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50 kWp Photovoltaic Concentrator Application Experiment, Phase I. Final report, 1 June 1978-28 February 1979

Description: This program consists of a design study and component development for an experimental 50-kWp photovoltaic concentrator system to supply power to the San Ramon substation of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company. The photovoltaic system is optimized to produce peaking power to relieve the air conditioning load on the PG and E system during summer afternoons; and would therefore displace oil-fired power generation capacity. No electrical storage is required. The experiment would use GaAs concentrator cells with point-focus fresnel lenses operating at 400X, in independent tracking arrays of 440 cells each, generating 3.8 kWp. Fourteen arrays, each 9 feet by 33 feet, are connected electrically in series to generate the 50 kWp. The high conversion efficiency possible with GaAs concentrator cells results in a projected annual average system efficiency (AC electric power output to sunlight input) of better than 15%. The capability of GaAs cells for high temperature operation made possible the design of a total energy option, whereby thermal power from selected arrays could be used to heat and cool the control center for the installation. System design and analysis, fabrication and installation, environmental assessment, and cost projections are described in detail. (WHK)
Date: June 15, 1979
Creator: Maget, H.J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

Description: The 2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and any permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of any of the facilities during the 2001 permit year are discussed. Additionally, any special studies performed at the facilities, which related to the operation of the facility or application of the wastewater, are discussed.
Date: February 15, 2002
Creator: Meachum, T. R. & Lewis, M. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Actual Versus Predicted Impacts of Three Ethanol Plants on Aquatic and Terrestrial Resources

Description: To help reduce US dependence on imported petroleum, Congress passed the Energy Security Act of 1980 (public Law 96-294). This legislation authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to promote expansion of the fuel alcohol industry through, among other measures, its Alcohol Fuels Loan Guarantee Program. Under this program, selected proposals for the conversion of plant biomass into fuel-grade ethanol would be granted loan guarantees. of 57 applications submitted for loan guarantees to build and operate ethanol fuel projects under this program, 11 were considered by DOE to have the greatest potential for satisfying DOE`s requirements and goals. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), DOE evaluated the potential impacts of proceeding with the Loan Guarantee Program in a programmatic environmental assessment (DOE 1981) that resulted in a finding of no significant impact (FANCY) (47 Federal Register 34, p. 7483). The following year, DOE conducted site-specific environmental assessments (EAs) for 10 of the proposed projects. These F-As predicted no significant environmental impacts from these projects. Eventually, three ethanol fuel projects received loan guarantees and were actually built: the Tennol Energy Company (Tennol; DOE 1982a) facility near Jasper in southeastern Tennessee; the Agrifuels Refining Corporation (Agrifuels; DOE 1985) facility near New Liberia in southern Louisiana; and the New Energy Company of Indiana (NECI; DOE 1982b) facility in South Bend, Indiana. As part of a larger retrospective examination of a wide range of environmental effects of ethanol fuel plants, we compared the actual effects of the three completed plants on aquatic and terrestrial resources with the effects predicted in the NEPA EAs several years earlier. A secondary purpose was to determine: Why were there differences, if any, between actual effects and predictions? How can assessments be improved and impacts reduced?
Date: March 15, 1993
Creator: Eddlemon, Gerald K.; Webb, J. Warren; Hunsaker, Donald B., Jr. & Miller, Robert L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Burner Reactor Preliminary NEPA Data Study.

Description: The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is a new nuclear fuel cycle paradigm with the goals of expanding the use of nuclear power both domestically and internationally, addressing nuclear waste management concerns, and promoting nonproliferation. A key aspect of this program is fast reactor transmutation, in which transuranics recovered from light water reactor spent fuel are to be recycled to create fast reactor transmutation fuels. The benefits of these fuels are to be demonstrated in an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), which will provide a representative environment for recycle fuel testing, safety testing, and modern fast reactor design and safeguard features. Because the GNEP programs will require facilities which may have an impact upon the environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), preparation of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for GNEP is being undertaken by Tetra Tech, Inc. The PEIS will include a section on the ABR. In support of the PEIS, the Nuclear Engineering Division of Argonne National Laboratory has been asked to provide a description of the ABR alternative, including graphics, plus estimates of construction and operations data for an ABR plant. The compilation of this information is presented in the remainder of this report. Currently, DOE has started the process of engaging industry on the design of an Advanced Burner Reactor. Therefore, there is no specific, current, vendor-produced ABR design that could be used for this PEIS datacall package. In addition, candidate sites for the ABR vary widely as to available water, geography, etc. Therefore, ANL has based its estimates for construction and operations data largely on generalization of available information from existing plants and from the environmental report assembled for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) design [CRBRP, 1977]. The CRBRP environmental report was chosen as a resource because ...
Date: October 15, 2007
Creator: Briggs, L. L.; Cahalan, J. E.; Deitrich, L. W.; Fanning, T. H.; Grandy, C.; Kellogg, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessments of Environmental Impacts and Beneficial Use of Coalbed Methane Produced Water in the Powder River Basin

Description: Impact on water quality and the beneficial use of the coal bed methane (CBM) produced water are imminent questions to be answered due to the rapidly growing CBM exploration in the Powder River Basin (PRB). The practice of discharging large volumes of water into drainage channels or using it to irrigate rangeland areas has the potential of causing serious problems. The elevated salinity and sodicity in the CBM water may be detrimental to soils, plants and the associated microbial communities. There are limited studies on CBM water characterization; however, a comprehensive understanding of CBM water influence on the local ecosystem is lacking. It is very important that the water applied to soils meets the favorable combination of salinity and sodicity that will allow the plants to grow at good production levels and that will maintain the structure of the soils. The purpose of this study was to access various CBM water treatment technologies and the influence of the treated water on local biogeochemical settings in order to evaluate and identify the proper technologies to treat the CBM produced water from CBM operations, and use it in an environmentally safe manner. Unfortunately, a suitable field site was not identified and the funds for this effort were moved to a different project.
Date: March 15, 2009
Creator: Morris, Jeff
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1988 Annual Report.

Description: Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Contract AI79-87BP35585 was implemented on July 20, 1987. Second year activities focused on full implementation of disease surveillance activities and histopathological support services to participating state agencies. Persistent and sometimes severe disease losses were caused by infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in summer steelhead trout in Idaho and in spring chinook salmon at hatcheries on the lower Columbia River. Diagnostic capability was enhanced by the installation, for field use, of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology at the Dworshak Fish Health Center for the detection and assay of bacterial kidney disease and by a dot-blot'' training session for virus identification at the Lower Columbia Fish Health Center. Complete diagnostic and inspection services were provided to 13 Columbia River basin National Fish hatcheries. Case history data was fully documented in a computerized data base for storage and analysis. This report briefly describes work being done to meet contract requirements for fish disease surveillance at Service facilities in the Columbia River basin. It also summarizes the health status of fish reared at those hatcheries and provides a summary of case history data for calendar year 1988. 2 refs., 4 tabs.
Date: August 15, 1989
Creator: Warren, James W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1990 Annual Report.

Description: Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Contract AI79-87BP35585 was implemented on July 20, 1987. This report briefly describes third-year work being done to meet contract requirements for fish disease surveillance at Service facilities in the Columbia River basin and for histopathological support services provided to participating state agencies. It also summarizes the health status of fish reared at participating Service hatcheries and provides a summary of case history data for calendar year 1989. Items of note included severe disease losses to infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in summer steelhead trout in Idaho, the detection of IHN virus in juvenile spring chinook salmon at hatcheries on the lower Columbia River, and improved bacterial kidney disease (BKD) detection and adult assay by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology at the Dworshak Fish Health Center. Complete diagnostic and inspection services were provided to 13 Columbia River Basin National Fish Hatcheries. Case history data was fully documented in a computerized data base for storage and analysis and is summarized herein. 2 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.
Date: August 15, 1990
Creator: Warren, James W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bioethical perspective on acceptable-risk criteria for nuclear-waste management

Description: Wisely managing the profound human and environmental risks of nuclear wastes requires complex moral and ethical judgments. Whereas traditional ethics is limited to interpersonal relations, a new system of ethics--bioethics--concerns man's relation with nature. Environmentalists claim that technology has upset the balance of nature, that nature is sacred and has inviolable rights, and that man must therefore regulate his behavior to conform to earth's limited carrying capacity. They also say that Judeo-Christian monotheism and anthropocentrism have sanctioned the exploitation of nature in the West, whereas Eastern religions teach adaptation to nature. Evidence suggests, however, that the balance of nature is neither absolute nor precarious, but is continually changing. Moreover, technology has brought more good than harm to man, and man's needs should supersede nature's. Other evidence indicates that the earth's resources may be neither limited nor nearly exhausted. Persuasive arguments also demonstrate that man's relation with nature is not traceable to religious assumptions. In assessing the risks/benefits of nuclear-waste management, we should avoid risks that jeopardize the rights of future generations without imposing excessive sacrifices on the present generation.
Date: July 15, 1977
Creator: Maxey, M.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CASIM and ground water activation calculations at the A0 abort

Description: The results of CASIM and ground water activation calculations for the A0 abort is presented in this paper. CASIM calculations were done at 150 GeV and 1 TeV for the following transverse beam sizes ({sigma}x{sigma}y): (0.15 x 0.15)mm{sup 2}, (0.15 x 0.15)cm{sup 2}, and (1.5 x 1.5)cm{sup 2}. The results from CASIM were used to calculate the ground water activation using the Concentration Model. The results show that there is only a weak dependence on the transverse beam size and that the maximum number of protons which can be aborted at A0 per year is 7.6 x 10{sup 16} protons/year {at} 150 GeV and 1.7 x 10{sup 16} protons/year {at} 1 TeV.
Date: May 15, 2000
Creator: Tan, Cheng-Yang
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cerro Grande Fire Impact to Water Quality and Stream Flow near Los Alamos National Laboratory: Results of Four Years of Monitoring

Description: In May 2000, the Cerro Grande fire burned about 7400 acres of mixed conifer forest on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and much of the 10,000 acres of mountainside draining onto LANL was severely burned. The resulting burned landscapes raised concerns of increased storm runoff and transport of contaminants by runoff in the canyons traversing LANL. The first storms after the fire produced runoff peaks that were more than 200 times greater than prefire levels. Total runoff volume for the year 2000 increased 50% over prefire years, despite a decline in total precipitation of 13% below normal and a general decrease in the number of monsoonal thunderstorms. The majority of runoff in 2000 occurred in the canyons at LANL south of Pueblo Canyon (70%), where the highest runoff volume occurred in Water Canyon and the peak discharge occurred in Pajarito Canyon. This report describes the observed effects of the Cerro Grande fire and related environmental impacts to watersheds at and near Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the first four runoff seasons after the fire, from 2000 through 2003. Spatial and temporal trends in radiological and chemical constituents that were identified as being associated with the Cerro Grande fire and those that were identified as being associated with historic LANL discharges are evaluated with regard to impacts to the Rio Grande and area reservoirs downstream of LANL. The results of environmental sampling performed by LANL, the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) after the Cerro Grande fire are included in the evaluation. Effects are described for storm runoff, baseflow, stream sediments, and area regional reservoir sediment.
Date: September 15, 2004
Creator: Gallaher, B. M. & Koch, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Changes in the flux of carbon between plants and soil microorganisms at elevated CO{sub 2}: Physiological processes with ecosystem-level implications. Progress report

Description: Our ability to interpret ecosystem response to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} is contingent on understanding and integrating a complex of physiological and ecological processes. However, we have a limited understanding of the combined effects of changes in plant carbon (C) allocation, microbial activity, and nitrogen (N) dynamics on the long-term response of terrestrial ecosystems to elevated CO{sub 2}. Individually, these factors are potent modifiers of C and N dynamics, and an in depth understanding of their interactions should provide insight into ecosystem-level responses to global climate change. Our research is aimed at quantifying the physiological mechanisms leading to increased fine root production, microbial biomass and rates of N cycling at elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}. More specifically, we will experimentally manipulate soil nitrogen availability and atmospheric CO{sub 2} to understand how changes in plant resource availability influence the cycling of carbon between plants and soil microorganisms.
Date: May 15, 1994
Creator: Zak, D. R. & Pregitzer, K. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Changes in the flux of carbon between plants and soil microorganisms at elevated CO{sub 2}: Physiological processes with ecosystem-level implications. Progress report, [August 15, 1994--August 14, 1995]

Description: This report presents the details of a research program that investigated the impacts of elevated carbon dioxide on terrestrial ecosystems. This report focused on the effects of plant carbon allocation, microbial activity, soil changes, and nitrogen dynamics.
Date: May 15, 1995
Creator: Zak, D. R. & Pregitzer, K. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of soil water content variability and soil texture using GPR groundwave techniques

Description: Accurate characterization of near-surface soil water content is vital for guiding agricultural management decisions and for reducing the potential negative environmental impacts of agriculture. Characterizing the near-surface soil water content can be difficult, as this parameter is often both spatially and temporally variable, and obtaining sufficient measurements to describe the heterogeneity can be prohibitively expensive. Understanding the spatial correlation of near-surface soil water content can help optimize data acquisition and improve understanding of the processes controlling soil water content at the field scale. In this study, ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were used to characterize the spatial correlation of water content in a three acre field as a function of sampling depth, season, vegetation, and soil texture. GPR data were acquired with 450 MHz and 900 MHz antennas, and measurements of the GPR groundwave were used to estimate soil water content at four different times. Additional water content estimates were obtained using time domain reflectometry measurements, and soil texture measurements were also acquired. Variograms were calculated for each set of measurements, and comparison of these variograms showed that the horizontal spatial correlation was greater for deeper water content measurements than for shallower measurements. Precipitation and irrigation were both shown to increase the spatial variability of water content, while shallowly-rooted vegetation decreased the variability. Comparison of the variograms of water content and soil texture showed that soil texture generally had greater small-scale spatial correlation than water content, and that the variability of water content in deeper soil layers was more closely correlated to soil texture than were shallower water content measurements. Lastly, cross-variograms of soil texture and water content were calculated, and co-kriging of water content estimates and soil texture measurements showed that geophysically-derived estimates of soil water content could be used to improve spatial estimation of soil texture.
Date: August 15, 2010
Creator: Grote, K.; Anger, C.; Kelly, B.; Hubbard, S. & Rubin, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace

Description: Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.
Date: October 15, 2008
Creator: Zhou, Dr. Chenn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Concentrations of Radionuclides and Trace Elements in Environmantal Media arond te Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facilit at Los Alamos National Laboratory during 2005

Description: The Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory requires that samples of biotic and abiotic media be collected after operations began to determine if there are any human health or environmental impacts. The DARHT facility is the Laboratory's principal explosive test facility. To this end, samples of soil and sediment, vegetation, bees, and birds were collected around the facility in 2005 and analyzed for concentrations of {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl. Bird populations have also been monitored. Contaminant results, which represent up to six sample years since the start of operations, were compared with (1) baseline statistical reference levels (BSRLs) established over a four-year preoperational period before DARHT facility operations, (2) screening levels (SLs), and (3) regulatory standards. Most radionuclides and trace elements were below BSRLs and those few samples that contained radionuclides and trace elements above BSRLs were below SLs. Concentrations of radionuclides and nonradionuclides in biotic and abiotic media around the DARHT facility do not pose a significant human health hazard. The total number of birds captured and number of species represented were similar in 2003 and 2004, but both of these parameters increased substantially in 2005. Periodic interruption of the scope and schedule identified in the MAP generally should have no impact on meeting the intent of the MAP. The risk of not sampling one of the five media in any given year is that if a significant impact to contaminant levels were to occur there would exist a less complete understanding of the extent of the change to the baseline for these media and to the ecosystem as a ...
Date: May 15, 2006
Creator: Gonzales, G. J.; Fresquez, P.R.; C.D.Hathcock & Keller, D.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Credit Trading and Wind Power: Issues and Opportunities

Description: OAK-B135 This paper focuses on credits that are derived from wind energy technology, but the same concepts apply to other renewable energy technologies as well. Credit trading can be applied to a wide variety of policies, programs and private market activities and represents a means of tapping into revenue streams that heretofore have largely excluded wind and other renewables. In addition, credit trading can help to ''create'' new revenue streams for wind and other renewables by helping to grow new markets.
Date: January 15, 2001
Creator: Kevin Rackstraw, John Palmisano
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change

Description: The aims of the US Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Research Program are to improve assessments of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and to define and reduce uncertainties through selected research. This project will address: The regional and seasonal details of the expected climatic changes; how rapidly will these changes occur; how and when will the climatic effects of CO[sub 2] and other greenhouse gases be first detected; and the relationships between greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and changes caused by other external and internal factors. The present project addresses all of these questions. Many of the diverse facets of greenhouse-gas-related climate research can be grouped under three interlinked subject areas: modeling, first detection and supporting data. This project will include the analysis of climate forcing factors, the development and refinement of transient response climate models, and the use of instrumental data in validating General Circulation Models (GCMs).
Date: July 15, 1992
Creator: Wigley, T.M.L. & Jones, P.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California

Description: Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world and in California. Successful implementation of applicable emerging technologies not only may help advance productivities, improve environmental impacts, or enhance industrial competitiveness, but also can play a significant role in climate-mitigation efforts by saving energy and reducing the associated GHG emissions. Developing new information on costs and savings benefits of energy efficient emerging technologies applicable in California market is important for policy makers as well as the industries. Therefore, provision of timely evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies applicable to California is the focus of this report. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select a set of emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. Specifically, this report contains the results from performing Task 3 Technology Characterization for California Industries for the project titled Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies, sponsored by California Energy Commission (CEC) and managed by California Institute for Energy and Environment (CIEE). The project purpose is to ...
Date: December 15, 2010
Creator: Xu, Tengfang; Slaa, Jan Willem & Sathaye, Jayant
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

Description: Various forms of general and localized corrosion represent principal threats to the integrity of DOE liquid waste storage tanks. These tanks, which are of a single wall or double wall design, depending upon their age, are fabricated from welded carbon steel and contain a complex waste-form comprised of NaOH and NaNO{sub 3}, along with trace amounts of phosphate, sulfate, carbonate, and chloride. Because waste leakage can have a profound environmental impact, considerable interest exists in predicting the accumulation of corrosion damage, so as to more effectively schedule maintenance and repair. The different tasks that are being carried out under the current program are as follows: (1) Theoretical and experimental assessment of general corrosion of iron/steel in borate buffer solutions by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and XPS techniques; (2) Development of a damage function analysis (DFA) which would help in predicting the accumulation of damage due to pitting corrosion in an environment prototypical of DOE liquid waste systems; (3) Experimental measurement of crack growth rate, acoustic emission signals and coupling currents for fracture in carbon and low alloy steels as functions of mechanical (stress intensity), chemical (conductivity), electrochemical (corrosion potential, ECP), and microstructural (grain size, precipitate size, etc) variables in a systematic manner, with particular attention being focused on the structure of the noise in the current and its correlation with the acoustic emissions; (4) Development of fracture mechanisms for carbon and low alloy steels that are consistent with the crack growth rate, coupling current data and acoustic emissions; (5) Inserting advanced crack growth rate models for SCC into existing deterministic codes for predicting the evolution of corrosion damage in DOE liquid waste storage tanks; (6) Computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity on the surface of the steel samples in order to exactly predict the corrosion mechanisms; ...
Date: January 15, 2008
Creator: Macdonald, Digby D.; Marx, Brian M.; Ahn, Sejin; Ruiz, Julio de; Soundararaja, Balaji; Smith, Morgan et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

Description: Various forms of general and localized corrosion represent principal threats to the integrity of DOE liquid waste storage tanks. These tanks, which are of a single wall or double wall design, depending upon their age, are fabricated from welded carbon steel and contain a complex waste-form comprised of NaOH and NaNO3, along with trace amounts of phosphate, sulfate, carbonate, and chloride. Because waste leakage can have a profound environmental impact, considerable interest exists in predicting the accumulation of corrosion damage, so as to more effectively schedule maintenance and repair.
Date: June 15, 2005
Creator: MacDonal, Digby D.; Marx, Brian M.; Ahn, Sejin; Ruiz, Julio de; Soundararajan, Balaji; Smith, Morgan et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

Description: Various forms of general and localized corrosion represent principal threats to the integrity of DOE liquid waste storage tanks. These tanks, which are of a single wall or double wall design, depending upon their age, are fabricated from welded carbon steel and contain a complex waste-form comprising NaOH and NaNO3, among other chemicals. Because waste leakage can have a profound environmental impact, considerable interest exists in predicting the accumulation of corrosion damage, so as to more effectively schedule maintenance and repair.
Date: June 15, 2004
Creator: Macdonald, Digby D.; Marx, Brian M.; Ahn, Sejin; de Ruiz, Julio; Soundararajan, Balaji & Smith, Morgan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility mitigation action plan. Annual report for 1997

Description: This Mitigation Action Plan Annual Report (MAPAR) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of implementing the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility (DARHT) Mitigation Action Plan (MAP). This MAPAR provides a status on specific DARHT facility design- and construction-related mitigation actions that have been initiated in order to fulfill DOE`s commitments under the DARHT MAP. The functions of the DARHT MAP are to (1) document potentially adverse environmental impacts of the Phased Containment Option delineated in the Final EIS, (2) identify commitments made in the Final EIS and ROD to mitigate those potential impacts, and (3) establish Action Plans to carry out each commitment (DOE 1996). The DARHT MAP is divided into eight sections. Sections 1--5 provide background information regarding the NEPA review of the DARHT project and an introduction to the associated MAP. Section 6 references the Mitigation Action Summary Table which summaries the potential impacts and mitigation measures; indicates whether the mitigation is design-, construction-, or operational-related; the organization responsible for the mitigation measure; and the projected or actual completion data for each mitigation measure. Sections 7 and 8 discuss the Mitigation Action Plan Annual Report and Tracking System commitment and the Potential Impacts, Commitments, and Action Plans respectively. Under Section 8, potential impacts are categorized into five areas of concern: General Environment, including impacts to air and water; Soils, especially impacts affecting soil loss and contamination; Biotic Resources, especially impacts affecting threatened and endangered species; Cultural/Paleontological Resources, especially impacts affecting the archeological site known as Nake`muu; and Human Health and Safety, especially impacts pertaining to noise and radiation. Each potential impact includes a brief statement of the nature of the impact and its cause(s). The commitment made to mitigate the potential impact is identified and the Action Plan for each commitment ...
Date: January 15, 1998
Creator: Haagenstad, H.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility mitigation action plan. Annual report for 1998

Description: This Mitigation Action Plan Annual Report (MAPAR) has been prepared as part of implementing the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility (DARHT) Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) to protect workers, soils, water, and biotic and cultural resources in and around the facility.
Date: January 15, 1999
Creator: Haagenstad, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

Description: The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide. The findings suggest that given available resources and technology, there are opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the petroleum refining ...
Date: February 15, 2005
Creator: Worrell, Ernst & Galitsky, Christina
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department