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ADANS database specification

Description: The purpose of the Air Mobility Command (AMC) Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) Database Specification (DS) is to describe the database organization and storage allocation and to provide the detailed data model of the physical design and information necessary for the construction of the parts of the database (e.g., tables, indexes, rules, defaults). The DS includes entity relationship diagrams, table and field definitions, reports on other database objects, and a description of the ADANS data dictionary. ADANS is the automated system used by Headquarters AMC and the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) for airlift planning and scheduling of peacetime and contingency operations as well as for deliberate planning. ADANS also supports planning and scheduling of Air Refueling Events by the TACC and the unit-level tanker schedulers. ADANS receives input in the form of movement requirements and air refueling requests. It provides a suite of tools for planners to manipulate these requirements/requests against mobility assets and to develop, analyze, and distribute schedules. Analysis tools are provided for assessing the products of the scheduling subsystems, and editing capabilities support the refinement of schedules. A reporting capability provides formatted screen, print, and/or file outputs of various standard reports. An interface subsystem handles message traffic to and from external systems. The database is an integral part of the functionality summarized above.
Date: January 16, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Addressing questions about including environmental effects in the DMSO HLA

Description: The Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) is developing a High Level Architecture (HLA) to support the DOD Modeling and Simulation (M and S) community. Many, if not all, of the simulations involve the environment in some fashion. In some applications, the simulation takes place in an acknowledged environment without any environmental functionality being taken into account. The Joint Training Federation Prototype (JTFp) is one of several prototype efforts that have been created to provide a test of the DMSO HLA. In addition to addressing the applicability of the HLA to a training community, the JTFp is also one of two prototype efforts that is explicitly including environmental effects in their simulation effort. These two prototyping efforts are examining the issues associated with the inclusion of the environment in an HLA federation. In deciding whether or not to include an environmental federation in the JTFp effort, a number of questions have been raised about the environment and the HLA. These questions have raised the issue of incompatibility between the environment and the HLA and also shown that there is something unique about including the environment in simulations. The purpose of this White Paper, which was developed with inputs from the National Air and Space [Warfare] Model Program among others, is to address the various questions that have been posed about including environmental effects in an HLA simulation.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Hummel, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced information science and object-oriented technology for information management applications

Description: The role of the military has been undergoing rapid change since the fall of the Berlin Wall. The kinds of missions the US military has been asked to participate in have often fallen into the category of {open_quotes}Military Operations Other Than War{close_quotes} and those involving military responses have been more of a surgical nature directed against different kinds of threats, like rogue states or in response to terrorist actions. As a result, the requirements on the military planner and analyst have also had to change dramatically. For example, preparing response options now requires rapid turnaround and a highly flexible simulation capability. This in turn requires that the planner or analyst have access to sophisticated information science and simulation technologies. In this paper, we shall discuss how advanced information science and object-oriented technologies can be used in advanced information management applications. We shall also discuss how these technologies and tools can be applied to DoD applications by presenting examples with a system developed at Argonne, the Dynamic Information Architecture System (DIAS). DIAS has been developed to exploit advanced information science and simulation technologies to provide tools for future planners and analysts.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Hummel, J.R. & Swietlik, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced techniques for the analysis of crisis stability, deterrence, and latency

Description: Studies on crisis stability, deterrence, and latency are presented in chronological order, which also reflects their logical order of development, captures the main features of stability analysis; relates first strike, crisis, and arms control stability as seen from US and Russian perspective; and addresses questions such as whether uncertainty in damage preference or defense deployment can be destabilizing. It illustrates the problems with alternative metrics, latency and reconstitution, and deep unilateral and proportional force reductions.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Canavan, G. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Africa Command: U.S. Strategic Interests and the Role of the U.S. Military in Africa

Description: This report provides a broad overview of U.S. strategic interests in Africa and the role of U.S. military efforts on the continent as they pertain to the creation of U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM). A discussion of AFRICOM's mission, its coordination with other government agencies, and its basing and manpower requirements is included.
Date: August 22, 2008
Creator: Ploch, Lauren
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Africa Command: U.S. Strategic Interests and the Role of the U.S. Military in Africa

Description: This report provides a broad overview of U.S. strategic interests in Africa and the role of U.S. military efforts on the continent as they pertain to the creation of AFRICOM. Although the command is still in the early stages of its development, a discussion of AFRICOM’s mission, its coordination with other government agencies, and its basing and manpower requirements is included.
Date: March 10, 2008
Creator: Ploch, Lauren
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of sequential exchanges between vulnerable forces

Description: A multi-stage and -step analysis of sequences of crises or exchanges shows that aggressiveness on one side can induce rapid counter-value strikes by the other as well and knowledge that opponents will later become less aggressive does not mitigate the tendency to strike early in crises.
Date: September 4, 1998
Creator: Canavan, G. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The application of cooperative monitoring techniques to a conceptual limited deployment zone in the Korean peninsula

Description: The Korean peninsula is the site of a tense military confrontation. Relations between North and South Korea improved during the early 1990`s but the process is now frozen. Confidence building measures, particularly military ones, that address the security needs of both countries would decrease the danger of conflict and help create an environment for direct negotiations. The Korean Institute for Defense Analysis (KIDA) analyzed current security conditions and options. Their scenario includes a conceptual agreement to establish Limited Force Deployment Zones (LDZ) along the current demilitarized zone (DMZ) to increase mutual security. The Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) of Sandia National Laboratories, in collaboration with KIDA, developed a strategy, with examples, for cooperatively monitoring the agreement. A cooperative monitoring regime requires consideration of the agreement`s terms, the geographic, logistic, military, and political factors of the Korean environment, and the capability of technology to monitor the terms. This paper assesses the applicability of cooperative monitoring to Korea, describes the monitoring strategy for the Korean enhanced DMZ scenario, and describes the applicable technologies and procedures.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Vannoni, M. & Duggan, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Army Drawdown and Restructuring: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: On January 26, 2012, senior DOD leadership unveiled a new defense strategy based on a review of potential future security challenges, current defense strategy, and budgetary constraints. This new strategy envisions a smaller, leaner Army that is agile, flexible, rapidly deployable, and technologically advanced. This strategy will rebalance the Army's global posture and presence, emphasizing where potential problems are likely to arise, such as the Asia-Pacific region and the Middle East. Potential issues for Congress include the strategic risk posed by a smaller and restructured Army; the "health" of the Army given the impending downsizing; where the force will be based; the role of the National Guard and Reserves; and should the enrollment at the service academies (West Point) be reduced to pre-9/11 levels. This report will be updated as circumstances warrant.
Date: April 20, 2012
Creator: Feickert, Andrew & Henning, Charles A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Attack optimization at moderate force levels

Description: Optimal offensive missile allocations for moderate offensive and defensive forces are derived and used to study their sensitivity to force structure parameters levels. It is shown that the first strike cost is a product of the number of missiles and a function of the optimum allocation. Thus, the conditions under which the number of missiles should increase or decrease in time is also determined by this allocation.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Canavan, G. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automated military unit identification in battlefield simulation

Description: It is the nature of complex systems, composed of many interacting elements, that unanticipated phenomena develop. Computer simulation, in which the elements of a complex system are implemented as interacting software objects (actors), is an effective tool to study collective and emergent phenomena in complex systems. A new cognitive architecture is described for constructing simulation actors that can, like the intelligent elements they represent adapt to unanticipated conditions. This cognitive architecture generates trial behaviors, estimates their fitness using an internal representation of the system, and has an internal apparatus for evolving a population of trial behaviors to changing environmental conditions. A specific simulation actor is developed to evaluate surveillance radar images of moving vehicles on battlefields. The vehicle cluster location, characterization and discrimination processes currently performed by intelligent human operators were implemented into a parameterized formation recognition process by using a newly developed family of 2D cluster filters. The mechanics of these cluster filters are described. Preliminary results are presented in which this GSM actor demonstrates the ability not only to recognize military formations under prescribed conditions, but to adapt its behavior to unanticipated conditions that develop in the complex simulated battlefield system.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Stroud, P. & Gordon, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Average deployments versus missile and defender parameters

Description: This report evaluates the average number of reentry vehicles (RVs) that could be deployed successfully as a function of missile burn time, RV deployment times, and the number of space-based interceptors (SBIs) in defensive constellations. Leakage estimates of boost-phase kinetic-energy defenses as functions of launch parameters and defensive constellation size agree with integral predictions of near-exact calculations for constellation sizing. The calculations discussed here test more detailed aspects of the interaction. They indicate that SBIs can efficiently remove about 50% of the RVs from a heavy missile attack. The next 30% can removed with two-fold less effectiveness. The next 10% could double constellation sizes. 5 refs., 7 figs.
Date: March 1, 1991
Creator: Canavan, G.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Brief summary concerning strategic withholding (nuclear parsimony)

Description: This memorandum provides a brief summary on thoughts concerning `Strategic Withholding` (or perhaps, `Nuclear Parsimony`). It is chiefly meant to further support the view that there should be other significant doctrines besides `Brute-Force Retaliation`. The basic doctrinal argument is that it may be broadly disadvantageous to fire one`s missiles in equal, or `total` retaliation. It may be better to reply only softly, or not at all. The basic justification rests on an assumption of extended war, and on a logic addressed to what`s best for the surviving population and capability at any given point. In most strategic wargame exercises, it is rarely apparent that this principle is taken into account. The essential point of argument is that an extended war is not so different from peacetime posturing.
Date: June 2, 1971
Creator: Wouters, L. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building on and spinning off: Sandia National Labs` creation of sensors for Vietnam

Description: This paper discusses Sandia National Laboratories` development of new technologies for use in the Vietnam War - specifically the seismic sensors deployed to detect troop and vehicle movement - first along the Ho Chi Minh Trail and later in perimeter defense for American military encampments in South Vietnam. Although the sensor story is a small one, it is interesting because it dovetails nicely with our understanding of the war in Vietnam and its frustrations; of the creation of new technologies for war and American enthusiasm for that technology; and of a technological military and the organizational research and a m am development structure created to support it. Within the defense establishment, the sensors were proposed within the context of a larger concept - that of a barrier to prevent the infiltration of troops and supplies from North Vietnam to the South. All of the discussion of the best way to fight in Vietnam is couched in the perception that this was a different kind of war than America was used to fighting. The emphasis was on countering the problems posed by guerrilla/revolutionary warfare and eventually by the apparent constraints of being involved in a military action, not an outright war. The American response was to find the right technology to do the job - to control the war by applying a technological tincture to its wounds and to make the war familiar and fightable on American terms. And, when doubts were raised about the effectiveness of applying existing technologies (namely, the bombing of North Vietnam and Laos), the doubters turned to new technologies. The sensors that were developed for use in Vietnam were a direct product of this sort of thinking - on the part of the engineers at Sandia who created the sensors, the civilian scientific advisors who recommended ...
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Ullrich, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CAISI Operational Assessment (OA) data collection results. Final report

Description: One of the lessons learned from Operation Desert Shield/Storm was the inability of deployed Combat Service Support (CSS) computers to exchange data effectively in a battlefield environment. The work-around solution to this previously identified problem has been to physically carry floppy disks between computers. A General Officer Steering Committee, directed by the Vice Chief of Staff of the Army, determined that immediate corrective action was necessary to ensure viability of the CSS Battlefield Mission Area. The study recommended that a three-phased system development plan address short-, mid- and long-term CSS automation communication interface requirements. In response to this study, Program Executive Office (PEO) Standard Army Management Information System (STAMIS) authorized the development of the CSS Automated Information System Interface (CAISI). Phase I (Near-Term) equipped the {open_quotes}first to fight{close_quotes} Contingency Corps units. Phase II (Mid-Term) is being fielded to the remainder of Force Package One units in the active force. Phase III (Long-Term) will equip the remaining units. CAISI is now in the early stages of Phase II fielding. Prior to full Phase II fielding, CAISI must be approved for production by a Milestone III decision authority. Part of the data that will be used in the Milestone III decision is a demonstration of the CAISI`s operational suitability, as assessed by the US Army Operational Test and Evaluation Command (OPTEC). This assessment will be performed through an Operational Assessment (OA) using data provided from previous technical testing, such as the CAISI Customer User Test (CUT), and a field training exercise conducted by units of the XVIII Airborne Corps. The field training exercise data collection took place during two events.
Date: January 31, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Capital Ships, Commerce, and Coalition: British Strategy in the Mediterranean Theater, 1793

Description: In 1793, Great Britain embarked on a war against Revolutionary France to reestablish a balance of power in Europe. Traditional assessments among historians consider British war planning at the ministerial level during the First Coalition to be incompetent and haphazard. This work reassesses decision making of the leading strategists in the British Cabinet in the development of a theater in the Mediterranean by examining political, diplomatic, and military influences. William Pitt the Younger and his controlling ministers pursued a conservative strategy in the Mediterranean, reliant on Allies in the region to contain French armies and ideas inside the Alps and the Pyrenees. Dependent on British naval power, the Cabinet sought to weaken the French war effort by targeting trade in the region. Throughout the first half of 1793, the British government remained fixed on this conservative, traditional approach to France. However, with the fall of Toulon in August of 1793, decisions made by Admiral Samuel Hood in command of forces in the Mediterranean radicalized British policy towards the Revolution while undermining the construct of the Coalition. The inconsistencies in strategic thought political decisions created stagnation, wasting the opportunities gained by the Counter-revolutionary movements in southern France. As a result, reinvigorated French forces defeated Allied forces in detail in the fall of 1793.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Baker, William C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Composing simulations using persistent software components

Description: The traditional process for developing large-scale simulations is cumbersome, time consuming, costly, and in some cases, inadequate. The topics of software components and component-based software engineering are being explored by software professionals in academic and industrial settings. A component is a well-delineated, relatively independent, and replaceable part of a software system that performs a specific function. Many researchers have addressed the potential to derive a component-based approach to simulations in general, and a few have focused on military simulations in particular. In a component-based approach, functional or logical blocks of the simulation entities are represented as coherent collections of components satisfying explicitly defined interface requirements. A simulation is a top-level aggregate comprised of a collection of components that interact with each other in the context of a simulated environment. A component may represent a simulation artifact, an agent, or any entity that can generated events affecting itself, other simulated entities, or the state of the system. The component-based approach promotes code reuse, contributes to reducing time spent validating or verifying models, and promises to reduce the cost of development while still delivering tailored simulations specific to analysis questions. The Integrated Virtual Environment for Simulation (IVES) is a composition-centered framework to achieve this potential. IVES is a Java implementation of simulation composition concepts developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in several application domains. In this paper, its use in the military domain is demonstrated via the simulation of dismounted infantry in an urban environment.
Date: March 1999
Creator: Holland, J. V.; Michelsen, R. E.; Powell, D. R.; Upton, S. C. & Thompson, D. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computer based terrain analysis for operational planning

Description: Analysis of operational capability is an ongoing task for military commanders. In peacetime, most analysis is conducted via computer based combat simulations, where selected force structures engage in simulated combat to gain insight into specific scenarios. The command and control (C/sup 2/) mechanisms that direct combat forces are often neglected relative to the fidelity of representation of mechanical and physical entities. C/sup 2/ capabilities should include the ability to plan a mission, monitor execution activities, and redirect combat power when appropriate. This paper discusses the development of a computer based approach to mission planning for land warfare. The aspect emphasized is the computation and representation of relevant terrain features in the context of operational planning.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Powell, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Confidence building on the Korean Peninsula: A conceptual development for the cooperative monitoring of limited-force deployment zones

Description: Confidence building measures (CBMs), particularly military ones, that address the security needs of North and South Korea could decrease the risk of conflict on the Korean Peninsula and help create an environment in which to negotiate a peace regime. The Korea Institute for Defense Analyses (KIDA) and the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) of Sandia National Laboratories collaborated to identify potential CBMs and define associated monitoring. The project is a conceptual analysis of political and technical options for confidence building that might be feasible in Korea at some future time. KIDA first analyzed current security conditions and options for CBMs. Their conclusions are presented as a hypothetical agreement to strengthen the Armistice Agreement by establishing Limited Force Deployment Zones along the Military Demarcation Line. The goal of the hypothetical agreement is to increase mutual security and build confidence. The CMC then used KIDA`s scenario to develop a strategy for cooperative monitoring the agreement. Cooperative monitoring is the collecting, analyzing and sharing of agreed information among parties to an agreement and typically relies on the use of commercially available technology. A cooperative monitoring regime must be consistent with the agreement`s terms; the geographic, logistic, military, and political factors in the Korean setting; and the capabilities of monitoring technologies. This report describes the security situation on the Korean peninsula, relevant precedents from other regions, the hypothetical agreement for reducing military tensions, a monitoring strategy for the hypothetical Korean agreement, examples of implementation, and a description of applicable monitoring technologies and procedures.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Vannoni, M.; Duggan, R.; Nam, M.K.; Moon, K.K. & Kim, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Confirming the Lanchestrian linear-logarithmic model of attrition

Description: This paper is the fourth in a series of reports on the breakthrough research in historical validation of attrition in conflict. Significant defense policy decisions, including weapons acquisition and arms reduction, are based in part on models of conflict. Most of these models are driven by their attrition algorithms, usually forms of the Lanchester square and linear laws. None of these algorithms have been validated. The results of this paper confirm the results of earlier papers, using a large database of historical results. The homogeneous linear-logarithmic Lanchestrian attrition model is validated to the extent possible with current initial and final force size data and is consistent with the Iwo Jima data. A particular differential linear-logarithmic model is described that fits the data very well. A version of Helmbold's victory predicting parameter is also confirmed, with an associated probability function. 37 refs., 73 figs., 68 tabs.
Date: December 1, 1990
Creator: Hartley, D.S. III.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Considerations in missile reductions and de-alerting

Description: Earlier analyses assumed that all survivable forces could withstand first strikes and retaliate. Only those on alert, at sea, or capable of launching under attack meet that assumption. The sensitivity of those results to non-alert forces is discussed. Reduced alert rates decrease stability indices, primarily by reducing second strikes. Survivable, mobile Russian ICBMs could increase both sides stability. Dealerting hastens expected reductions and raises the possibility of abuse. And the low-force goal of arms reductions has some poorly understood and awkward attributes.
Date: April 1, 1998
Creator: Canavan, G. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control of entity interactions in a hierarchical variable resolution simulation

Description: There has long been interest in variable resolution modeling to support military analysis for a broad range of interest areas. Despite the ever-present desire for models of greater fidelity at the expense of analysis and computation resources, models of moderate to low fidelity are still required at many levels of decision-making. Problems can arise due to the issue of consistency among the family of models used for analysis. To address this and other problems, models of variable resolution have been suggested. However, such variable resolution architectures inherently carry their own set of issues which must be resolved in order to be useful. First, what are the structural requirements for a variable resolution model; and second, how are interactions between entities governed, especially when the entities have different resolutions? This paper addresses these issues and discusses key mechanisms needed to develop a variable resolution combat simulation that meets several core requirements for such models: seamless aggregation/disaggregation, appropriate interactions between entities of differing resolution, and control of the aggregation/disaggregation process.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Powell, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control of entity interactions in a hierarchical variable resolution simulation

Description: There has long been interest in variable resolution modeling to support military analysis for a broad range of interest areas. Despite the ever-present desire for models of greater fidelity at the expense of analysis and computation resources, models of moderate to low fidelity are still required at many levels of decision-making. Problems can arise due to the issue of consistency among the family of models used for analysis. To address this and other problems, models of variable resolution have been suggested. However, such variable resolution architectures inherently carry their own set of issues which must be resolved in order to be useful. First, what are the structural requirements for a variable resolution model; and second, how are interactions between entities governed, especially when the entities have different resolutions? This paper addresses these issues and discusses key mechanisms needed to develop a variable resolution combat simulation that meets several core requirements for such models: seamless aggregation/disaggregation, appropriate interactions between entities of differing resolution, and control of the aggregation/disaggregation process.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Powell, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department