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A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Issues and Current Proposals

Description: This report focuses on several proposals for a new Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF) specifically targeting the Islamic State made during the 113th and 114th Congresses. It includes a brief review of existing authorities and AUMFs, as well as a discussion of issues related to various provisions included in existing and proposed AUMFs that both authorize and limit presidential use of military force. Appendices provide a comparative analysis of similar provisions in new AUMFs proposed in the 113th and 114th Congresses. This report will be updated to reflect congressional activity.
Date: January 15, 2016
Creator: Weed, Matthew C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Issues and Current Proposals

Description: This report focuses on several proposals for a new Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF) specifically targeting the Islamic State made during the 113th and 114th Congresses. It includes a brief review of existing authorities and AUMFs, as well as a discussion of issues related to various provisions included in existing and proposed AUMFs that both authorize and limit presidential use of military force. Appendices provide a comparative analysis of similar provisions in new AUMFs proposed in the 113th and 114th Congresses. This report will be updated to reflect congressional activity.
Date: February 21, 2017
Creator: Weed, Matthew C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear deterrence and disarmament after the Cold War

Description: During the Cold War, nuclear arms control measures were shaped significantly by nuclear doctrine. Consequently, the negotiation of arms control agreements often became a battleground for different nuclear strategies. The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union has been declared over. Today, both nuclear weapons policies and arms control objectives are again being reviewed. This document discusses points of this review.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Lehman, R.F. II
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Weapons in U.S. National Security Policy: Past, Present, and Prospects

Description: This report highlights the differences between the construct of tailored deterrence and the more general concept of strategic deterrence that guided U.S. nuclear policy during the Cold War. It then identifies a number of issues that Congress might address when it reviews these differences, including the question of whether detailed and tailored attack plans are more likely to enhance deterrence or more likely to lead to the early use of nuclear weapons, and the question of whether tailored deterrence provides any guidance about the future size and structure of U.S. nuclear forces.
Date: December 30, 2008
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Weapons in U.S. National Security Policy: Past, Present, and Prospects

Description: This report highlights the differences between the construct of tailored deterrence and the more general concept of strategic deterrence that guided U.S. nuclear policy during the Cold War. It then identifies issues that Congress might address when it reviews these differences.
Date: January 21, 2010
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OOTW Force Design Tools

Description: This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.
Date: May 1, 1999
Creator: Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III & Packard, S.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operations other than war: Requirements for analysis tools research report

Description: This report documents the research effort to determine the requirements for new or improved analysis tools to support decisions at the strategic and operational levels for military Operations Other than War (OOTW). The work was performed for the Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command (USCINCPAC). The data collection was based on workshops attended by experts in OOTWs: analysis personnel from each of the Combatant Commands, the Services, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Joint Staff, and other knowledgeable personnel. Further data were gathered from other workshops and conferences and from the literature. The results of this research begin with the creation of a taxonomy of OOTWs: categories of operations, attributes of operations, and tasks requiring analytical support. The tasks are connected to the Joint Staff`s Universal Joint Task List (UJTL). Historical OOTWs are analyzed to produce frequency distributions by category and responsible CINC. The analysis products are synthesized into a list of requirements for analytical tools and definitions of the requirements. The report concludes with a timeline or roadmap for satisfying the requirements.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Hartley, D.S. III
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimization of stability index versus first strike cost

Description: This note studies the impact of maximizing the stability index rather than minimizing the first strike cost in choosing offensive missile allocations. It does so in the context of a model in which exchanges between vulnerable missile forces are modeled probabilistically, converted into first and second strike costs through approximations to the value target sets at risk, and the stability index is taken to be their ratio. The value of the allocation that minimizes the first strike cost for both attack preferences are derived analytically. The former recovers results derived earlier. The latter leads to an optimum at unity allocation for which the stability index is determined analytically. For values of the attack preference greater than about unity, maximizing the stability index increases the cost of striking first 10--15%. For smaller values of the attack preference, maximizing the index increases the second strike cost a similar amount. Both are stabilizing, so if both sides could be trusted to target on missiles in order to minimize damage to value and maximize stability, the stability index for vulnerable missiles could be increased by about 15%. However, that would increase the cost to the first striker by about 15%. It is unclear why--having decided to strike--he would do so in a way that would increase damage to himself.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Canavan, G. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plus c`est la meme chose: The future of nuclear weapons in Europe

Description: Since the end of the Cold War, the United States perhaps more than any other nuclear weapon state has deeply questioned the future role of nuclear weapons, both in a strategic sense and in Europe. It is probably the United States that has raised the most questions about the continuing need for and efficacy of nuclear weapons, and has expressed the greatest concerns about the negative consequences of continuing nuclear weapons deployment. In the US, this period of questioning has now come to a pause, if not a conclusion. In late 1994 the United States decided to continue to pursue reductions in numbers of nuclear weapons as well as other changes designed to reduce the dangers associated with the possession of nuclear weapons. But at the same time the US concluded that some number of nuclear forces would continue to be needed for national security for the foreseeable future. These necessary nuclear forces include a continuing but greatly reduced stockpile of nuclear bombs deployed in Europe under NATO`s New Strategic Concept. If further changes to the US position on nuclear weapons in Europe are to occur, it is likely to be after many years, and only in the context of dramatic additional improvements in the political and geo-political climate in and around Europe. The future role of nuclear weapons in Europe, as discussed in this report, depends in part on past and future decisions by the United States. but it must also be noted that other states that deploy nuclear weapons in Europe--Britain, France, and Russia, as well as the NATO alliance--have shown little inclination to discontinue their deployment of such weapons, whatever the United States might choose to do in the future.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Maaranen, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PORTSIM: An object-oriented port simulation

Description: The development of an object-oriented port simulation (PORTSIM) that addresses military mobility issues will be described, with a brief description of the tool selection process. This system provides users with (1) a graphical user interface, (2) the ability to simulate military units through a specified port, with each individual cargo item (i.e. piece of equipment) represented, (3) utilization statistics for all port resources e.g. gates, staging areas, berths, inspectors, and material handling equipments, (4) utilization statistics for ships that arrive at the port, and (5) a graphical dynamic animation that allows for identification of bottlenecks and facilitates the playing of what-if scenarios to maximize throughput. Cargo is simulated from the time it arrives at a gate or end ramp to the time it is loaded onto a ship. Animation is directly integrated with the simulation to allow for modifications to the scenario while the simulation is running and to have the new parameters used from that point forward in time. The simulation is flexible and allows for multiple cargo types (breakbulk, container, and roll-on/roll-off) and multiple ship types.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Nevins, M.R.; Macal, C.M. & Joines, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A report on training equipment enhancements for the U.S. Special Operations Command

Description: Training support systems - including devices, simulators and simulations - significantly improve training. Of course this is important for all military units. But for Special Operations Forces, such improvements are critical. Special Operations Forces must be prepared to operate in the most difficult, least forgiving of environments and do it right on the first try. The objective of this project is to report on the latest state-of-the-art training devices and systems which can enhance the training of Special Operations Forces.
Date: April 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The role of nuclear weapons in the year 2000

Description: This publication presents the proceedings for the workshop, The Role of Nuclear Weapons in the Year 2000, held on October 22--24, 1990. The workshop participants considered the changing nature of deterrence and of our strategic relationship with the Soviet Union, the impact of nuclear proliferation on regional conflicts, and ways that the nuclear forces might be restructured to reflect new political circumstances.
Date: January 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Science and Technology Review January/February 2000

Description: The contents of this Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory newsletter includes the following: (1) The Laboratory in the News; (2) Commentary by Wayne Shotts--Tapping the Full Power of Conflict Simulation; (3) Simulating Warfare Is No Video Game--A new Laboratory conflict simulation program was put to a major test in a San Francisco Bay Area exercise; (4) Supernova Hydrodynamics Up Close--Despite vast differences in scale, supernovas and high-energy-density laser experiments have more in common than might be imagined; (5) Research Highlights--Agile Manufacturing: Gearing Up to Meet Demand; and Bringing Hypersonic Flight Down to Earth; (6) Patents and Awards; and (7) Abstracts.
Date: January 1, 2000
Creator: De Pruneda, J H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sensitivity of stability indices to dealerting

Description: It is reported that more than 100 former or current heads of state and civilian leaders from around the world, including ex-presidents Jimmy Carter and Mikhail Gorbachev, have signed a statement that calls for removing nuclear weapons from alert status and other measures aimed at the eventual elimination of atomic arsenals--reflecting mounting support for the cause of nuclear bolition. This note uses stability analysis derived from current US and Russian analyses to study the impact of such dealerting on stability, indicating that it could be negative. Dealerting forces removes them from first and second strikes for as long as they are dealerted. If they are dealerted for periods long compared to those involved in the evaluation of first strike stability, dealerting has the same effect as permanent arms reductions, it subtracts them from first and second strikes. Thus, it is conceptually a way of implementing such reductions on an accelerated scale. Dealerting strategic forces has been posited as a stabilizing step towards their abolition. Previous reports have shown that planned START reductions will reduce stability indices by about a factor of two. Dealerting would hasten those reductions. They would also raise the possibility that one side could realert faster than the other. If so, the remobilized forces could be used to damage limit, which would reduce his first strike cost and stability index. The impact of complete demobilization of SSBNs would be an order of magnitude reduction in the overall stability index, to a level set by alert ICBMs. Generally, it would be preferable to maintain any existing strategic forces at the highest level of alert to minimize this effect and to concentrate instead on decreasing their total number.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Canavan, G. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sensitivity to alert rates at moderate force levels

Description: This analysis extends previous studies of sensitivity to survivability and alert rates to low force levels. Stability and first strike considerations favor reduction of both survivable and vulnerable forces for a range of conditions. Reductions in the number of weapons per vulnerable missile always increases first strike costs, and would have to be offset by non-stability considerations.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Canavan, G. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulating the forecasting of meteorological and oceanic conditions as a part of the planning cycle in simulated command and control

Description: Weather can be a decisive factor in military operations. Numerous examples can be found in history when weather conditions played a critical role in determining the outcome of a battle. The impact of weather must, therefore, be considered in the planning of missions as well as in its execution. For example, in planning air missions, the ewather conditions during all phases of the mission (launch, over target, and recovery) need to be considered including weather factors during the real world planning process is done as a normal part of the situations awareness process. Including weather factors in simulated planning processes, should, and can be done as a normal part. In this Paper, the authors discuss how the forecasting of meteorological and oceanic can be incorporated into the planning process of analytical simulations.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Hummel, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation and real-time optimal scheduling: a framework for integration

Description: Traditional scheduling and simulation models of the same system differ in several fundamental respects. These include the definition of a schedule, the existence of an objective function which orders schedules and indicates the performance of a given schedule according to specific criteria, and the level of fidelity at which the items are represented and processed through he system. This paper presents a conceptual, object-oriented, architecture for combining a traditional, high-level, scheduling system with a detailed, process- level, discrete-event simulation. A multi-echelon planning framework is established in the context of modeling end-to-end military deployments with the focus on detailed seaport operations.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Macal, C.M.; Nevins, M.R.; Williams, M.K. & Joines, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation of transportation movements over constrained infrastructure networks

Description: The Enhanced Logistics Intra-Theater Support Tool (ELIST) is a simulation-based decision support system that evaluates a military deployment plan at the theater level for transportation and logistical feasibility. ELIST includes a discrete-event, time-stepped simulation kernel written in C, an object-oriented database written in Prolog, and a set of knowledge-bases that describe various operations, such as throughput capacity of ports, based on the attributes of the relevant objects. In the course of its development, ELIST has been used to support various planning activities.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Macal, C.M.; Van Groningen, C.N. & Braun, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Smart bridge: a tool for estimating the military load classification of bridges

Description: A major consideration in planning and executing military deployments is determining the routes available for moving troops and equipment. Part of this planning means ensuring that all of the bridges along the routes are able to support the specialized equipment needed. Because few trained and experienced bridge analysts are available, an automated tool is required to assist military engineers and planners in quickly and accurately determining the capacity or Military Load Classification of bridges. This tool must be flexible enough to handle various types of bridges, run on multiple platforms (Sun UNIX and PC Windows), be usable by engineers with various levels of experience, and be able to utilize various analysis methods depending on the amount of information available.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Van Groningen, C.N. & Paddock, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department