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Acoustic Leak Detection for District Heating Systems

Description: An acoustic leak detection facility was completed and used to evaluate the capability of piezoelectric sensors, accelerometers, and capacitance microphones to detect and locate gas and water leaks in underground district heating and cooling (DHC) piping. Leak detection sensitivity and location capabilities for DHC systems were estimated from laboratory data and from data obtained from the underground DH system in Scranton, Pennsylvania, where acoustic background noise levels and acoustic signals from field-induced steam leaks were acquired. Acoustic detection of leaks with flow rates of less than 10 gpm is possible at a distance of several hundred meters, with a location accuracy of a few meters. Although steam leaks of comparable mass loss can be detected over a similar range with transducers mounted on the pipe outer wall, location accuracy of a few meters over this range may only be possible with transducers in direct contract with the steam. Intrusive sensors may also be necessary to detect and locate leaks in plastic pipe.
Date: February 1988
Creator: Kupperman, D. S. & Karvelas, D. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Activities and Operations of the Advanced Computing Research Facility : January 1989-January 1990

Description: This report reviews the activities and operations of the Advanced Computing Research Facility (ACRF) for the period January 1, 1989, through January 31, 1990. The ACRF is operated by the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory. The facility's principal objective is to foster research in parallel computing. Toward this objective, the ACRF continues to operate experimental advanced computers and to sponsor new technology transfer efforts and new research projects.
Date: February 1990
Creator: Pieper, Gail W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: April-June 1983

Description: Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes efforts on development of molten carbonate fuel cells directed toward seeking alternative cathode materials to NiO. Based on an investigation of the thermodynamically stable phases formed under cathode conditions with a number of transition metal oxides, synthesis of prospective alternative cathode materials and doping of these materials to promote electronic conductivity is under way.
Date: February 1984
Creator: Ackerman, J. P. & Pierce, Robert Dean
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: July-September 1979

Description: Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes efforts directed toward understanding and improving components of the molten carbonate fuel cells operated at temperatures near 925 K.
Date: February 1980
Creator: Pierce, R. D.; Kinoshita, K.; Kucera, G. H.; Poeppel, R. B.; Sim, J. W. & Singh, R. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Materials in the Manufacturing Revolution: Proceedings of the Conference Held at Argonne National Laboratory June 14, 1988

Description: A conference at Argonne National Laboratory for senior executives of small and medium-size manufacturing companies covered technical and managerial issues involved in adapting advanced materials and new manufacturing methods. Seven speakers discussed how high performance metals, alloys, ceramics, polymerics and their composites are replacing conventional mill-product materials and how these new materials are impacting manufacturing methods and products.
Date: February 1989
Creator: Nevitt, Michael V. & Peterson, Norman D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Alternative Library Under 4. 2 BSD UNIX on a VAX 11/780

Description: This paper describes an alternative library of elementary functions prepared for use with the standard Fortran compiler under 4.2 BSD UNIX on a VAX 11/780. The library, written in C and based on the book ''Software Manual for the Elementary Functions'' by Cody and Waite, offers improved accuracy over the standard system library, as well as additional capabilities. Listings and output from the ELEFUNT suite of test programs are included in the appendix.
Date: February 1986
Creator: Cody, William James
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Heat-Pipe Absorbers in Evacuated-Tube Solar Collectors

Description: Heat transfer in evacuated-tube solar collectors with heat-pipe absorbers is compared with that for similar collectors with flow-through absorbers. In systems that produce hot water or other heated fluids, the heat-pipe absorber suffers a heat transfer penalty compared with the flow-through absorber, but in many cases the penalty can be minimized by proper design at the heat-pipe condenser and system manifold. The heat transfer penalty decreases with decreasing collector heat loss coefficient, suggesting that evacuated tubes with optical concentration are more appropriate for use with heat pipes than evacuated or non-evacuated flat-plate collectors. When the solar collector is used to drive an absorption chiller, the heat-pipe absorber has better heat transfer characteristics than the flow-through absorbers.
Date: February 1986
Creator: Hull, John R.; Schertz, William W. & Allen, John W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical Investigation of Certain Aspects of LMFBR Subassembly-Failure Propagation

Description: An analytical investigation of certain problems in the area of subassembly-to-subassembly failure propagation in LMFBR's is described. Existing analyses of the response of the adjacent subassembly duct to mechanical loads are reviewed and summarized, and major uncertainties are identified. Additional analyses of the response of the adjacent subassembly to certain thermal loads are presented in two parts. In the first part, the effect of an external heat flux on duct melting and thermal stresses is considered. The external heat fluxes required to produce duct melting or excessive thermal stresses are compared with the heat fluxes that might be expected from the molten fuel deposited on the duct wall. In the second part, a thermal-hydraulic study is performed to investigate the effect of the external heat flux on the coolant temperature distribution in the adjacent subassembly. Both normal subassembly geometry and distorted subassembly geometry are considered. A detailed model of the coolant region formed by the heated duct wall and the displaced fuel pins is also analyzed to determine whether there are severe temperature gradients.
Date: February 1976
Creator: Marr, William W.; Wang, P. Y.; Misra, B.; Padilla, A. & Crawford, R. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Application of Neutron-Activation Analysis to the Determination of Leach Rates of Simulated Nuclear-Waste Forms

Description: The application of neutron activation analysis to the determination of element release from simulated nuclear waste forms during leaching is described for several different glasses. Potential neutron irradiation effects are discussed, and it is shown, by a series of leach tests on activated and non-activated glass samples, that neutron irradiation has no discernible effect on the release of silicon and cesium during leaching. The radioisotopes best suited for analysis with this method and their associated detection limits are identified, and the method's applicability to waste forms other than glass is discussed.
Date: February 1982
Creator: Bates, J. K.; Jardine, L. J.; Flynn, K. & Steindler, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Argonne Solar Energy Program Annual Report: 1978

Description: Annual report of the Solar Energy Program describing work in solar energy collection, heating and cooling, thermal energy storage, ocean thermal energy conversion, photovoltaics, satellite power systems, bioconversion, central receiver solar thermal power, and wind energy conversion.
Date: February 1979
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ATLAS: a Proposal for a Precision Heavy Ion Accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory

Description: The objective of the proposed Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) is to provide precision beams of heavy ions for nuclear physics research in the region of projectile energies comparable to nuclear binding energies (5-25 MeV/A). By using the demonstrated potential of superconducting radiofrequency technology, beams of exceptional quality and flexibility can be obtained. The system is designed to provide beams with tandem-like energy resolution and ease of energy variation, the energy range is comparable to that of approximately 50 MV tandem and, in addition, the beam will be bunched into very short (approximately 50 psec) pulses, permitting fast-timing measurements that can open up major new experimental approaches.
Date: February 1978
Creator: Bollinger, L. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beyond "'Speedup": Performance Analysis of Parallel Programs

Description: This paper addresses the problem of measuring and analyzing the performance of fine-grained parallel programs running on shared-memory multiprocessors. Such processors use locking (either directly in the application program, or indirectly in a subroutine library or the operating system) to serialize accesses to global variables. Given sufficiently high rates of locking, the chief factor preventing linear speedup (besides lack of adequate inherent parallelism in the application) is lock contention - the blocking of processes that are trying to acquire a lock currently held by another process.
Date: February 1987
Creator: Dritz, Kenneth W. & Boyle, James M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Branching Fraction in the Radioactive Decay of ⁸⁵mKr

Description: The branching fraction in the decay of the fission product ⁸⁵m-krypton⁸⁵m to the ground state ⁸⁵krypton (10.75 y) was measured relative to the total decay to both ⁸⁵krypton and ⁸⁵Rb. Samples of uranium-235 were highly irradiated in a high-flux reactor and dissolved. ⁸⁵Rb was measured by isotope-dilution mass spectrometry, and the ⁸⁵krypton was counted in GM tubes the counting efficiencies of which were calibrated with a standardized ⁸⁵krypton gas of known disintegration rate. The branching fraction measured with both a low-burnup sample and a high-burnup sample was 0.2160 +/- 0.0019, the largest error arising from the uncertainty in the caibration of the standardized gas.
Date: February 1980
Creator: Jaffey, A. H.; Steinberg, E. P.; Gindler, J. E.; Gray, J.; Horwitz, E. P.; Hughes, J. P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Canonicalization and Demodulation

Description: Mechanisms that were developed for the Argonne National Laboratory - Northern Illinois University theorem proving system are discussed. By defining special input clauses and demodulators, it is possible to simulate mathematical processes such as canonicalization of polynomials with no special programming. The mechanisms presented resulted from a study of the X³ = X problem in ring theory. The use of the mechanisms allowed this problem to the solved for the first time by the automated theorem proving system.
Date: February 1981
Creator: Veroff, Robert L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chaotic Vibrations of Nonlinearly Supported Tubes in Crossflow

Description: By means of the unsteady-flow theory and a bilinear mathematical model, a theoretical study is presented for chaotic vibrations associated with the fluid-elastic instability of nonlinearly supported tubes in a crossflow. Effective tools, including phase portraits, power spectral density, Poincare maps, Lyapunov exponent, fractal dimension, and bifurcation diagrams, are utilized to distinguish periodic and chaotic motions when the tubes vibrate in the instability region. The results show periodic and chaotic motions in the region corresponding to fluid-damping-controlled instability. Nonlinear supports, with symmetric or asymmetric gaps, significantly affect the distribution of periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions of a tube exposed to various flow velocities in the instability region of the tube-support-plate-inactive mode.
Date: February 1992
Creator: Cai, Y. & Chen, Shoei-Sheng
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characteristics of the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source : a Guide for Users

Description: In this document we present the characteristics of the electromagnetic radiation from various types of sources on the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. The sources include bending magnets, undulators, and wigglers. The characteristics are compared with those of other synchrotron sources when operated at their design specifications. The influence of positron beam size on the on-axis brilliance is discussed, along with the power distribution from these sources. The goal of this document is to provide users with enough information on the characteristics of radiation from the APS storage ring so that experiments can be efficiently planned.
Date: February 1988
Creator: Shenoy, G. K.; Viccaro, P. J. & Mills, Dennis M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report for 1984

Description: Report on studies of advanced batteries, aqueous batteries, advanced fuel cells, coal utilization, methodologies for recovery of energy from municipal waste, solid and liquid desiccants, nuclear technology related to waste management, and physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission, fusion, and other energy systems.
Date: February 1985
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Chemical Technology Division.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

COMMIX-PPC: A Three-Dimensional Transient Multicomponent Computer Program for Analyzing Performance of Power Plant Condensers, Volume 1: Equations and Numerics

Description: Report on the COMMIX-PPC computer program, designed to evaluate the thermal performance of power plant condensers. This first volume "describes in detail the basic equations, formulation, solution procedures, and models for auxiliary phenomena" (p. iv).
Date: February 1993
Creator: Chien, T. H.; Domanus, H. M. & Sha, William T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Testing Methods for Latent-Heat-Storage Devices

Description: ASHRAE Standard 94-77, Method of Testing Thermal Storage Devices Based on Thermal Performance, was developed to allow manufacturers of thermal energy storage devices to compare their products in a meaningful way. When Standard 94-77 was used for thermal energy storage products based on latent heat storage, the Standard was found to be inadequate for comparison of these devices. Standard Project Committee SPC 94.1 was established to devise a Standard that would be adequate for comparing latent heat systems. The purpose of this report is to describe several alternatives to Standard 94-77 and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative. The discussion focuses on two proposed replacement standards and includes experimental results for each. The experimental results are from tests conducted on a PCM storage tank that uses sodium thiosulfate as the PCM and water as the heat transfer fluid. The experimental arrangement is discussed in detail.
Date: February 1983
Creator: Cole, Roger Lynn; Hull, J. R.; Lwin, Y. & Cha, Y. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cryogenic Distillation: a Fuel Enrichment System for Near-Term Tokamak-Type D-T Fusion Reactors

Description: The successful operation and economic viability of deuterium-tritium- (D-T-) fueled tokamak-type commercial power fusion reactors will depend to a large extent on the development of reliable tritium-containment and fuel-recycle systems. Of the many operating steps in the fuel recycle scheme, separation or enrichment of the isotropic species of hydrogen by cryogenic distillation is one of the most important. A parametric investigation was carried out to study the effects of the various operating conditions and the composition of the spent fuel on the degree of separation. A computer program was developed for the design and analysis of a system of interconnected distillation columns for isotopic separation such that the requirements of near-term D-T-fueled reactors are met. The analytical results show that a distillation cascade consisting of four columns is capable of reprocessing spent fuel varying over a wide range of compositions to yield reinjection-grade fuel with essentially unlimited D/T ratio.
Date: February 1980
Creator: Misra, Balabhadra & Davis, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Argonne National Laboratory Building 350 Plutonium Fabrication Facility : Final Report

Description: In 1973, Argonne National Laboratory began consolidating and upgrading its plutonium-handling operations with the result that the research fuel-fabrication facility located in Building 350 was shut down and declared surplus. Sixteen of the twenty-three gloveboxes which comprised the system were disassembled and relocated for reuse or placed into controlled storage during 1974 but, due to funding constraints, full-scale decommissioning did not start until 1978. Since that time the fourteen remaining contaminated gloveboxes, including all internal and external equipment as well as the associated ventilation systems, have been assayed for radioactive content, dismantled, size reduced to fit acceptable packaging and sent to a US Department of Energy (DOE) transuranic retrievable-storage site or to a DOE low-level nuclear waste burial ground. The project which was completed in 1983, required 5 years to accomplish, 32 man years of effort, produced some 540 cubic meters (19,000 cubic ft) of radioactive waste of which 60% was TRU, and cost 2.4 million dollars.
Date: February 1985
Creator: Kline, W. H.; Moe, H. J. & Lahey, T. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Delayed-Neutron Fraction in a Pulsed Spallation Neutron Source

Description: The fraction of delayed neutrons beta in slow-neutron beams from a uranium-238 pulsed spallation neutron source is 0.0053 for 300 MeV protons. This measurement appears to be the first one of this quantity. The result indicates that, for most classes of measurements, the delayed-neutron background in time-of-flight instruments will be unimportant, and places constraints on the physics description of spallation targets. The measurement was performed at the prototype pulsed spallation neutron source, ZING-P', at Argonne National laboratory.
Date: February 1980
Creator: Carpenter, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and Installation Manual for Thermal Energy Storage

Description: The purpose for this manual is to provide information on the design and installation of thermal energy storage in solar heating systems. It is intended for contractors, installers, solar system designers, engineers, architects, and manufacturers who intend to enter the solar energy business. The reader should have general knowledge of how solar heating systems operate and knowledge of construction methods and building codes. Knowledge of solar analysis methods such as f-chart, SOLCOST, DOE-1, or TRNSYS would be helpful. The information contained in the manual includes sizing storage, choosing a location for the storage device, and insulation requirements. Both air-based and liquid-based systems are covered with topics on designing rock beds, tank types, pump and fan selection, installation, costs, and operation and maintenance. Topics relevant to heating domestic water include safety, single- and dual-tank systems, domestic water heating with air- and liquid-based space heating system, and stand-alone domestic hot water systems. Several appendices present common problems with storage systems and their solutions, heat transfer fluid properties, heat exchanger sizing, and sample specifications for heat exchangers, wooden rock bins, steel tanks, concrete tanks, and fiberglass-reinforced plastic tanks.
Date: February 1979
Creator: Cole, Roger Lynn; Nield, Kenneth J.; Rohde, Raymond R. & Wolosewicz, R. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department