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Description: It is shown that cryogenic techniques offer the possibility of substantially improving the efficiency and practicality of generating high magnetic fields in air-core coils of large size. Over-all reductions in power requirements of as high as 25, by comparison with conventional coils, are predicted, provided high purity conductors and efficient refrigeration cycles are used. (W.D.M.)
Date: October 30, 1959
Creator: Post, R. F. & Taylor, C. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ambient-temperature passive magnetic bearings: Theory and design equations

Description: Research has been underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to build a theoretical and experimental base for the design of ambient-temperature passive magnetic bearings for a variety of possible applications. in the approach taken the limitations imposed by Earnshaw`s theorem with respect to the stability of passive magnetic bearing systems employing axially symmetric permanent-magnet elements are overcome by employing special combinations of elements, as follows: Levitating and restoring forces are provided by combinations of permanent-magnet-excited elements chosen to provide positive stiffnesses (negative force derivatives) for selected displacements (i.e., those involving translations or angular displacement of the axis of rotation). As dictated by Eamshaw`s theorem, any bearing system thus constructed will be statically unstable for at least one of the remaining possible displacements. Stabilization against this displacement is accomplished by using periodic arrays (`Halbach arrays`) of permanent magnets to induce currents in close-packed inductively loaded circuits, thereby producing negative force derivatives stabilizing the system while in rotation. Disengaging mechanical elements stabilize the system when at rest and when below a low critical speed. The paper discusses theory and equations needed for the design of such systems.
Date: December 30, 1997
Creator: Post, R.F. & Ryutov, D.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anomalous transport in mirror systems

Description: As now being explored for fusion applications confinement systems based on the mirror principle embody two kinds of plasma regimes. These two regimes are: (a) high-beta plasmas, stabilized against MHD and other low frequency plasma instabilities by magnetic-well fields, but characterized by non-Maxwellian ion distributions; (b) near-Maxwellian plasmas, confined electrostatically (as in the tandem mirror) or in a field-reversed region within the mirror cell. Common to both situations are the questions of anomalous transport owing to high frequency instabilities in the non-maxwellian portions of the plasmas. This report will summarize the status of theory and of experimental data bearing on these questions, with particular reference to the high temperature regimes of interest for fusion power.
Date: August 20, 1979
Creator: Post, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Attractive characteristics of mirrors

Description: A summary of the attractive characteristics of mirror devices is presented. Recent progress in development of axisymmetric mirror devices is described. Potentialities of mirrors as a basis for D{sup 3}He fusion power generators and high-flux neutron sources for fusion material tests are discussed.
Date: December 15, 1994
Creator: Post, R. F. & Ryutov, D. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Axisymmetric Tandem Mirrors: Stabilization and Confinement Studies

Description: The 'Kinetic Stabilizer' has been proposed as a means of MHD stabilizing an axisymmetric tandem mirror system. The K-S concept is based on theoretical studies by Ryutov, confirmed experimentally in the Gas Dynamic Trap experiment in Novosibirsk. In the K-S beams of ions are directed into the end of an 'expander' region outside the outer mirror of a tandem mirror. These ions, slowed, stagnated, and reflected as they move up the magnetic gradient, produce a low-density stabilizing plasma. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory we have been conducting theoretical and computational studies of the K-S Tandem Mirror. These studies have employed a low-beta code written especially to analyze the beam injection/stabilization process, and a new code SYMTRAN (by Hua and Fowler) that solves the coupled radial and axial particle and energy transport in a K-S TM. Also, a 'legacy' MHD stability code, FLORA, has been upgraded and employed to benchmark the injection/stabilization code and to extend its results to high beta values. The FLORA code studies so far have confirmed the effectiveness of the K-S in stabilizing high-beta (40%) plasmas with stabilizer plasmas the peak pressures of which are several orders of magnitude smaller than those of the confined plasma. Also the SYMTRAN code has shown D-T plasma ignition from alpha particle energy deposition in T-M regimes with strong end plugging. Our studies have confirmed the viability of the K-S-T-M concept with respect to MHD stability and radial and axial confinement. We are continuing these studies in order to optimize the parameters and to examine means for the stabilization of possible residual instability modes, such as drift modes and 'trapped-particle' modes. These modes may in principle be controlled by tailoring the stabilizer plasma distribution and/or the radial potential distribution. In the paper the results to date of our studies are ...
Date: July 15, 2004
Creator: Post, R F; Fowler, T K; Bulmer, R; Byers, J; Hua, D & Tung, L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

''Ballistic damping'': a proposed method of stabilizing resonant ion cyclotron modes

Description: The essence of the idea is as follows: One or more beams of energetic ions (or neutral atoms that will become ionized) are injected, parallel to the field lines, at radii where the instability electric field has maximum amplitude (say roughly halfway between the axis and the outer radius of the plasma). While in transit through the plasma these ions acquire transverse energy by resonant acceleration, thereby extracting energy from the wave. This imparted energy is then carried out of the confined plasma by the beam particles as they exit through the far mirror. In this way the ballistic damping process introduces a damping mechanism that can be used to inhibit the growth of unstable waves and/or to damp them out before they reach unacceptably high amplitude. It is also shown that the beam power required is substantially lower than the plasma powers involved, scaling in a favorable way with increase in the size of the mirror cell.
Date: July 31, 1978
Creator: Post, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comments on open-ended magnetic systems for fusion

Description: Differentiating characteristics of magnetic confinement systems having externally generated magnetic fields that are open'' are listed and discussed in the light of their several potential advantages for fusion power systems. It is pointed out that at this stage of fusion research high-Q'' (as deduced from long energy confinement times) is not necessarily the most relevant criterion by which to judge the potential of alternate fusion approaches for the economic generation of fusion power. An example is given of a hypothetical open-geometry fusion power system where low-Q operation is essential to meeting one of its main objectives (low neutron power flux).
Date: September 24, 1990
Creator: Post, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Design of Large Cryogenic Magnet Coils. Paper No. 2

Description: Preliminary design and experimental work aimed toward fabrication of large magnet coils with encapsulated sodium conductors is outlined. Aspects of cooling cycles are discussed along with heat transfer, thermal stability, and the mechanical reinforcement of such coils. (J.R.D.)
Date: October 30, 1959
Creator: Taylor, C. E. & Post, R. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electromechanical Battery Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Description: New materials and new design concepts are being incorporated in a new approach to an old idea -- flywheel energy storage -- to create an important alternative to the electrochemical storage battery for use in electric vehicles or for stationary applications, such as computer back-up power or utility load-leveling. We visualize such EMBs (electromechanical batteries) as being modular in character, with small (1--5 kWh) modules being used for power-conditioning and for vehicular use, and paralleled 25 kWh modules being used for bulk storage, i.e., load-leveling, applications. In a funded program at the Laboratory two fractional kWh, 200 kW (design peak power) modules have been constructed and subjected to shake-down testing. Their design for high peak power was prompted by awareness of a particular commercial need, as a component in a power-line conditioning device. In addition to such stationary applications, the high power capability of our EMB designs makes them attractive for use in hybrid-electric vehicles. Important elements of the LLNL program include the development of passive magnetic bearings and the application of new high-efficiency permanent magnet arrays to an ironless generator/motor. Use of these particular elements, together with a multi-ring design for the flywheel rotor, is particularly conducive to a systemic approach to the design of an EMB module. These particular design developments have been motivated by the economic issues of simplification, lowered cost, and extended maintenance-free service life.
Date: May 31, 1994
Creator: Post, R. F.; Bender, D. A. & Merritt, B. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electromechanical battery research and development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Description: The concepts undergirding a funded program to develop a modular electromechanical battery (EMB) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are described. Example parameters for EMBs for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles are given, and the importance of the high energy recovery efficiency of EMBs in increasing vehicle range in urban driving is shown.
Date: June 1, 1993
Creator: Post, R. F.; Baldwin, D. E.; Bender, D. A. & Fowler, T. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The electromechanical battery: The new kid on the block

Description: In a funded program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory new materials and novel designs are being incorporated into a new approach to an old concept -- flywheel energy storage. Modular devices, dubbed ``electromechanical batteries`` (EMB) are being developed that should represent an important alternative to the electrochemical storage battery for use in electric vehicles or for stationary applications, such as computer back-up power or utility load-leveling.
Date: August 1, 1993
Creator: Post, R. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Progress Report for the NASA Inductrack Model Rocket Launcher at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Description: The Inductrack magnetic levitation system, developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was studied for its possible use for launching rockets. Under NASA sponsorship, a small model system was constructed at the Laboratory to pursue key technical aspects of this proposed application. The Inductrack is a passive magnetic levitation system employing special arrays of high-field permanent magnets (Halbach arrays) on the levitating cradle, moving above a ''track'' consisting of a close-packed array of shorted coils with which are interleaved with special drive coils. Halbach arrays produce a strong spatially periodic magnetic field on the front surface of the arrays, while canceling the field on their back surface. Relative motion between the Halbach arrays and the track coils induces currents in those coils. These currents levitate the cradle by interacting with the horizontal component of the magnetic field. Pulsed currents in the drive coils, synchronized with the motion of the carrier, interact with the vertical component of the magnetic field to provide acceleration forces. Motional stability, including resistance to both vertical and lateral aerodynamic forces, is provided by having Halbach arrays that interact with both the upper and the lower sides of the track coils. At present, a 7.8 meter track composed of drive and levitation coils has been built and the electronic drive circuitry performs as designed. A 9 kg cradle that carries the Halbach array of permanent magnets has been built. A mechanical launcher is nearly complete which will provide an initial cradle velocity of 9 m/s into the electronic drive section. We have found that the drag forces from the levitation coils were higher than in our original design. However, measurements of drag force at velocities less than 1 m/s are exactly as predicted by theory. Provided here are recommended design changes to improve the track's performance so ...
Date: June 27, 2001
Creator: Tung, L S; Post, R F & Martinez-Frias, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fokker-Planck equation in mirror research

Description: Open confinement systems based on the magnetic mirror principle depend on the maintenance of particle distributions that may deviate substantially from Maxwellian distributions. Mirror research has therefore from the beginning relied on theoretical predictions of non-equilibrium rate processes obtained from solutions to the Fokker-Planck equation. The F-P equation plays three roles: Design of experiments, creation of classical standards against which to compare experiment, and predictions concerning mirror based fusion power systems. Analytical and computational approaches to solving the F-P equation for mirror systems will be reviewed, together with results and examples that apply to specific mirror systems, such as the tandem mirror.
Date: August 11, 1983
Creator: Post, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fusion power and the environment

Description: Environmental characteristics of conceptual fusion-reactor systems based on magnetic confinement are examined quantitatively, and some comparisons with fission systems are made. Fusion, like all other energy sources, will not be completely free of environmental liabilities, but the most obvious of these-- tritium leakage and activation of structural materials by neutron bombardment-- are susceptible to significant reduction by ingenuity in choice of materials and design. Large fusion reactors can probably be designed so that worst-case releases of radioactivity owing to accident or sabotage would produce no prompt fatalities in the public. A world energy economy relying heavily on fusion could make heavy demands on scarce nonfuel materials, a topic deserving further attention. Fusion's potential environmental advantages are not entirely ''automatic'', converting them into practical reality will require emphasis on environmental characteristics throughout the process of reactor design and engineering. The central role of environmental impact in the long-term energy dilemma of civilization justifies the highest priority on this aspect of fusion. (auth)
Date: June 1, 1975
Creator: Holdren, J.P.; Fowler, T.K. & Post, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fusion reactors as future energy sources

Description: From conference on energy policies and the international system; New, Delhi, India (4 Dec 1973). The need is now apparent for a global energy policy with the following characteristics: Compatibility with environmental and economic factors; large fuel resources, the recovery and exploration of which have minimal environmental impact and which do not introduce disturbing factors into the world political situation. Fusion power in this context is discussed, including assessments of its potential and of the problems yet to be solved in achieving its realization. The proposition is advanced that fusion should be considered as the ultimate source of energy, and that other sources of energy, including conventional nuclear power, should be considered as interim sources. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1973
Creator: Post, R.F. & Ribe, F.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fusion research: the past is prologue

Description: At this juncture fusion research can be viewed as being at a turning point, a time to review its past and to imagine its future. Today, almost 50 years since the first serious attempts to address the daunting problem of achieving controlled fusion, we have both an opportunity and a challenge. Some predictions place fusion research today at a point midway between its first inception and its eventual maturation - in the middle of the 21st century - when fusion would become a major source of energy. Our opportunity therefore is to assess what we have learned from 50 years of hard work and use that knowledge as a starting point for new and better approaches to solving the fusion problem. Our challenge is to prove the "50 more years" prophesy wrong, by finding ways to shorten the time when fusion power becomes a reality. The thesis will be advanced that in the magnetic confinement approach to fusion open-ended magnetic confinement geometries offer much in responding to the challenge. A major advantage of open systems is that, owing to their theoretically and experimentally demonstrated ability to suppress plasma instabilities of both the MHD and the high-frequency wave-particle variety, the confinement becomes predictable from "classical," i.e., Fokker-Planck-type analysis. In a time of straitened budgetary circumstances for magnetic fusion research now being faced in the United States, the theoretical tractability of mirror-based systems is a substantial asset. In pursuing this avenue it is also necessary to keep an open mind as to the forms that mirror-based fusion power plants might take. For example, one can look to the high-energy physics community for a possible model: This community has shown the feasibility of constructing large and complex particle accelerators using superconducting magnets, vacuum chambers and complicated particle-handling technology, housed in underground tunnels that ...
Date: October 14, 1998
Creator: Post, R F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Halbach array motor/generators: A novel generalized electric machine

Description: In August 1979, Halbach submitted a paper entitled ``Design of Permanent Multipole Magnets with Oriented Rare Earth Cobalt Material.`` In this paper, he presented a novel method of generating multipole magnetic fields using non-intuitive geometrical arrangements of permanent magnets. In subsequent publications, he further defined these concepts. Of particular interest to one of the authors (RFP) was the special magnet array that generated a uniform dipole field. In 1990 Post proposed the construction of an electric machine (a motor/generator) using a dipole field based on Klaus Halbach`s array of permanent magnets. He further proposed that such a system should be employed as an integral part of ``an electromechanical battery`` (EMB), i.e., a modular flywheel system to be used as a device for storing electrical energy, as an alternative to the electrochemical storage battery. This paper reviews Halbach`s theory for the generation of a dipole field using an array of permanent magnet bars, presents a simple analysis of a family of novel ``ironless`` electric machines designed using the dipole Halbach array, and describes the results obtained when they were tested in the laboratory.
Date: October 28, 1994
Creator: Merritt, B.T.; Post, R.F.; Dreifuerst, G.R. & Bender, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Inductrack Approach to Magnetic Levitation

Description: Concepts developed during research on passive magnetic bearing systems at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory gave rise to a new approach to magnetic levitation, the Inductrack. A passive induced-current system employing permanent magnets on the moving vehicle, the Inductrack maximizes levitation forces by a combination of two elements. First, the permanent magnets on the vehicle are arranged in a ''Halbach array,'' a magnet configuration that optimally produces a periodic magnetic field below the array, while canceling the field above the array. Second, the track is made up of close-packed shorted electrical circuits. These circuits couple optimally to the magnetic field of the Halbach array. As a result, levitating forces of order 40 metric tonnes per square meter of Halbach array can be generated, using NdFeB magnets whose weight is a few percent of the levitated weight. Being an induced-current system, the levitation requires motion of the vehicle above a low transition speed. For maglev applications this speed is a few kilometers per hour, walking speed. At rest or in the station auxiliary wheels are needed. The Inductrack is thus fail-safe, that is, drive system failure would only result in the vehicle slowing down and finally settling on its auxiliary wheels. On the basis of theoretical analyses a small model vehicle and a 20-meter-long track was built and tested at speeds of order 12 meters per second. A second model, designed to achieve 10-g acceleration levels and much higher speeds, is under construction under NASA sponsorship, en route to the design of maglev-based launchers for rockets. Some of the presently perceived practical problems of implementing full-scale maglev systems based on the Inductrack concept will be discussed.
Date: April 19, 2000
Creator: Post, R.F. & Ryutov, D.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Inductrack concept: A new approach to magnetic levitation

Description: This report describes theoretical and experimental investigations of a new approach to the problem of the magnetic levitation of a moving object. By contrast with previously studied levitation approaches, the Inductrack concept concept represents a simpler, potentially less expensive, and totally passive means of levitating a high-speed train. It may also be applicable to other areas where simpler magnetic levitation systems are needed, for example, high-speed test sleds for crash testing applications, or low-friction conveyer systems for industrial use.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Post, R.F. & Ryutov, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department