of methods for estimating plume depletion and deposition of airborne radionuclides

Description: A comparison is made between the methods for estimating plume depletion and deposition contained in Meteorology and Atomic Energy-1968 and the methods contained in United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.111. Although Regulatory Guide 1.111 is intended only for use in determining compliance with 10 CFR 50, Appendix I requirements for light-water-cooled nuclear reactors, the methods contained in the Guide have the potential of being used for other types of nuclear facilities. Therefore, a comparison of methodologies is in order to identify any potential discrepancies. This comparison of the two approaches has highlighted three major concerns with regard to the Regulatory Guide 1.111 methods: (1) the dry deposition estimates derived from curves in the Regulatory Guide are not dependent on calculations of air concentration (2) for elevated releases estimates of dry deposition are too large close to the source; and (3) the plume depletion curves presented in the Guide are inconsistent with the results that would be expected for a surface depletion model.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Miller, C.W. & Hoffman, F.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CRRIS: a methodology for assessing the impact of airborne radionuclide releases

Description: The Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) consists of six fully integrated computer codes which calculate environmental transport and resulting doses and risks to individuals or populations exposed to atmospheric radionuclide releases. The individual codes may be used alone for various assessment applications or may be run as a system. This presentation provides an overview and introduction to this system of computer codes and their use in conducting nuclear assessments. Radionuclides are handled by CRRIS either in terms of the released radionuclides or in terms of exposure radionuclides which consist of both the released nuclides and all (or a subset of) the decay daughters that grow in during environmental transport. The capability of CRRIS to handle radionuclide chains is accomplished through PRIMUS which serves as a preprocessor by accessing a library of radionuclide decay data and sets up matricies of decay constants which are used by the other CRRIS codes in all calculations involving transport and decay. PRIMUS may also be run independently by the user to define the decay chains, radionuclide decay constants, and branching ratios.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Baes, C.F. III & Miller, C.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design procedure for sizing a submerged-bed scrubber for airborne particulate removal

Description: Performance correlations to design and operate the submerged bed scrubber were developed for various applications. Structural design procedure outlined in this report focuses on off-gas scrubbing for HLW vitrification applications; however, the method is appropriate for other applications.
Date: April 1, 1987
Creator: Ruecker, C.M. & Scott, P.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Diffusion rates for elevated releases

Description: A search of the literature related to diffusion from elevated sources has determined that an adequate data base exists for use in developing parameterizations for estimating diffusion rates for material released from free standing stacks at nuclear power plants. A review of published data analyses indicates that a new parameterization of horizontal diffusion rates specifically for elevated releases is not likely to significantly change the magnitudes of horizontal diffusion coefficients on the average. However, the uncertainties associated with horizontal diffusion coefficient estimates under any given set of atmospheric conditions could be reduced by a new parameterization. Similarly, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates would be unlikely to significantly alter the magnitudes of diffusion coefficients for unstable atmospheric conditons. However, for neutral and stable atmospheric conditions, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates might increase vertical diffusion coefficients significantly. The increase would move ground-level time-integrated concentration maxima closer to the plant and would increase the maxima. 55 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.
Date: November 1, 1983
Creator: Ramsdell, J.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emitted and decayed values of radionuclides in gaseous wastes discharged to the atmosphere from the separation facilities through calendar year 1972

Description: Gaseous wastes from the chemical separations processing of spent reactor fuel elements and product finishing operations have been discharged to the atmosphere since 1944. Data on plutonium, beta, iodine, and uranium emissions for the twenty-nine years are provided. The known radioactivity in gaseous wastes and estimated radioactivity in gaseous waste where prime data were not available are presented. Emission data are not included on gaseous wastes emitted from 200 Area facilities which are now under the jurisdiction of other Hanford contractors.
Date: March 1, 1974
Creator: Anderson, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Lakeview Site, Lakeview, Oregon. Phase II, Title I

Description: Results are reported from an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Lakeview, Oregon site. Results are included from the analyses of soil, water, and other samples; radiometric measurements to determine areas with radium-contaminated materials; evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations; investigation of site geology, hydrology, and meteorology; and evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 130,000 tons of tailings at the Lakeview site constitutes the main environmental impact, which is minimal. The two alternative actions presented are maintenance of the site now that the ARCO reclamation program has been completed (Option I); and addition of stabilization cover to a minimum depth of 2 ft, improved fencing, and removal of a few isolated spots of contamination (Option II). The cost estimates for these options are $40,000 and $290,000, respectively.
Date: December 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Lakeview Site, Lakeview, Oregon. Summary of Phase II, Title I

Description: Results are reported from an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Lakeview, Oregon site. Data ore included from the analyses of soil, water, and other samples; radiometric measurements to determine areas with radium-contaminated materials; evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations; investigation of site geology, hydrology, and meteorology; and evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 130,000 tons of tailings at the Lakeview site constitutes the main environmental impact, which is minimal. The two alternative actions presented are maintenance of the site now that the ARCO reclamation program has been completed (Option I); and addition of stabilization cover to a minimum depth of 2 ft, improved fencing, and removal of a few isolated spots of contamination (Option II). The cost estimates for these options are $40,000 and $290,000, respectively.
Date: December 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report for 1982

Description: The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne Ntaional Laboratory for 1982 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and milk; for a variety of chemical constituents in air, surface water, ground water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and masurements were made at the site boundary and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. Some on-site measurements were made to aid in the interpretation of the boundary and off-site data. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated.
Date: March 1, 1983
Creator: Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L. & Sedlet, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: 1986 annual report

Description: This report documents the results of the environmental monitoring program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for 1986. To evaluate the effect of LLNL operations on the local environment, measurements of direct radiation and a variety of radionuclides and chemical pollutants in ambient air, soil, surface water, groundwater, vegetation, milk, foodstuff, and sewage effluents were made at both the Livermore site and nearby Site 300. This report was prepared to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5484.1. Evaluations are made of LLNL's compliance with all applicable guides, standards, and limits for radiological and nonradiological releases to the environment. The data indicate that no releases in excess of the applicable standards were made during 1986, and that LLNL operations had no adverse environmental impact.
Date: April 1, 1987
Creator: Holland, R.C.; Buddemeier, R.W. & Brekke, D.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department