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527 Organizations: How the Differences in Tax and Election Laws Permit Certain Organizations to Engage in Issue Advocacy without Public Disclosure and Proposals for Change

Description: This report compares the tax and election laws relating to political organizations and political committees prior to the enactment of P.L. 106-230 in an attempt to highlight the differences between them, and discusses some of the proposals in the 106th Congress to require additional reporting by organizations engaging in political activities. This report does not address the taxation of other tax-exempt organizations making political expenditures taxable under IRC § 527. For developments after the enactment of P.L. 106-230, please see CRS Report RS20650, 527 Organizations: Reporting Requirements Imposed on Political Organizations after the Enactment of P.L. 106-230.
Date: September 7, 2000
Creator: Morris, Marie B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

527 Organizations: How the Differences in Tax and Election Laws Permit Certain Organizations to Engage in Issue Advocacy without Public Disclosure and Proposals for Change

Description: Virtually all political organizations are "section 527" political organizations, which means that they are tax-exempt. 527 organizations are created to influence the election or defeat of public officials. This report compares the tax and election laws relating to political organizations and political committees prior to the enactment of P.L. 106-230 in an attempt to highlight the differences between them, and discusses some of the proposals in the 106th Congress to require additional reporting by organizations engaging in political activities. This report does not address the taxation of other tax-exempt organizations making political expenditures taxable under IRC § 527.
Date: September 7, 2000
Creator: Morris, Marie B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

527 Organizations: How the Differences in Tax and Election Laws Permit Certain Organizations to Engage in Issue Advocacy without Public Disclosure and Proposals for Change

Description: Virtually all political organizations are "section 527" political organizations, which means that they are tax-exempt. 527 organizations are created to influence the election or defeat of public officials. This report compares the tax and election laws relating to political organizations and political committees prior to the enactment of P.L. 106-230 in an attempt to highlight the differences between them, and discusses some of the proposals in the 106th Congress to require additional reporting by organizations engaging in political activities. This report does not address the taxation of other tax-exempt organizations making political expenditures taxable under IRC § 527.
Date: September 7, 2000
Creator: Morris, Marie B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1K RESERVOIR: EB WELDER, CE69412 REQUALIFICATION

Description: The EB Welder was qualified to produce the 1K retainer weld in February 2001. Since that time, several parts were replaced and metallography results from a review indicated that the welder was not operating properly. After testing the EB Welder, it was requalified to produce the 1K retainer weld.
Date: September 7, 2005
Creator: Schell, J. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[2006 Board of Directors]

Description: Texas Daily Newspaper Associations' list of their 2006 Board of Officers and Directors. The TDNA's president is Jeremy L. Halbreich, vice president Charles Moser, treasurer Gary Borders, and chairman of the board of directors, W. Lawrence Walker, Jr. The directors are Patrick J. Birmingham, Belinda Gaudet, Nelson Clyde IV, Buddy King, Darrell Coleman, Charles A. Spence, M. Olaf Frandsen and Doug Toney.
Date: September 7, 2005
Creator: Texas Daily Newspaper Association
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Ab-Initio Study on Plutonium Compounds Pu3M (M=Al, Ga, In), PuNp and Elemental Neptunium

Description: Using spin-polarized relativistic density functional theory the electronic and magnetic structures for the plutonium compounds Pu{sub 3}M(M = Al; Ga; In) and PuNp have been investigated. For the first group of compounds the enhanced hybridization between Pu 5f and p-states of alloying element, as it has been found in spin-polarized calculations, is believed to be the main reason for the higher formation energies obtained in such kind of studies in comparison with the non-spin-polarized case. Also, comparative analysis of the actinides U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm has been performed based on their electronic and magnetic structure. Some noticeable difference in the calculated magnetic structure was discovered between the actinide with local magnetic moments (Cm) and the actinides (Pu, Am) in which magnetic moments were found only in the calculations.
Date: September 7, 2005
Creator: Kutepov, A L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ADDITIVE TESTING FOR IMPROVED SULFUR RETENTION: PRELIMINARY REPORT

Description: The Savannah River National Laboratory is collaborating with Alfred University to evaluate the potential for additives in borosilicate glass to improve sulfur retention. This preliminary report provides further background on the incorporation of sulfur in glass and outlines the experiments that are being performed by the collaborators. A simulated waste glass composition has been selected for the experimental studies. The first phase of experimental work will evaluate the impacts of BaO, PbO, and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 wt % on sulfate retention in simulated high level waste borosilicate glass. The second phase of experimental work will evaluate the effects of time at the melt temperature on sulfur retention. The resulting samples will be characterized to determine the amount of sulfur remaining as well as to identify the formation of any crystalline phases. The results will be used to guide the future selection of frits and glass forming chemicals in vitrifying Department of Energy wastes containing high sulfur concentrations.
Date: September 7, 2011
Creator: Amoroso, J. & Fox, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

Description: This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai, to address corruption within the Afghan government. The report also includes discussion of election fraud and corruption in Afghanistan.
Date: September 7, 2011
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Airline Passenger Protections: More Data and Analysis Needed to Understand Effects of Flight Delays

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Flight delays and cancellations are disruptive and costly for passengers, airlines, and the economy. Long tarmac delays have created hardships for some passengers. To enhance passenger protections in the event of flight disruptions, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) recently introduced passenger protection regulations, including a rule that took effect in April 2010 designed to prevent tarmac delays more than 3 hours (the tarmac delay rule), as well as other efforts to improve passenger welfare. As requested, this report addresses (1) whether flight delays and cancellations differ by community size; (2) how DOT's tarmac delay rule has affected passengers and airlines; and (3) how passenger protection requirements in the United States, Canada, and the European Union (EU) affect passengers and airlines. GAO analyzed DOT data, including through the use of regression models, as well as data from FlightStats, a private source of flight performance information. GAO also reviewed documents and interviewed government, airline, and consumer group officials in the United States, Canada, and the EU."
Date: September 7, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alaska Native Allotments: Conflicts with Utility Rights-of-way Have Not Been Resolved through Existing Remedies

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In 1906, the Alaska Native Allotment Act authorized the Secretary of the Interior to allot individual Alaska Natives (Native) a homestead of up to 160 acres. The validity of some of Copper Valley Electric Association's (Copper Valley) rights-of-way within Alaska Native allotments is the subject of ongoing dispute; in some cases the allottees assert that Copper Valley's electric lines trespass on their land. The Department of the Interior's (Interior) Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) are responsible for granting rights-of-way and handling disputes between allotees and holders of rights-of-way. GAO determined (1) the number of conflicts between Native allotments and Copper Valley rights-of-way and the factors that contributed to these conflicts, (2) the extent to which existing remedies have been used to resolve these conflicts, and (3) what legislative alternatives, if any, could be considered to resolve these conflicts."
Date: September 7, 2004
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alfven Wave Tomography for Cold MHD Plasmas

Description: Alfven waves propagation in slightly nonuniform cold plasmas is studied by means of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) nonlinear equations. The evolution of the MHD spectrum is shown to be governed by a matrix linear differential equation with constant coefficients determined by the spectrum of quasi-static plasma density perturbations. The Alfven waves are shown not to affect the plasma density inhomogeneities, as they scatter off of them. The application of the MHD spectrum evolution equation to the inverse scattering problem allows tomographic measurements of the plasma density profile by scanning the plasma volume with Alfven radiation.
Date: September 7, 2001
Creator: Dodin, I.Y. & Fisch, N.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternative Energy Center, Final Scientific/Technical Report

Description: The Lansing Community College Alternative Energy Center was created with several purposes in mind. The first purpose was the development of educational curricula designed to meet the growing needs of advanced energy companies that would allow students to articulate to other educational institutions or enter this growing workforce. A second purpose was the professional development of faculty and teachers to prepare them to train tomorrow's workforce and scholars. Still another purpose was to design, construct, and equip an alternative energy laboratory that could be used for education, demonstration, and public outreach. Last, the Center was to engage in community outreach and education to enhance industry partnerships, inform decision makers, and increase awareness and general knowledge of hydrogen and other alternative energy technologies and their beneficial impacts on society. This project has enabled us to accomplish all of our goals, including greater faculty understanding of advanced energy concepts, who are now able to convey this knowledge to students through a comprehensive alternative energy curriculum, in a facility well-equipped with advanced technologies, which is also being used to better educate the public on the advantages to society of exploring alternative energy technologies.
Date: September 7, 2007
Creator: Dillman, Howard D. & Marshall, JaNice C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in Iowa

Description: The state of Iowa is considering adpoting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropraite code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits are assessed. The energy simulation and economic results suggest that adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 would provide postitive net benefits to the state relative to the building and design requirements currently in place.
Date: September 7, 2002
Creator: Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E. & Winiarski, David W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical comparison of convection-cooled turbine blade cooling-air requirements for several radial gas-temperature profiles

Description: Report presenting an analysis made to permit a comparative evaluation of the turbine rotor cooling-air requirements with convection-cooled blades for four combustor-outlet radial gas-temperature profiles: a uniform profile, a profile representable by a complete cycle of the cosine wave using cooler gas layers near the turbine casing, a profile representable by one-half cycle of the cosine wave using cooler gas layers near the stator inner ring, and an optimum profile resulting in the absolute minimum cooling-air requirements.
Date: September 7, 1955
Creator: Hubbartt, James E. & Slone, Henry O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical electron microscopy of bimetallic catalysts. Final report

Description: The report summarizes the accomplishments, publications, and reception of this program in the catalyst and microanalytical communities. Initially the research covered a wide range of catalysts, but later in the program, the author prepared and optimized a highly active catalyst for low-temperature NO abatement in fossil fuel power plants. During the course of the program, several innovations in microanalytical instrumentation and technique were developed specifically for analysis of catalytic nanoparticles. New designs for improved nanoparticle elemental sensitivity were proposed and accepted by the manufacture of Lehigh`s new VG /HB-603 analytical electron microscope. New tests for assessing elemental sensitivity have been devised and used to encourage the manufacturer to build the most sensitive analytical electron microscope in the world. Accomplishments summarized for the 1986--1990 period include: Quantitative measurements of noble metal distributions in alumina monoliths; Direct elemental imaging of small metal particles poisoned by sulfur: Analysis of surface species on Co/La/alumina catalyst; and Development of analytical electron microscopy methods. Accomplishments for the 1991--1993 period include: Catalytic testing facility for the electron microscopy lab; New scheme for immobilization of surface species for AEM analysis; and New method for electron probe microanalysis of porous materials. Accomplishments for the 1994--1998 period were: successful low-temperature NO reduction using a new Pt-Rh alloy catalyst; Composition size diagrams to identify active catalysts; Observation of phase separation in Pt-Rh at 300 C; Observation of surface segregation in Pt-rich nanoparticles; CO oxidation over Pt-Rh catalyst; Sulfur poisoning characteristics; Commercial development of NO catalysts; and Analysis of sub-1-nm particles in Pt-Re reforming catalysts.
Date: September 7, 1998
Creator: Lyman, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anomalies and Discrete Chiral Symmetries

Description: The quantum anomaly that breaks the U(1) axial symmetry of massless multi-flavored QCD leaves behind a discrete flavor-singlet chiral invariance. With massive quarks, this residual symmetry has a close connection with the strong CP-violating parameter theta. One result is that if the lightest quarks are degenerate, then a first order transition will occur when theta passes through pi. The resulting framework helps clarify when the rooting prescription for extrapolating in the number of flavors is valid.
Date: September 7, 2009
Creator: Creutz, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anti-Terrorism Authority Under the Laws of the United Kingdom and the United States

Description: This report is a comparison of the laws of the United Kingdom and of the United States that govern criminal and intelligence investigations of terrorist activities. Both systems rely upon a series of statutory authorizations: in the case of the United States primarily the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act and the Electronic Communications Privacy Act; in the case of the United Kingdom, the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act, the Police Act, the Intelligence Services Act. Among other differences, the U.S. procedures rely more heavily upon judicial involvement and supervision, while those of the UK employ other safeguards. The UK procedures afford greater latitude to arrest, detain and supervise suspected terrorists than those available in the United States.
Date: September 7, 2006
Creator: Feikert, Clare & Doyle, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Antibiotic Resistance: Agencies Have Made Limited Progress Addressing Antibiotic Use in Animals

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Antibiotics have saved millions of lives, but antibiotic use in food animals contributes to the emergence of resistant bacteria that may affect humans. The Departments of Health and Human Services (HHS) and Agriculture (USDA) are primarily responsible for ensuring food safety. GAO reviewed the issue in 2004 and recommended improved data collection and risk assessment. GAO was asked to examine the (1) extent to which agencies have collected data on antibiotic use and resistance in animals, (2) actions HHS's Food and Drug Administration (FDA) took to mitigate the risk of antibiotic resistance in humans as a result of use in animals, (3) extent to which agencies have researched alternatives to current use practices and educated producers and veterinarians about appropriate use, and (4) actions the European Union (EU) and an EU member country, Denmark, have taken to regulate use in animals and lessons that have been learned. GAO analyzed documents, interviewed officials from national organizations, and visited producers in five states and Denmark.."
Date: September 7, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department