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Acoustical properties of drill strings

Description: The recovery of petrochemical and geothermal resources requires extensive drilling of wells to increasingly greater depths. Real-time collection and telemetry of data about the drilling process while it occurs thousands of feet below the surface is an effective way of improving the efficiency of drilling operations. Unfortunately, due to hostile down-hole environments, telemetry of this data is an extremely difficult problem. Currently, commercial systems transmit data to the surface by producing pressure pulses within the portion of the drilling mud enclosed in the hollow steel drill string. Transmission rates are between two and four data bits per second. Any system capable of raising data rates without increasing the complexity of the drilling process will have significant economic impact. One alternative system is based upon acoustical carrier waves generated within the drill string itself. If developed, this method would accommodate data rates up to 100 bits per second. Unfortunately, the drill string is a periodic structure of pipe and threaded tool joints, the transmission characteristics are very complex and exhibit a banded and dispersive structure. Over the past forty years, attempts to field systems based upon this transmission method have resulted in little success. This paper examines this acoustical transmission problem in great detail. The basic principles of acoustic wave propagation in the periodic structure of the drill string are examined through theory, laboratory experiment, and field test. The results indicate the existence of frequency bands which are virtually free of attenuation and suitable for data transmission at high bit rates. 9 refs., 38 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: August 1, 1988
Creator: Drumheller, D.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Annual progress report, 1978-1979

Description: The following appendices are included: regional structure data, surface structure data, surface fracture data, production data, hydrology data, and geophysical data. (DLC)
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Wys, J.N.; Dixon, J.M.; Evans, M.A.; Lee, K.D.; Shumaker, R.C.; Rauch, H.W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Annual progress report, 1979-1980

Description: The executive study presents the results and progress of efforts toward understanding shale gas production from the Devonian shale in Appalachia. A correlation was found between the geochemical parameters of the shale in eastern Kentucky and shale gas production there. Tasks on resource inventory tasks and shale characterization include regional structure studies, production studies, geophysical studies, structure studies, fracture density and orientation, and fracture studies. (DLC)
Date: October 1, 1980
Creator: Negus-de Wys, J.; Dixon, J. M.; Evans, M. A.; Lee, K. D.; Ruotsala, J. E.; Wilson, T. H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Volume 1. Executive Summary and Task Reports. Annual progress report

Description: The first portion of the report, from the Executive Summary (page 1) through the Schedule of Milestones (page 10), gives a general overview which highlights our progress and problems for the second year. The Task report portion of the text, written by individual task investigators, is designed primarily for scientists interested in technical details of the second year's work. The second portion of the report consists of appendices of data compiled by the principal investigators.
Date: October 1, 1978
Creator: Shumaker, R.C.; de Wys, J.N. & Dixon, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of characteristic time concepts for hydraulic fracture configuration design, control, and optimization

Description: The analysis of pertinent energy components or affiliated characteristic times for hydraulic stimulation processes serves as an effective tool for fracture configuration designs optimization, and control. This evaluation, in conjunction with parametric sensitivity studies, provides a rational base for quantifying dominant process mechanisms and the roles of specified reservoir properties relative to controllable hydraulic fracture variables for a wide spectrum of treatment scenarios. Results are detailed for the following multi-task effort: (a) Application of characteristic time concept and parametric sensitivity studies for specialized fracture geometries (rectangular, penny-shaped, elliptical) and three-layered elliptic crack models (in situ stress, elastic moduli, and fracture toughness contrasts). (b) Incorporation of leak-off effects for models investigated in (a). (c) Simulation of generalized hydraulic fracture models and investigation of the role of controllable vaxiables and uncontrollable system properties. (d) Development of guidelines for hydraulic fracture design and optimization.
Date: October 1, 1992
Creator: Advani, S.H.; Lee, T.S. (Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)) & Moon, H. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Black shale gas production. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1978

Description: An innovative approach was taken to analysis of shale gas production from the Cottageville Field of Jackson County, West Virginia. Slickensides were generally considered to be compaction features, but analysis clearly shows that most are related to regional tectonics. Regional analyses and possible ramifications of this discovery to the Eastern Gas Shales program are discussed.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Shumaker, R.C.; Kirk, K.G.; Nuckols, E.B.; Long, B.R.; Wilson, T.H.; Dixon, J.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Borehole measurements while drilling: systems and activities

Description: Attention is focused on all potential methods of drilling safer and cheaper. Real time data from the bit offers the greatest potential for meeting these needs. As a result, numerous companies are actively competing to develop this oil field service capability and to capture a world wide market. Two basic categories of service are sought. The first, and highest priority, is drilling safety and efficiency; the second is real-time logging, or formation evaluation. This study addresses the types of systems being studied, describes company activity and projects underway, estimates the practical potential for success and considers the commercial market for successful systems. The need for research data on bit hydraulics and drill string dynamics, special deep, hot or sour gas situations and other relatively unusual requirements may become exceptions to the general conclusions that are drawn. Historical and present activity are documented through presenting the results of extensive literature and patent researches. A breakdown is presented of activity by company along with names and addresses for further contact.
Date: June 1, 1977
Creator: McDonald, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization and analysis of Devonian shales as related to release of gaseous hydrocarbons

Description: Total characterization data on gas contents, release kinetics, physical and chemical properties, mineralogy and lithology obtained on the C-1 well are reported. Total hydrocarbon gas contents accumulating in the free space surrounding the shale sample in the sealed canisters range from less than 10 to 90%. A positive correlation is observed between the gas contents and sample depth. Total carbon values vary between 0.4 and 7.2% with an average value of approximately 2.0% hydrogen values ranging between 0.4 and 1.0%. Carbon contents show an increase with increasing sample depth, also indicating a positive correlation between carbon and hydrocarbon gas contents. The relationship is not as pronounced between the hydrogen and gas contents. Among the physical characterization data reported are densities (true and bulk), porosities, surface area, and permeabilities. Shales exhibit relatively high bulk densities, an observation that is supported by low porosity and permeability values. A wide range of surface area values is observed. These values range between less than 1 and over 4 m/sup 2//g. Surface area values are dominated by the clay mineral contents of the shale. Qualitatively x-ray diffraction data indicate illite to be the dominant clay mineral with occasional presence of kaolin minerals noted. Carbonate contents in these shales are very low. Among the more frequent carbonate minerals observed are nahcolite and shortite. Quartz is the most abundant single mineral. Considerable amounts of pyrite also seem to be present in a majority of the shale samples. SEM/EDAX data are in complete agreement with the XRD observations.
Date: March 10, 1979
Creator: Kalyoncu, R.S.; Boyer, J.P. & Snyder, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization and analysis of Devonian shales as related to release of gaseous hydrocarbons. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1978

Description: Objective is to determine the relationships between the shale characteristics, hydrocarbon gas contents, and well location, for assessing the productive capacity of the Eastern Devonian Gas Shale deposits and guiding research, development, and demonstration projects to enhance the recovery of natural gas from the shale deposits. One well was sampled during this reporting period. Another well from Monongalia County, WV (M-1) was cored in April. 31 samples were obtained for Battelle with additional 55 samples canned for other DOE contractors. Characterization tasks on shale samples from R-146 (Mason County, WV.) and M-1 wells (Monongalia) have been completed. In the preliminary analysis correlations were observed between the hydrocarbon gas contents and can pressure, propane content, well location, oxygen content CO/sub 2/ content, bulk density and carbon contents. Higher pressures are attributed to higher hydrocarbon gas contents. For high gas pressures, propane content is an important indication of hydrocarbon gas content. At low gas pressure, butane contents more accurately predict the hydrocarbon gas contents. High CO/sub 2/ and carbon contents indicate high hydrocarbon gas values, whereas oxygen contents are inversely related to hydrocarbon gas contents. Analysis of the limited wire-line log data shows that correlations between the laboratory and well log data can be utilized to predict potential hydrocarbon gas contents of the wells. 15 tables, 27 figures.
Date: August 8, 1978
Creator: Kalyoncu, R.S. & Snyder, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Collection of VLE data for acid gas-alkanolamine systems using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

Description: The industrial standard process for the purification of natural gas is to remove acid gases, mainly hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, by the absorption and reaction of these gases with alkanolamines. Inadequate data for vapor -- liquid equilibrium (VLE) hinder the industry from converting operations to more energy efficient amine mixtures and conserving energy. Some energy reductions have been realized in the past decade by applying such amine systems as hindered'' amines, methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and MDEA based amine mixtures. However, the lack of reliable and accurate fundamental VLE data impedes the commercial application of these more efficient alkanolamine systems. The first project objective is to improve the accuracy of vapor -- liquid equilibrium measurements at low hydrogen sulfide concentrations. The second project objective is to measure the VLE for amine mixtures. By improving the accuracy of the VLE measurements on MDEA and mixtures with other amines, energy saving can be quickly and confidently implemented in the many existing absorption units already in use. If about 25% of the existing 95.3 billion SCFD gas purification capacity is converted to these new amine systems, the energy savings are estimated to be about 3 {times} 10{sup 14} BTU/yr.
Date: September 1, 1991
Creator: Bullin, J.A. & Frazier, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Collection of VLE data for acid gas---alkanolamine systems using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. [Vapor-liquid equilibrium]

Description: The industrial standard process for the purification of natural gas is to remove acid gases, mainly hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, by the absorption and reaction of these gases with alkanolamines. Inadequate data for vapor--liquid equilibrium (VLE) hinder the industry from converting operations to more energy efficient amine mixtures and conserving energy. Some energy reductions have been realized in the past decade by applying such amine systems as hindered'' amines, methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and MDEA based amine mixtures. However, the lack of reliable and accurate fundamental VLE data impedes the commercial application of these more efficient alkanolamine systems. The first project objective is to improve the accuracy of vapor--liquid equilibrium measurements at low hydrogen sulfide concentrations. The second project objective is to measure the VLE for amine mixtures. By improving the accuracy of the VLE measurements on MDEA and mixtures with other amines, energy saving can be quickly and confidently implemented in the many existing absorption units already in use. If about 25% of the existing 95.3 billion SCFD gas purification capacity is converted to these new amine systems, the energy savings are estimated to be about 3 [times] 10[sup 14] BTU/yr.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Bullin, J.A. & Frazier, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Color movie simulation of a gas--water reservoir

Description: This paper presents the methodology for simulating hydrocarbon production from a gas-water reservoir using the GASP IV Simulation Language. A novel feature of this simulation application is the development of a 16 mm color movie for presentation of the results. This movie provides an effective mechanism for describing the behavior of the gas-water reservoir model under various operating conditions.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Johnson, M.E. & Monash, E.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Completion techniques for geothermal-geopressured wells. Final report

Description: The following are covered: oil well completions, water well completions, sand control techniques, geopressured oil and gas wells, and geopressured water well completion. The conclusions for a geothermal-geopressured water well completion and needed research are included. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1974
Creator: Boyd, W.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data accumulation on the methane potential of the coal beds of Colorado. Final report

Description: A two-year project was conducted to gather data that would assist in the evaluation of the methane potential of the coal beds of Colorado. It was found that a number of closed underground coal mines in the State had reported gassy conditions or had experienced fires and explosions of varied intensity and frequency. The majority of such occurrences have been in those areas characterized by coals of relatively low (i.e., below 31%) volatile matter (VM) content. The south half of the Raton Mesa coal region (Las Animas County) and the southeastern part of the Unita region (in Gunnison and Pitkin Counties) contain coals with the lowest percentages of VM, the gassiest producing mines, and the highest grade coking coal in the State. Five active mines in Pitkin County presently are emitting a total of over 8 million cu ft of methane per day. These mines produce the highest quality metallurgical-grade coal in the western US (high-volatile A and medium-volatile bituminous). The gassy coals in these two regions range from Late Cretaceous to Paleocene in age and usually occur in areas related to igneous activity of late Tertiary age. The VM percentages of Colorado coals can be used, with some caution, to determine their potential methane content. Additional desorption measurements and coal analyses are needed to more accurately predict the effects of rank and depth of occurrence on the methane content of coals in the State.
Date: March 31, 1978
Creator: Fender, H. B. & Murray, D. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data-collection instrumentation and interpretation for geopressured aquifer well tests

Description: The Wells of Opportunity program funded by the Department of Energy, sought to determine the amount of natural gas and thermal energy entrained in geopressured, geothermal aquifers of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast fairways. This determination was made by bringing representative wells onto production for periods long enough to ascertain such characteristics as temperature, gas/brine ratio, reservoir boundaries and permeabilities. During testing, amounts of produced gas and brine were carefully monitored through a computer controlled instrumentation station, which provided reliable and precise indications of the amounts of recoverable gas being produced from the reservoir. A data collection system was designed to be integrated into the surface test equipment to provide real-time control and data compilation during the well tests. Strip chart records provided real-time control information during the test. All pressures, both differential pressures, brine and gas temperatures, and sand detector signals were displayed, and the physical records were maintained for interpretation of well performance. The data collection system coupled with the interpretation software permitted gas/brine ratio to be determined with accuracy of five percent for values as low as 0.02 MCF/STB. In addition, graphical representation of well performance, brine flow rates, gas production, pressure histories, etc., could be made as the test progressed. Data system reliability was very high. Downtime was minimal even under relatively harsh environmental conditions for electronic equipment. This data collection system, while designed initially for geopressured aquifers, is adaptable to the automated collection of scientific and engineering information for the interpretation of well tests of other petroleum resources.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Rose, R.E. & Doherty, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and operation of a geopressurized-geothermal hybrid cycle power plant

Description: This is an appendix to Volume 1 of the report by the same name. Items included are: process flow diagram; piping and instrumentation diagram; new equipment specifications; main single line diagram; shutdown start-up procedures; data sheets for tests; plant outages; detailed process equations; computer program and sample output; chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy results; and management report data sheets January 5, 1990 -- May 29, 1990.
Date: February 1, 1991
Creator: Campbell, R.G. & Hattar, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and operation of a geopressurized-geothermal hybrid cycle power plant

Description: Geopressured-geothermal resources can contribute significantly to the national electricity supply once technical and economic obstacles are overcome. Power plant performance under the harsh conditions of a geopressured resource was unproven, so a demonstration power plant was built and operated on the Pleasant Bayou geopressured resource in Texas. This one megawatt facility provided valuable data over a range of operating conditions. This power plant was a first-of-a-kind demonstration of the hybrid cycle concept. A hybrid cycle was used to take advantage of the fact that geopressured resources contain energy in more than one form -- hot water and natural gas. Studies have shown that hybrid cycles can yield thirty percent more power than stand-alone geothermal and fossil fuel power plants operating on the same resource. In the hybrid cycle at Pleasant Bayou, gas was burned in engines to generate electricity directly. Exhaust heat from the engines was then combined with heat from the brine to generate additional electricity in a binary cycle. Heat from the gas engine was available at high temperature, thus improving the efficiency of the binary portion of the hybrid cycle. Design power output was achieved, and 3445 MWh of power were sold to the local utility over the course of the test. Plant availability was 97.5% and the capacity factor was over 80% for the extended run at maximum power production. The hybrid cycle power plant demonstrated that there are no technical obstacles to electricity generation at Pleasant Bayou. 14 refs., 38 figs., 16 tabs.
Date: February 1, 1991
Creator: Campbell, R.G. & Hattar, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design, build, develop and test a fieldworthy spiral tool and packer for casing repair

Description: A new method for sealing casing is under research and development by Nu-Bore Systems. The method involves internally lining a section of the wellbore with a multi-layer spiral wrapping of a high strength, corrosion resistant metal interleaved with a high bond strength, resilient epoxy. The high strength metal is preferably a copper based alloy hardened to a very high strength in order to resist the internal and external pressures of downhole environments. The epoxy adhesive formulation is one that forms a bond between the steel inner wall of the casing and copper alloy strip. The copper alloy strip spiral wraps are interleaved with epoxy, and the whole system provides a high level of outward directed spring force and, thus, resists both internal and externally directed forces. In this report, the cost savings to the nation's energy program was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of millions of dollars per year, and the method was judged technically feasible once certain well defined engineering obstacles are Overcome. The objective of this program is to develop a joint between packer segments that is easily assembled before lowering downhole and easily disassembled after the sealing job is done. In addition, this tool joint must expand uniformly as though it were a part of the rubber and must not fail under the relatively high pressure of the epoxy cure cycle. The overall goal of the work was to design, build, develop, and test a spiral tool and packer into a single universal tool that can repair casings with diameters varying from 4.5 to 7 inches.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Koster, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design, build, develop and test a fieldworthy spiral tool and packer for casing repair

Description: A method for sealing casing is currently under development by Nu-Bore Systems. The method involves internally lining a section of the wellbore with a multi-layer spiral wrapping of a high strength, corrosion resistant metal, interleaved with a high bond strength, resilient epoxy. The high strength metal is preferably a copper based alloy hardened to a very high strength in order to resist the internal and external pressures of downhole environments. The epoxy adhesive formulation is one that forms a bond between the steel inner wall of the casing and copper alloy strip. The copper alloy strip spiral wraps are interleaved with epoxy, and the whole system provides a high level of outward directed spring force and, thus, resists both internal and externally directed forces. In this report, the cost savings to the nation's energy program was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of millions of dollars per year, and the method wag judged technically feasible once certain well defined engineering obstacles are overcome.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Koster, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design, build, develop and test a fieldworthy spiral tool and packer for casing repair

Description: A new method for sealing casing is currently under development by Nu-Bore Systems. The method involves internally lining a section of the wellbore with a multi-layer spiral wrapping of a high strength, corrosion resistant metal interleaved with a high bond strength, resilient epoxy. The high strength metal is a based Cu alloy hardened to very high strength. The epoxy adhesive formulation that forms a bond between steel inner wall of casing and copper alloy strip. The copper alloy strip spiral wraps are interleaved with epoxy, and the whole system provides a high level of outward directed spring force and thus resists both internal and externally directed forces. In this report, the cost savings to the nation's energy program was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of millions of dollars per year, and the method was judged technically feasible once certain well defined engineering obstacles are overcome. The tasks and engineering program plan are outlined.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Koster, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design, build, develop, and test a fieldworthy spiral tool and packer for casing repair

Description: A new method for sealing casing is currently under development by Nu-Bore Systems. The method involves internally lining a section of the wellbore with a multi-layer spiral wrapping of a high strength, corrosion resistant metal interleaved with a high bond strength, resilient epoxy. The high strength metal is preferably a copper based alloy hardened to a very high strength in order to resist the internal and external pressures of downhole environments. The epoxy adhesive formulation is one that forms a bond between the steel inner wall of the casing and copper alloy strip. The copper alloy strip spiral wraps are interleaved with epoxy, and the whole system provides a high level of outward directed spring force and, thus, resists both internal and externally directed forces. This method has been assessed by the Department of Energy, and the magnitude of the oilfield need and the technology are described in a DoE report entitled, Downhole Casing Repair System'' (OERI Number 013152). In this report, the cost savings to the nation's energy program was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of millions of dollars per year, and the method was judged technically feasible once certain well defined engineering obstacles are overcome.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Koster, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

(Desulfurization of fuel gases)

Description: The objective of this work was to demonstrate that solid solutions of cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) and other altervalent oxides (doped CeO{sub 2}) were capable of removing more H{sub 2}S from fuel gases than Ceo{sub 2} without any dopant. The ability of undoped CeO{sub 2} to remove H{sub 2}S from fuel gases had been determined with a previous DOE/SBIR grant. To make the results obtained under the two grants comparable, the procedures for all phases of this work duplicated that used previously as closely as possible. The sorbents GDC proposed to investigate were: (1) undoped CeO{sub 2}, (2) CeO{sub 2} doped with 5 mole % (5 m/o) magnesium oxide (MgO), and (3) CeO{sub 2} doped with 5 m/o lanthanum oxide (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Three additional sorbents: (1) CeO{sub 2} doped with 5 m/o strontium oxide (SrO), (2) CeO{sub 2} doped with 10 m/o SrO, and (2) CeO{sub 2} doped with 10 m/o La{sub 2}O{sub 3} were also investigated. All of these sorbents were prepared using the Marcilly technique.
Date: December 15, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The development and testing of a fieldworthy system of improved fluid pumping device and liquid sensor for oil wells

Description: A major expenditure to maintain oil and gas leases is the support of pumpers, those individuals who maintain the pumping systems on wells to achieve optimum production. Many leases are marginal and are in remote areas and this requires considerable driving time for the pumper. The Air Pulse Oil Pump System is designed to be an economical system for the shallow stripper wells. To improve on the economics of this system, we have designed a Remote Oil Field Monitor and Controller to enable us to acquire data from the lease to our central office at anytime and to control the pumping activities from the central office by using a personal computer. The advent and economics of low-power microcontrollers have made it feasible to use this type of system for numerous remote control systems. We can also adapt this economical system to monitor and control the production of gas wells and/or pump jacks.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Buckman, W.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department