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Advanced metering techniques

Description: The goal of the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to facilitate energy-efficiency improvements at federal facilities. This is accomplished by a balanced program of technology development, facility assessment, and use of cost-sharing procurement mechanisms. Technology development focuses upon the tools and procedures used to identify and evaluate efficiency improvements. For facility assessment, FEMP provides metering equipment and trained analysts to federal agencies exhibiting a commitment to improve energy-use efficiency. To assist in implementing energy-efficiency measures, FEMP helps federal agencies with identifying efficiency opportunities and in implementing energy-efficiency and demand-side management programs at federal sites. As the lead laboratory for FEMP, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provides technical assistance to federal agencies to better understand and characterize energy systems. The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked PNL to provide technical assistance to characterize and modernize energy systems at FORSCOM installations. As part of that technical assistance, PNL performed an in-depth examination of automatic meter-reading system technologies currently available. The operating characteristics and relative merits of all the major systems were reviewed in the context of applicability to federal installations. That review is documented in this report.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Szydlowski, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced metering techniques

Description: The goal of the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to facilitate energy-efficiency improvements at federal facilities. This is accomplished by a balanced program of technology development, facility assessment, and use of cost-sharing procurement mechanisms. Technology development focuses upon the tools and procedures used to identify and evaluate efficiency improvements. For facility assessment, FEMP provides metering equipment and trained analysts to federal agencies exhibiting a commitment to improve energy-use efficiency. To assist in implementing energy-efficiency measures, FEMP helps federal agencies with identifying efficiency opportunities and in implementing energy-efficiency and demand-side management programs at federal sites. As the lead laboratory for FEMP, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provides technical assistance to federal agencies to better understand and characterize energy systems. The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked PNL to provide technical assistance to characterize and modernize energy systems at FORSCOM installations. As part of that technical assistance, PNL performed an in-depth examination of automatic meter-reading system technologies currently available. The operating characteristics and relative merits of all the major systems were reviewed in the context of applicability to federal installations. That review is documented in this report.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Szydlowski, R. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air quality studies in the western United States

Description: Los Alamos investigators participated in SCENES, WHITEX, Winter Intensive Tracer Experiments conducted from January 7 through February 18, 1987, in the area 400 km (east-west) /times/ 250 km (north-south) centered around Page, Arizona. The purpose of the experiment was to quantify the attribution of a local source (Navajo Generating Station) and remote sources (copper smelters in southern Arizona, Mojave generating station, power plants and large urban areas) to the haze occurrences in the Grand Canyon and Canyonlands National Parks, and Glen Canyon National Recreation area. In order to ''tag'' plumes emitted from the Navajo Generating Station (NGS), a trace gas was released from the NGS stack during the entire experimental period. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate, by using Los Alamos three-dimensional atmospheric flow models, large diurnal and spatial variations of wind, turbulence and plume characteristics over complex topographic areas. 7 refs., 6 figs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Yamada, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Los Alamos synchronous orbit data set

Description: Energetic electron (30-15000 keV) and proton 145 keV to 150 MeV) measurements made by Los Alamos National Laboratory sensors at geostationary orbit (6.6 R/sub E/) are summarized. The instrumentation employed and the satellite positions are described. The spacecraft have been variously located, but in their present configuration the Los Alamos satellites designated 1976-059, 1977-007, and 1979-053 are located, respectively, at approx. 70/sup 0/W, approx. 70/sup 0/E, and approx. 135/sup 0/W longitude. Several examples of the high temporal and full three-dimensional spatial measurement capabilities of these instruments are illustrated by examples from the published literature. Discussion is also given for the Los Alamos Synoptic Data Set (SDS) which gives a broad overview of the Los Alamos geostationary orbit measurements. The SDS data are plotted in terms of daily average spectra, 3-hour local time averages, and in a variety of statistical formats. The data summarize conditions from mid-1976 through 1978 (S/C 1976-059) and from early 1977 through 1978 (S/C 1977-007). The SDS compilations presented correspond to measurements at 35/sup 0/W, 70/sup 0/W, and 135/sup 0/W geographic longitude and thus are indicative of conditions at 9/sup 0/, 11/sup 0/, and 4.8/sup 0/ geomagnetic latitude, respectively. The bulk of the SDS report presents data plots which are organized according to Carrington solar rotations and, as such, the data are readily comparable to solar rotation-dependent interplanetary conditions. Potential applications of the Synoptic Data Set (available to all interested users in June 1981) are discussed.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Baker, D.N.; Higbie, P.R.; Belian, R.D.; Hones, E.W. & Klebesadel, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alpine meteorology: translations of classic contributions by A. Wagner, E. Ekhart, and F. Defant

Description: The English translations of four classic research papers in Alpine meteorology, originally published in German and French in the 1930s and 1940s are presented in this report. The papers include: A. Wagner's 1938 paper entitled Theory and Observation of Periodic Mountain Winds; E. Ekhart's 1944 paper entitled Contributions to Alpine Meteorology; E. Ekhart's 1948 paper entitled On the Thermal Structure of the Mountain Atmosphere; and F. Defant's 1949 paper entitled A Theory of Slope Winds, Along with Remarks on the Theory of Mountain Winds and Valley Winds. A short introduction to these translations summarizes four recent Alpine meteorology field experients, emphasizing ongoing research that extends the research of Wagner, Ekhart, and Defant. The four experiments include the Innsbruck Slope Wind Experiment of 1978, the MESOKLIP Experiment of 1979, the DISKUS Experiment of 1980, and the ALPEX/MERKUR Experiment of 1982.
Date: June 1, 1984
Creator: Whiteman, C.D. & Dreiseitl, E. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of historical residential air-conditioning equipment sizing using monitored data

Description: Monitored data were analyzed to determine whether residential air conditioners in the Pacific Northwest historically have been sized properly to meet or slightly exceed actual cooling requirements. Oversizing air-conditioning equipment results in a loss of efficiency because of increased cycling and also lowers humidity control. Larger air conditioners are also more expensive to purchase. On the other hand, the penalty of undersizing air-conditioning equipment may be some loss of comfort during extremely hot weather. of comfort during extremely hot weather. The monitored data consist of hourly space-conditioning electrical energy use and internal air temperature data collected during the past 7 years from 75 residences in the Pacific Northwest. These residence are equipped with central air conditioners or heat pumps. The periods with the highest cooling energy use were analyzed for each site. A standard industry sizing methodology (Manual J published by Air Conditioning Contractors of America) was used for each site to determine a sizing estimate. Both the sizing the recommendation based on Manual J and peak monitored loads are compared to capacity of the installed equipment for each site to study how the actual capacities differed from both the estimate of proper sizing and from actual demands. The characteristics of the maximum cooling loads are analyzed here to determine which conditions put the highest demand on the air conditioner. Specifically, internal air temperature data are used to determine when the highest cooling loads occur, at constant thermostat settings or when the thermostat was set down. This analysis of monitored data also provides insight into the extent occupant comfort may be affected by undersizing air conditioners.
Date: August 1, 1992
Creator: Lucas, R.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of historical residential air-conditioning equipment sizing using monitored data

Description: Monitored data were analyzed to determine whether residential air conditioners in the Pacific Northwest historically have been sized properly to meet or slightly exceed actual cooling requirements. Oversizing air-conditioning equipment results in a loss of efficiency because of increased cycling and also lowers humidity control. Larger air conditioners are also more expensive to purchase. On the other hand, the penalty of undersizing air-conditioning equipment may be some loss of comfort during extremely hot weather. of comfort during extremely hot weather. The monitored data consist of hourly space-conditioning electrical energy use and internal air temperature data collected during the past 7 years from 75 residences in the Pacific Northwest. These residence are equipped with central air conditioners or heat pumps. The periods with the highest cooling energy use were analyzed for each site. A standard industry sizing methodology (Manual J published by Air Conditioning Contractors of America) was used for each site to determine a sizing estimate. Both the sizing the recommendation based on Manual J and peak monitored loads are compared to capacity of the installed equipment for each site to study how the actual capacities differed from both the estimate of proper sizing and from actual demands. The characteristics of the maximum cooling loads are analyzed here to determine which conditions put the highest demand on the air conditioner. Specifically, internal air temperature data are used to determine when the highest cooling loads occur, at constant thermostat settings or when the thermostat was set down. This analysis of monitored data also provides insight into the extent occupant comfort may be affected by undersizing air conditioners.
Date: August 1, 1992
Creator: Lucas, R. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of PG&E`s residential end-use metered data to improve electricity demand forecasts

Description: It is generally acknowledged that improvements to end-use load shape and peak demand forecasts for electricity are limited primarily by the absence of reliable end-use data. In this report we analyze recent end-use metered data collected by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company from more than 700 residential customers to develop new inputs for the load shape and peak demand electricity forecasting models used by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the California Energy Commission. Hourly load shapes are normalized to facilitate separate accounting (by the models) of annual energy use and the distribution of that energy use over the hours of the day. Cooling electricity consumption by central air-conditioning is represented analytically as a function of climate. Limited analysis of annual energy use, including unit energy consumption (UEC), and of the allocation of energy use to seasons and system peak days, is also presented.
Date: June 1, 1992
Creator: Eto, J. H. & Moezzi, M. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of PG E's residential end-use metered data to improve electricity demand forecasts

Description: It is generally acknowledged that improvements to end-use load shape and peak demand forecasts for electricity are limited primarily by the absence of reliable end-use data. In this report we analyze recent end-use metered data collected by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company from more than 700 residential customers to develop new inputs for the load shape and peak demand electricity forecasting models used by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the California Energy Commission. Hourly load shapes are normalized to facilitate separate accounting (by the models) of annual energy use and the distribution of that energy use over the hours of the day. Cooling electricity consumption by central air-conditioning is represented analytically as a function of climate. Limited analysis of annual energy use, including unit energy consumption (UEC), and of the allocation of energy use to seasons and system peak days, is also presented.
Date: June 1, 1992
Creator: Eto, J.H. & Moezzi, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of superconducting magnetic energy storage applications at a proposed wind farm site near Browning, Montana

Description: A computer program was developed to analyze the viability of integrating superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) with proposed wind farm scenarios at a site near Browning, Montana. The program simulated an hour-by-hour account of the charge/discharge history of a SMES unit for a representative wind-speed year. Effects of power output, storage capacity, and power conditioning capability on SMES performance characteristics were analyzed on a seasonal, diurnal, and hourly basis. The SMES unit was assumed to be charged during periods when power output of the wind resource exceeded its average value. Energy was discharged from the SMES unit into the grid during periods of low wind speed to compensate for below-average output of the wind resource. The option of using SMES to provide power continuity for a wind farm supplemented by combustion turbines was also investigated. Levelizing the annual output of large wind energy systems operating in the Blackfeet area of Montana was found to require a storage capacity too large to be economically viable. However, it appears that intermediate-sized SMES economically levelize the wind energy output on a seasonal basis.
Date: July 1, 1993
Creator: Gaustad, K. L. & De Steese, J. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical summary of experimental data from two years of hourly sequential precipitation samples at Brookhaven National Laboratory

Description: Hourly precipitation samples were collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory from June 1976 through May 1978 with the Brookhaven Automatic Sequential Precipitation Sampler. Conventional meteorological data were recorded for each sample period. The samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity, and concentrations of sulfate, nitrogen, ammonium, sodium, and chloride ions. Ratios of selected ions, excess conductivity above the H/sup +/ contribution, and excess sulfate and chloride above the seawater ratio were calculated and treated as additional variables. Statistical analyses were performed of the relationships between selected chemical variables and between them and meteorological conditions. Rainfall rate was also analyzed in terms of other meteorological variables. Because a number of units were changed after publication of an earlier report (BNL 50826), the results (presented in a series of tables) are given for each year separately and for both years jointly.
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: Raynor, G.S. & Hayes, J.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anthropogenic moisture production and its effect on boundary layer circulations over New York City

Description: A heat and moisture excess over New York City is shown to exist by the analysis of helicopter soundings of temperature and wet bulb depression. The magnitude of the temporal and spatial distribution of anthropogenic moisture emissions in New York City were estimated from fuel usage data. The URBMET urban boundary layer model was used to evaluate the effects on the dynamics of the urban boundary layer resulting from the observed urban moisture excess. Work is currently in progress which seeks to determine the fraction of the observed moisture excess over New York that is due to anthropogenic sources. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: Bornstein, R.D. & Tam, Y.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of a time-space clustering methodology to the assessment of acute environmental effects on respiratory illnesses

Description: A new methodology is proposed for the identification of environmental events of health significance. Health indices measured on a daily basis at various locations in a single geographical area are collected over time. First, the daily variations are examined to determine whether they reflect purely random variations or whether there are days on which there are extreme variations not plausibly explicable as random events. After such days are identified, the question of whether they occur only at a single location within the larger geographical area at one time, or whether they occur simultaneously at more than one location is investigated. Tests of statistical significance for both temporal and spatial clustering are proposed. The methodology is applied to daily hospital emergency room visits for various respiratory complaints to several New York City hospitals situated in two geographically separated districts which, however, have populations of similar socio-economic and ethnic composition.
Date: June 1, 1978
Creator: Goldstein, I F & Cuzick, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of the adjoint method in atmospheric radiative transfer calculations

Description: The transfer of solar radiation through a standard mid-latitude summer atmosphere including different amounts of aerosols (from clear to hazy) has been computed. The discrete-ordinates (S/sub N/) method, which has been developed to a high degree of computational efficiency and accuracy primarily for nuclear radiation shielding applications, is employed in a forward as well as adjoint mode. In the adjoint mode the result of a transfer calculation is an importance function (adjoint intensity) which allows the calculation of transmitted fluxes, or other radiative responses, for any arbitrary source distribution. The theory of the adjoint method is outlined in detail and physical interpretations are developed for the adjoint intensity. If, for example, the downward directed solar flux at ground level, F/sub lambda/ (z = 0), is desired for N different solar zenith angles, a regular (forward) radiative transfer calculation must be repeated for each solar zenith angle. In contrast, only 1 adjoint transfer calculation gives F/sub lambda/ (z = 0) for all solar zenith angles in a hazy aerosol atmosphere, for 1 wavelength interval, in 2.3 seconds on a CDC-7600 computer. A total of 155 altitude zones were employed between 0 and 70 km, and the convergence criterion for the ratio of fluxes from successive iterations was set at 2 x 10/sup -3/. Our results demonstrate not only the applicability of the highly efficient modern S/sub N/ codes, but indicate also conceptual and computational advantages when the adjoint formulation of the radiative transfer equation is used.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Gerstl, S.A.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Argonne National Laboratory operations during ASCOT 1991

Description: The Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) field study took place during 1991 in conjunction with a model verification exercise in and around the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) northwest of Denver, Colorado, between January 29 and February 8. As part of this exercise, Argonne (ANL) operated a portable minisodar at several locations around REP during each of the experimental nights. In addition, ANL operated permanent'' network minisodars with enhanced time resolution at Coal Creek and the Bartlett Ranch for the duration of the field study. Real-time data from each minisodar are identical in format, consisting of (1) vertical profiles of horizontal wind speed along the pointing directions of each of two beams tilted from the vertical by about 17 deg, (2) vertical wind speed along a vertically pointed beam, (3) the standard deviation of the components along each of these direction, (4) the signal amplitude, and (5) the number of samples within each average that were accepted as good.'' The data output to the ASCOT data center consists of wind speed, wind direction, vertical wind speed, standard deviation of wind speed along the three pointing directions, and the vertical beam signal amplitude in arbitrary units. Maximum heights of the minisodars were generally limited to 300 m; however, lower heights were occasionally used to increase the sampling rate or because of limited signal strength. During this field study, operational periods were on selected nights from 20000 hr until 0500 hr the following morning.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Coulter, R.L. & Martin, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Argonne National Laboratory operations during ASCOT 1991

Description: The Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) field study took place during 1991 in conjunction with a model verification exercise in and around the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) northwest of Denver, Colorado, between January 29 and February 8. As part of this exercise, Argonne (ANL) operated a portable minisodar at several locations around REP during each of the experimental nights. In addition, ANL operated ``permanent`` network minisodars with enhanced time resolution at Coal Creek and the Bartlett Ranch for the duration of the field study. Real-time data from each minisodar are identical in format, consisting of (1) vertical profiles of horizontal wind speed along the pointing directions of each of two beams tilted from the vertical by about 17 deg, (2) vertical wind speed along a vertically pointed beam, (3) the standard deviation of the components along each of these direction, (4) the signal amplitude, and (5) the number of samples within each average that were accepted as ``good.`` The data output to the ASCOT data center consists of wind speed, wind direction, vertical wind speed, standard deviation of wind speed along the three pointing directions, and the vertical beam signal amplitude in arbitrary units. Maximum heights of the minisodars were generally limited to 300 m; however, lower heights were occasionally used to increase the sampling rate or because of limited signal strength. During this field study, operational periods were on selected nights from 20000 hr until 0500 hr the following morning.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Coulter, R. L. & Martin, T. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessing Cumulative Thermal Stress in Fish During Chronic Exposure to High Temperature

Description: As environmental laws become increasingly protective, and with possible future changes in global climate, thermal effects on aquatic resources are likely to receive increasing attention. Lethal temperatures for a variety of species have been determined for situations where temperatures rise rapidly resulting in lethal effects. However, less is known about the effects of chronic exposure to high (but not immediately lethal) temperatures and even less about stress accumulation during periods of fluctuating temperatures. In this paper we present a modeling framework for assessing cumulative thermal stress in fish. The model assumes that stress accumulation occurs above a threshold temperature at a rate depending on the degree to which the threshold is exceeded. The model also includes stress recovery (or alleviation) when temperatures drop below the threshold temperature as in systems with large daily variation. In addition to non-specific physiological stress, the model also simulates thermal effects on growth.
Date: November 14, 1999
Creator: Bevelhimer, M.S. & Bennett, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Asthma and air pollution in the Los Angeles area. Technical report No. 35

Description: Daily asthma attack diaries of sixteen panels of asthmatics residing in the Los Angeles area were collected by the Environmental Protection Agency for 34 week periods during the years 1972 to 1975. These data are examined here for the relationship between daily attack occurrence and daily levels of photochemical oxidant, total suspended particulates, minimum temperature, relative humidity, and average wind speed. A separate multiple logistic regression is used for each panelist's attack data. Variables representing the presence or absence of attack on the preceding day, as well as day of week and time since the start of the study, are included in the regressions. The most significant predictor of attacks was the presence of an attack on the preceding day. On the average, the panelists tended to have increased attacks on days with high oxidant and particulate pollution, on cool days, and during the first two months of the study. Panelists' attack propensity also differed by day of week; in particular they had more attacks on Saturdays (the last day of the weekly reporting period) than on Sundays. Each panelist's regression coefficients are classified according to his age, sex, hay fever status and self-assessed attack precursors; this classification is used to examine subgroups among the panelists with high coefficients corresponding to the above factors.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Whittemore, A S & Korn, E L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric Aerosol Source-Receptor Relationships: The Role of Coal-Fired Power Plants

Description: This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of March 2005 through August 2005. Significant progress was made this project period on the source characterization, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. This report highlights new data on road dust, vegetative detritus and motor vehicle emissions. For example, the results show significant differences in the composition in urban and rural road dust. A comparison of the organic of the fine particulate matter in the tunnel with the ambient provides clear evidence of the significant contribution of vehicle emissions to ambient PM. The source profiles developed from this work are being used by the source-receptor modeling activities. The report presents results on the spatial distribution of PMF-factors. The results can be grouped into three different categories: regional sources, local sources, or potentially both regional and local sources. Examples of the regional sources are the sulfate and selenium PMF-factors which most likely-represent coal fired power plants. Examples of local sources are the specialty steel and lead factors. There is reasonable correspondence between these apportionments and data from the EPA TRI and AIRS emission inventories. Detailed comparisons between PMCAMx predictions and measurements by the STN and IMPROVE measurements in the Eastern US are presented. Comparisons were made for the major aerosol components and PM{sub 2.5} mass in July 2001, October 2001, January 2002, and April 2002. The results are encouraging with average fraction biases for most species less than 0.25. The improvement of the model performance during the last two years was mainly due to the comparison of the model predictions with the continuous measurements in the Pittsburgh Supersite. Major improvements have included the descriptions: of ammonia emissions (CMU inventory), night time nitrate chemistry, EC emissions and their diurnal variation, and nitric acid dry removal.
Date: December 1, 2005
Creator: Robinson, Allen L.; Pandis, Spyros N. & Davidson, Cliff I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric CO sub 2 concentrations derived from flask samples collected at USSR-operated sampling sites

Description: This document presents daily atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations from four USSR-operated sampling sites (Teriberka Station, Ocean Station Charlie, Bering Island, and Kotelny Island). The period of record varies by station with the earliest measurements dating back to 1983 and recent estimates from early 1991. These CO{sub 2} concentrations are derived from air samples collected in 1.5-L stainless steel electropolished flasks and later analyzed at the Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg, USSR) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer. Measurements not meeting wind direction, wind speed, inter-flask agreement, and climate condition criteria were either discarded or flagged. All measurements have been corrected for drift biases introduced during flask storage. These atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are considered indicative of regional background air conditions and are directly traceable to the World Meteorological Organization's primary CO{sub 2} standards. These measurements support the rising trend in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations measured at other monitoring sites around the world and may be compared with similar measurements made by various monitoring programs at other northern latitude sites. The document presents the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations in graphical and tabular form, describes the sampling methods, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, and describes the information on the magnetic media.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Boden, T.A. (comp.) (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center); Brounshtein, A.M.; Faber, E.V. & Shashkov, A.A. (Glavnaya Geofizicheskaya Observatoriya, St. Petersburg (USSR))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations derived from flask samples collected at USSR-operated sampling sites

Description: This document presents daily atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations from four USSR-operated sampling sites (Teriberka Station, Ocean Station Charlie, Bering Island, and Kotelny Island). The period of record varies by station with the earliest measurements dating back to 1983 and recent estimates from early 1991. These CO{sub 2} concentrations are derived from air samples collected in 1.5-L stainless steel electropolished flasks and later analyzed at the Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg, USSR) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer. Measurements not meeting wind direction, wind speed, inter-flask agreement, and climate condition criteria were either discarded or flagged. All measurements have been corrected for drift biases introduced during flask storage. These atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are considered indicative of regional background air conditions and are directly traceable to the World Meteorological Organization`s primary CO{sub 2} standards. These measurements support the rising trend in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations measured at other monitoring sites around the world and may be compared with similar measurements made by various monitoring programs at other northern latitude sites. The document presents the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations in graphical and tabular form, describes the sampling methods, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, and describes the information on the magnetic media.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Boden, T. A.; Brounshtein, A. M.; Faber, E. V. & Shashkov, A. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations -- Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii 1958--1986

Description: Since 1958, CO{sub 2} concentrations at Mauna Loa Observatory have been obtained using a nondispersive, dual detector, infrared gas analyzer. Air samples are obtained from air intakes at the top of four 7m towers and one 27m tower. Those involved in the monitoring project have attempted to improving sampling techniques, reduce possible contamination sources, and adjust data to represent uncontaminated, true conditions throughout the twenty-eight year sampling period. The gas analyzer is calibrated by standardized CO{sub 2}-in-nitrogen reference gases twice daily. Flask samples are taken twice a month for comparison to the data recorded using the infrared gas analyzer. Data are scrutinized daily for possible contamination and archived on magnetic tape for further scrutiny and adjustment. Daily, monthly, and annual averages are computed for the Mauna Loa data after deletion of contaminated samples and readjustment of the data. These averages have shown a steady rise in annual average concentration from 316 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in 1959 to 346 ppmv in 1986.
Date: September 1, 1986
Creator: Boden, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

Description: The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ventilation rate'' of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Allwine, K.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department