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300 Area Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection: Final Report

Description: The objective of the treatability test was to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium-contaminated groundwater in situ. A test site consisting of an injection well and 15 monitoring wells was installed in the 300 Area near the process trenches that had previously received uranium-bearing effluents. This report summarizes the work on the polyphosphate injection project, including bench-scale laboratory studies, a field injection test, and the subsequent analysis and interpretation of the results. Previous laboratory tests have demonstrated that when a soluble form of polyphosphate is injected into uranium-bearing saturated porous media, immobilization of uranium occurs due to formation of an insoluble uranyl phosphate, autunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2•nH2O]. These tests were conducted at conditions expected for the aquifer and used Hanford soils and groundwater containing very low concentrations of uranium (10-6 M). Because autunite sequesters uranium in the oxidized form U(VI) rather than forcing reduction to U(IV), the possibility of re-oxidation and subsequent re-mobilization is negated. Extensive testing demonstrated the very low solubility and slow dissolution kinetics of autunite. In addition to autunite, excess phosphorous may result in apatite mineral formation, which provides a long-term source of treatment capacity. Phosphate arrival response data indicate that, under site conditions, the polyphosphate amendment could be effectively distributed over a relatively large lateral extent, with wells located at a radial distance of 23 m (75 ft) reaching from between 40% and 60% of the injection concentration. Given these phosphate transport characteristics, direct treatment of uranium through the formation of uranyl-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., autunite) could likely be effectively implemented at full field scale. However, formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases using the selected three-phase approach was problematic. Although amendment arrival response data indicate some degree of overlap between the reactive species and thus potential for the formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., apatite ...
Date: June 30, 2009
Creator: Vermeul, Vincent R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

Description: Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.
Date: February 1, 1983
Creator: First, M.W. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2004 Initial Assessments of Closure for the S-SX Tank Farm: Numerical Simulations

Description: In support of CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc.'s (CHG) preparation of a Field Investigative Report (FIR) for the closure of the Hanford Site Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area (WMA) tank farms, a set of numerical simulations of flow and solute transport was executed to investigate different potential contaminant source scenarios that may pose long-term risks to groundwater from the closure of the S-SX Tank Farm. This report documents the simulation of 7 cases (plus two verification) involving two-dimensional cross sections through the S Tank Farm (Tanks S-101, S102, and S-103) and the simulation of one case involving three-dimensional domain of the S Tank Farm. Using a unit release scenario at Tank S-103, three different types of leaks were simulated. These simulations assessed the effect of leaks during retrieval as well as residual wastes and ancillary equipment after closure. Two transported solutes were considered: uranium-238 (U-238) and technetium-99 (Tc 99). To evaluate the effect of sorption on contaminant transport, six different sorption coefficients were simulated for U 238. Overall, simulations results for the S Tank Farm showed that only a small fraction (< 0.4%) of the U-238 with sorption coefficients  0.6 mL/g migrated from the vadose zone in all of the cases. For the conservative solute, Tc-99, results showed that the simulations investigating leaks during retrieval demonstrated the highest peak concentrations and the earliest arrival times due to the high infiltration rate before water was added and surface barriers installed. Residual leaks were investigated with different release rate models, including uniform release, advection-dominated, diffusion-dominated, and saltcake (solubility-controlled) release models. Of the four models, peak concentrations were lowest and arrival times later for the uniform release model due to the lower release rate of the residual tank waste solids; similar high peak concentrations occurred for the advection-dominated and the salt ...
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Waichler, Scott R. & White, Mark D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2005 Closure Assessments for WMA-C Tank Farms: Numerical Simulations

Description: In support of CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc.'s (CHG) closure of the Hanford Site Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area (WMA) tank farms, numerical simulations of flow and solute transport were executed to investigate different potential contaminant source scenarios that may pose long-term risks to groundwater from the closure of the C Tank Farm. These simulations were based on the initial assessment effort (Zhang et al., 2003), but implemented a revised approach that examined a range of key parameters and multiple base cases. Four different potential source types were identified to represent the four base cases, and included past leaks, diffusion releases from residual wastes, leaks during retrieval, and ancillary equipment sources. Using a two-dimensional cross section through the C Tank Farm (Tanks C-103–C-112) and a unit release from Tank C-112, two solutes (uranium-238 (U-238) and technetium-99 (Tc 99)) were transported through the problem domain. To evaluate the effect of sorption on contaminant transport, seven different sorption coefficients were simulated for U 238. Apart from differences in source releases, all four base cases utilized the same median parameter values to describe flow and contaminant transport at the WMA C. Forty-six additional cases were also run that examined individual transport responses to the upper and lower limits of the median parameter values implemented in the base case systems. For the conservative solute, Tc-99, results amongst the base cases showed that the simulations investigating past leaks demonstrated the highest peak concentrations and the earliest arrival times (48 years) due to the proximity of the plume to the water table and the high recharge rate before surface barriers were installed. Simulations investigating leaks during retrieval predicted peak concentrations ~60 times smaller than the past leak cases, and corresponding arrival times that occurred ~70 years later. The diffusion release base case predicted the lowest ...
Date: September 20, 2005
Creator: Freedman, Vicky L.; Zhang, Z. F.; Waichler, Scott R. & Wurstner, Signe K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Absorption of undulator radiation in media

Description: Detailed thermal stress analyses of beamline and optical components subject to high heat loads require an Accurate determination of the absorbed power profile for accurate prediction of the temperature profile and structural parameters. This is particularly important for high power beams from wigglers and undulators at the third generation synchrotron sources because components must, in general, be designed and maintained with strict mechanical tolerances. The spatial distribution of the power density of an undulator is a rapidly varying function of the energy of the photons suggesting that approximative methods based on a smooth spectral variation may not be valid. In this paper, a fast code for calculating undulator spectra is developed and compared with a wiggler code for approximation of the same spectra. Results from numerical simulations, including the emittance of the stored particle beam, are presented for the absorbed power density in a beryllium window. We find markedly different results for the two models for far off-axis radiation indicating the inadequacy of the wiggler model applied to an undulator spectrum in this case. The wiggler model overestimates the total absorbed power by as much as 82% for the beryllium window.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Dejus, R.J.; Lai, B. & Khounsary, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AC microcalorimetry of adsorbates on evaporated metal films: Orientational ordering of H sub 2 multilayers

Description: We have improved and extended a novel ac calorimetric technique for measuring the heat capacity of adsorbates on evaporated metal films. Metallic substrates are of particular interest in current studies of the thermodynamics of adsorbed molecules. The method described in the present work is only calorimetric technique which allows measurements of molecules on simple metallic surfaces. Among other improvements, we have achieved significant progress in the preparation and characterization of the evaporated metal film. We have applied this novel technique to a study of hydrogen multilayers on gold and sapphire substrates. We have shown that samples of normal-hydrogen with a nominal coverage n of approximately 25 monolayers (ML) undergo a bulk-like orientational ordering transition. The transition is suppressed as the coverage is decreased, and no sign of the transition remains above 1.6 K for n {approx} 1 ML. For n {approx lt} 8 ML, the peak in the heat capacity exhibits signs of finite-size effects. At higher coverages, finite-size effects are not observed, and the shape of the peak depends strongly on the substrate. We conclude that the peak is inhomogeneously broadened for n {approx lt} 8 ML. This work represents the first measurements of the heat capacity due to orientational ordering in adsorbed hydrogen. The results of an earlier experiment involving vibrational spectroscopy of adsorbed molecules are included in the Appendix. In this work, we have used infrared emission spectroscopy to study the spectral region in the vicinity of the C=O stretch vibration of bridge-bonded CO on Pt(111).
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Phelps, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accelerated leach test development program

Description: In FY 1989, a draft accelerated leach test for solidified waste was written. Combined test conditions that accelerate leaching were validated through experimental and modeling efforts. A computer program was developed that calculates test results and models leaching mechanisms. This program allows the user to determine if diffusion controls leaching and, if this is the case, to make projections of releases. Leaching mechanisms other than diffusion (diffusion plus source term partitioning and solubility limited leaching) are included in the program is indicators of other processes that may control leaching. Leach test data are presented and modeling results are discussed for laboratory scale waste forms composed of portland cement containing sodium sulfate salt, portland cement containing incinerator ash, and vinyl ester-styrene containing sodium sulfate. 16 refs., 38 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: November 1, 1990
Creator: Fuhrmann, M.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Heiser, J.; Franz, E.M. & Colombo, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Actinide behavior in a freshwater pond

Description: Long-term investigations of solution chemistry in an alkaline freshwater pond have revealed that actinide oxidation state behavior, particularly that of plutonium, is complex. The Pu(V,VI) fraction was predominant in solution, but it varied over the entire range reported from other natural aquatic environments, in this case, as a result of intrinsic biological and chemical cycles (redox and pH-dependent phenomena). A strong positive correlation between plutonium (Pu), but not uranium (U), and hydroxyl ion over the observation period, especially when both were known to be in higher oxidation states, was particularly notable. Coupled with other examples of divergent U and Pu behavior, this result suggests that Pu(V), or perhaps a mixture of Pu(V,VI), was the prevalent oxidation state in solution. Observations of trivalent actinide sorption behavior during an algal bloom, coupled with the association with a high-molecular weight (nominally 6000 to 10,000 mol wt) organic fraction in solution, indicate that solution-detritus cycling of organic carbon, in turn, may be the primary mechanism in amercium-curium (Am-Cm) cycling. Sorption by sedimentary materials appears to predominate over other factors controlling effective actinide solubility and may explain, at least partially, the absence of an expected strong positive correlation between carbonate and dissolved U. 49 references, 6 figures, 12 tables.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Trabalka, J.R.; Bogle, M.A. & Scott, T.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Actinide biocolloid formation in brine by halophilic bacteria

Description: The authors examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WIPP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited solubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellularly as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Actinide Sorption in Rainier Mesa Tunnel Waters from the Nevada Test Site

Description: The sorption behavior of americium (Am), plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), and uranium (U) in perched Rainier Mesa tunnel water was investigated. Both volcanic zeolitized tuff samples and groundwater samples were collected from Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, NV for a series of batch sorption experiments. Sorption in groundwater with and without the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) was investigated. Am(III) and Pu(IV) are more soluble in groundwater that has high concentrations of DOM. The sorption K{sub d} for Am(III) and Pu(IV) on volcanic zeolitized tuff was up to two orders of magnitude lower in samples with high DOM (15 to 19 mg C/L) compared to samples with DOM removed (&lt; 0.4 mg C/L) or samples with naturally low DOM (0.2 mg C/L). In contrast, Np(V) and U(VI) sorption to zeolitized tuff was much less affected by the presence of DOM. The Np(V) and U(VI) sorption Kds were low under all conditions. Importantly, the DOM was not found to significantly sorb to the zeolitized tuff during these experiment. The concentration of DOM in groundwater affects the transport behavior of actinides in the subsurface. The mobility of Am(III) and Pu(IV) is significantly higher in groundwater with elevated levels of DOM resulting in potentially enhanced transport. To accurately model the transport behavior of actinides in groundwater at Rainier Mesa, the low actinide Kd values measured in groundwater with high DOM concentrations must be incorporated in predictive transport models.
Date: December 17, 2007
Creator: Zhao, P.; Zavarin, M.; Leif, R.; Powell, B.; Singleton, M.; Lindvall, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Activated carbon adsorption from a high TOC wastewater

Description: The ability of activated carbon to reduce total organic carbon in highly concentrated wastewaters from a coal gasification pilot plant was evaluated in laboratory batch and column tests. The wastewater initially contains over 5000 mg/l TOC, largely phenols and cresols, with numerous other organic species in much lower concentrations. The physical adsorption process is best explained by the Freundlich model, with the slope and intercept of the Freundlich isotherm comparable to data reported for treatment of refinery wastes. Carbon exhaustion rates and bed depth-service time curves are also comparable to refinery treatment data obtained from waters of lower TOC or COD. Laboratory-scale column tests reduced TOC from 5740 mg/l to 200 mg/l.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Hird, K.B.; Kube, W.R. & Schobert, H.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: High concentrations of humate in surface water result in the formation of excess amounts of chlorinated byproducts during disinfection treatment. These precursors can be removed in water treatment prior to disinfection using powdered activated carbon. In the interest of developing a more cost-effective method for removal of humates in surface water, a comparison of the activities of carbons prepared from North Dakota lignites with those of commercial carbons was conducted. Previous studies indicated that a commercial carbon prepared from Texas lignite (Darco HDB) was superior to those prepared from bituminous coals for water treatment. That the high alkali content of North Dakota lignites would result in favorable adsorptive properties for the very large humate molecules was hypothesized, owing to the formation of larger pores during activation. Since no standard humate test has been previously developed, initial adsorption testing was performed using smaller dye molecules with various types of ionic character. With the cationic dye, methylene blue, a carbon prepared from a high-sodium lignite (HSKRC) adsorbed more dye than the Darco HDB. The carbon from the low-sodium lignite was much inferior. With another cationic dye, malachite green, the Darco HDB was slightly better. With anionic dyes, methyl red and azocarmine-B, the results for the HSKRC and Darco HDB were comparable. A humate test was developed using Aldrich humic acid. The HSKRC and the Darco HDB gave equally high adsorption capacities for the humate (138 mg/g), consistent with the similarities observed in earlier tests. A carbon prepared from a high-sodium lignite from a different mine showed an outstanding improvement (201 mg/g). The carbons prepared from the low-sodium lignites from both mines showed poor adsorption capacities for humate. Adsorption isotherms were performed for the set of activated carbons in the humate system. These exhibited a complex behavior interpreted as resulting from two types ...
Date: July 1, 2000
Creator: Olson, Edwin S. & Stepan, Daniel J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Activated transport in AMTEC electrodes

Description: Transport of alkali metal atoms through porous cathodes of alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (AMTEC) cells is responsible for significant, reducible losses in the electrical performance of these cells. Experimental evidence for activated transport of metal atoms at grain surfaces and boundaries within some AMTEC electrodes has been derived from temperature dependent studies as well as from analysis of the detailed frequency dependence of ac impedance results for other electrodes, including thin, mature molybdenum electrodes which exhibit transport dominated by free molecular flow of sodium gas at low frequencies or dc conditions. Activated surface transport will almost always exist in parallel with free molecular flow transport, and the process of alkali atom adsorption/desorption from the electrode surface will invariably be part of the transport process, and possibly a dominant part in some cases. Little can be learned about the detailed mass transport process from the ac impedance or current voltage curves of an electrode at one set of operating parameters, because the transport process includes a number of important physical parameters that are not all uniquely determined by one experiment. The temperature dependence of diffusion coefficient of the alkali metal through the electrode in several cases provides an activation energy and pre-exponential, but at least two activated processes may be operative, and the activation parameters should be expected to depend on the alkali metal activity gradient that the electrode experiences. In the case of Pt/W/Mn electrodes operated for 2500 hours, limiting currents varied with electrode thickness, and the activation parameters could be assigned primarily to the surface/grain boundary diffusion process. 17 refs.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Williams, R.M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M.A.; Underwood, M.L.; O'Connor, D. & Kikkert, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

(The activation and decomposition of alkanes on group VIII transition metal surfaces: Dynamics, kinetics and spectroscopy)

Description: Significant progress has been achieved in a number of areas with the support of this Department of Energy grant which began on July 1, 1989. We have quantified experimentally the kinetics of the initial (low-coverage) alkane activation reaction, i.e., alkane {yields} alkyl + hydrogen adatom, for the following systems: (1) C{sub 2}H{sub 6} on Ir(110)-(1{times}2), and (2) CH{sub 4}, CD{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6} and C{sub 2}D{sub 6} on Pt(110)-(1{times}2). In addition, we have employed dynamic Monte Carlo simulations to study two important aspects of surface reactivity, namely, reactant segregation during a steady-state surface reaction, and the compensation effect in a transient surface reaction. Experimentally determined values of the initial adsorption probability of ethane on Ir(110)(1{times}2) were employed to probe the dynamics of the interaction. Experimentally determined values of the initial trapping probability {zeta}{sub 0} of ethane into a physically adsorbed state at T{sub s} = 77 K as a function of E{sub i} and {Theta}{sub i} and experimentally determined values of the initial probability of dissociative chemisorption P{sub r} as a function of E{sub i}, {Theta}{sub i} and T{sub s} were obtained.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Weinberg, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Active sites in char gasification: Final technical report

Description: Among the key variables in the design of gasifiers and combustors is the reactivity of the chars which must be gasified or combusted. Significant loss of unburned char is unacceptable in virtually any process; the provision of sufficient residence time for complete conversion is essential. A very wide range of reactivities are observed, depending upon the nature of the char in a process. The current work focuses on furthering the understanding of gasification reactivities of chars. It has been well established that the reactivity of char to gasification generally depends upon three principal factors: (1) the concentration of ''active sites'' in the char; (2) mass transfer within the char; and (3) the type and concentration of catalytic impurities in the char. The present study primarily addresses the first factor. The subject of this research is the origin, nature, and fate of active sites in chars derived from parent hydrocarbons with coal-like structure. The nature and number of the active sites and their reactivity towards oxygen are examined in ''model'' chars derived from phenol-formaldehyde type resins. How the active sites are lost by the process of thermal annealing during heat treatment of chars are studied, and actual rate for the annealing process is derived. Since intrinsic char reactivities are of primary interest in the present study, a fair amount of attention was given to the model char synthesis and handling so that the effect of catalytic impurities and oxygen-containing functional groups in the chemical structure of the material were minimized, if not completely eliminated. The project would not be considered complete without comparing characteristic features of synthetic chars with kinetic behavior exhibited by natural chars, including coal chars.
Date: September 1, 1987
Creator: Wojtowicz, M.; Lilly, W.D.; Perkins, M.T.; Hradil, G.; Calo, J.M. & Suuberg, E.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adsorption and diffusion of plutonium in soil

Description: The behavior of plutonium (Pu) was studied in three soils that varied in texture, CEC, pH, organic matter content and mineralogy (Fuquay, Muscatine, Burbank). Two isotopes, /sup 238/Pu and /sup 239/Pu, were used in order to detect Pu over a range of several orders of magnitude. Unless added in a chelated form, Pu was added to the soil as a nitrate in .01 N HNO/sub 3/ to simulate the release of acidic waste on the soil and to prevent rapid Pu hydrolysis or polymerization.
Date: unknown
Creator: Brown, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adsorption and Precipitation of Aqueous Zn(II) on Hematite Nano- and Microparticles

Description: As part of a study of the effect of particle size on reactivity of hematite to aqueous metal ions, the sorption of Zn(II) on hematite nanoparticles and microparticles was examined over a wide range of Zn(II) concentrations using Zn K-edge EXAFS. When reacted with nanoparticles at pH 5.5 and low Zn(II) sorption densities (0.04 {le} {Lambda} &lt; 2.76 imol/m{sup 2}), Zn(II) formed five-coordinated or a mixture of four- and six-coordinated surface complexes with an average Zn-O distance of 2.04({+-}0.02){angstrom}. At pH 5.5 and high Zn(II) sorption densities (2.76 {ge} {Lambda} {le} 3.70 mol/m{sup 2}), formation of surface precipitates is suggested based on the presence of second-shell Zn and multiple scattering features in the Fourier transform (FT) of the EXAFS spectra. EXAFS fitting of these high {Lambda} samples yielded an average first-shell Zn-O distance of 2.10({+-}0.02){angstrom}, with second-shell Zn-Fe and Zn-Zn distances of 3.23({+-}0.03){angstrom} and 3.31({+-}0.03){angstrom}, respectively. Qualitative comparison between the EXAFS spectra of these sorption samples and that of amorphous zinc hydroxide and Zn-bearing hydrotalcite indicates the development of surface precipitates with increasing {Lambda}. EXAFS spectra of Zn(II) sorbed on hematite microparticles under similar experimental conditions showed no evidence for surface precipitates even at the highest Zn surface coverage ({Lambda} = 4 {micro}mol/m{sup 2}). These results indicate that reactivities of hematite nanoparticles and macroparticles differ with respect to Zn(II)aq, depending on Zn(II) sorption density. We suggest that the degree of hematite crystallinity affects the reactivity of hematite surfaces toward Zn(II)aq and the formation of the Zn(II) surface complexes.
Date: December 13, 2006
Creator: Ha, Juyong; /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci.; Farges, Francois; /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci. /Museum Nat. Hist., Paris; Brown, Gordon E., Jr. & /SLAC, SSRL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adsorption characteristics of PCBs to resins, whole cells, cell and tissue components, and biomolecules

Description: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been designated hazardous chemicals by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Although PCBs and PCB-containing oils have not been in use since 1977, they persist in the environment. They are known to be absorbed by various aquatic organisms, birds, and mammals. The nature of these affinities is not known. In this study, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) compared the adsorption phenomenon of PCBs on commercial resins, whole bacterial cells, cell and tissue component, and various biomolecules. Adsorption and desorption of PCBs to biomolecules and resins in both aqueous and nonaqueous conditions were examined. 9 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Kelley, R. L.; Conrad, J. & Akin, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adsorption/desorption properties of vacuum materials for the 6 GeV synchrotron

Description: Considerable attention must be paid to the vacuum and adsorption/desorption properties of all materials installed inside the vacuum envelope if the design goals of the 6 GeV synchrotron are to be met. Unfortunately, the data is very sparse in several key areas. Additionally, some procedures normally associated with good vacuum practice, such as air baking, may prove to be totally unsuitable on the basis of desorption properties. We present here a brief discussion of the adsorption, outgassing, electron-stimulated desorption (ESD), and photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) properties of vacuum materials as they relate to the design of a 6 GeV synchrotron.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Krauss, A.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adsorption induced losses in interfacial cohesion

Description: A model for interfacial cohesion is developed which describes the loss in the strength of an interface due to the segregation and adsorption of impurities on it. Distinctions are made between interface separations that occur too rapidly for any significant redistribution of adsorbing matter to take place and separations that are slow enough to allow full adsorption equilibrium. Expressions for the total work of complete decohesion are presented for both cases. The results are applied to well-known model adsorption isotherms and some experimental data for grain boundary adsorption of phosphorus in iron is analyzed with respect to the losses in intergranular cohesion.
Date: July 1, 1977
Creator: Asaro, R J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adsorption Mechanisms of Trivalent Gold onto Iron Oxy-Hydroxides: From the Molecular Scale to the Model

Description: Gold is a highly valuable metal that can concentrate in iron-rich exogenetic horizons such as laterites. An improved knowledge of the retention mechanisms of gold onto highly reactive soil components such as iron oxyhydroxides is therefore needed to better understand and predict the geochemical behavior of this element. In this study, we use EXAFS information and titration experiments to provide a realistic thermochemical description of the sorption of trivalent gold onto iron oxy-hydroxides. Analysis of Au L{sub III}-edge XAFS spectra shows that aqueous Au(III) adsorbs from chloride solutions onto goethite surfaces as inner-sphere square-planar complexes (Au(III)(OH,Cl){sub 4}), with dominantly OH ligands at pH &gt; 6 and mixed OH/Cl ligands at lower pH values. In combination with these spectroscopic results, Reverse Monte Carlo simulations were used to constraint the possible sorption sites on the surface of goethite. Based on this structural information, we calculated sorption isotherms of Au(III) on Fe oxy-hydroxides surfaces, using the CD-MUSIC (Charge Distribution--Multi Site Complexation) model. The various Au(III)-sorbed species were identified as a function of pH, and the results of these EXAFS+CD-MUSIC models are compared with titration experiments. The overall good agreement between the predicted and measured structural models shows the potential of this combined approach to better model sorption processes of transition elements onto highly reactive solid surfaces such as goethite and ferrihydrite.
Date: December 13, 2006
Creator: Cances, Benjamin; U., /Marne La Vallee; Benedetti, Marc; /unknown; Farges, Francois; /Museum Natl. Hist. Natur., Paris /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adsorption of a binary gas mixture which laterally interacts on a random heterogeneous surface

Description: Analytical expressions for the adsorption of a binary gas mixture which laterally interacts on a heterogeneous surface are developed. The lateral interactions are of the Bragg-Williams type and the surface heterogeneity is modeled via a random distribution of sites described by a uniform distribution of Henry's Law constants. The parametric study shows that complex phase behavior can be predicted, including azeotropes and sigmoidal shaped X-Y diagrams. Also, this model may be useful for modeling and designing adsorption processes as it requires few iterations to simultaneously solve the implicit and coupled algebraic expressions.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Ritter, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adsorption of aniline and toluidines on montmorillonite: Implications for the disposal of shale oil production wastes

Description: Bentonite clay liners are commonly employed to mitigate the movement of contaminants from waste disposal sites. Solid and liquid waste materials that arise from the production of shale oil contain a vast array of organic compounds. Common among these compounds are the aromatic amines. in order to assess the ability of clay liner material to restrict organic compound mobility, the adsorption of aniline and o-, m-, and p-toluidine on Ca[sup 2+] - and K[sup +]-saturated Wyoming bentonite was investigated. Adsorption experiments were performed under conditions of varied pH, ionic strength, and dominate electrolyte cation and anion. organic adsorption on Ca[sup 2+] - and K[sup +]-saturated montmorillonite is pH dependent. For any given organic compound, maximum adsorption increases with decreasing ionic strength. organic compound adsorption is inhibited in the presence of sulfate and is greater in the Ca[sup 2+] systems than in the K[sup +] systems at any given ionic strength. High salt content and K[sup +] collapse the bentonite layers and limit access to and compete for adsorption sites. The K[sup +] ion is also more difficult to displace than Ca[sup 2+] from interlayer positions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic data show that the aniline compounds are adsorbed on bentonite through the hydrogen bonding of an amine hydrogen to a surface silica oxygen. Sulfate reduces amine adsorption by removing positively charged anilinium species from solution to form negatively charge sulfate complexes. Although adsorption of the substituted amines on bentonite is observed, aniline and toluidine adsorption is minimal in saline systems and not detected in alkaline systems. Thus, in shale oil process waste disposal sites, the mobility of the anilines through bentonite liners will not be mitigated by sorption processes, as spent oil shale leachates are both highly alkaline and saline.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Essington, M.E.; Bowen, J.M.; Wills, R.A. & Hart, B.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department