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Four Pulse Drive System for the Beam Induction Cells for DARHT Axis 2

Description: The proposed drive system allows for the generation of up to four (4) high-quality radiographic pulses along one line-of-sight, having arbitrary pulse spacing ({approximately}500 ns), using demonstrated technologies. This concept uses a four-pulse drive system to drive both a 16-MeV ensemble of 250-kV, 4-kA induction cells and a four-pulse, 4-MeV injector. The key to this approach lies in the method used to combine four pulses from different generators in a manner that does not compromise the voltage flatness requirement of {+-} 1%. The induction cells use core material for only a single pulse. A simple reverse bias circuit is used to reset the cores between pulses, and the insulator has been redesigned to withstand the reverse reset voltage. This approach can be installed in stages so that the facility can be used for dual axis radiography while implementing the multi-pulsing capability. A dual double-pulse format has been identified which provides a sequence of two pulses along one line-of-sight within a 2-{micro}sec window. The 2-{micro}sec windows can be separated by arbitrary time intervals of 2- to 10-{micro}sec.
Date: June 28, 1999
Creator: Downing, J.; Carlson, R.; Melton, J. & Fockler, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Work Plan for Corrective Action Unit 329: Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Draft of Rev. 0

Description: This plan was prepared as a characterization and closure report for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 329: Area 22, Desert Rock Airstrip (DRA) Fuel Spill identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The CAU, located on the Nevada Test Site, consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), 22-44-01, which encompasses an area contaminated by three recorded spills from a 25,000-gallon underground fuel storage tank. The tank was installed in 1980 and was imbedded in sand and gravel approximately 16 feet below the ground surface. Historically, the DRA consisted of a single runway, several portable buildings, two underground storage tanks containing aviation jet fuel, and plumbing to several refueling areas on the ramp. The constituents of potential concern from the spill were total petroleum hydrocarbons as gasoline or JP-4. This provides the methodology for sampling contaminated soil-vapor and soil to determine what activities, if any, are required for closure of this si te. In addition, there is sufficient process knowledge of the tank's historical use to recommend closure of CAU 329 using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process. This process combines elements of the Data Quality Objectives process and the observational approach to help plan and conduct corrective actions. The study concluded that the spill is localized; therefore, it is very unlikely that the underground water supply has been or will be affected by these spills. In addition, there were high levels of carbon dioxide detected above the release which indicate that the spill is currently in the process of undergoing biological degradation and is not migrating. This CAU has been approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to be moved into Appendix III of the FFACO. Closure is expected to be in-place with administrative controls and soil-vapor sampling. A closure report will be prepared ...
Date: September 28, 1999
Creator: U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Temperature on NOx Reduction by Nitrogen Atom Injection

Description: Chemical reduction of NO{sub x} can be accomplished by injection of nitrogen atoms into the diesel engine exhaust stream. The nitrogen atoms can be generated from a separate stream of pure N{sub 2} by means of plasma jets or non-thermal plasma reactors. This paper examines the effect of exhaust temperature on the NO{sub x} reduction efficiency that can be achieved by nitrogen atom injection. It is shown that to achieve a high NO{sub x} reduction efficiency at a reasonable power consumption penalty, the exhaust temperature needs to be 100 C or less.
Date: October 28, 1999
Creator: Penetrante, B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MC Energy Matters (formally Turning Point): January 1999

Description: The January 1999 issue of Energy Matters (formerly Turning Point) focuses on utility deregulation and restructuring and the implications for industry. An article describes how the Northeast Premium Efficiency Motor Initiative plans to increase the availability of premium efficiency motors. A case study reveals how General Motors achieved energy and cost savings by installing an energy-efficient water booster pumping system as part of a facility renovation.
Date: January 28, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MICRO PIN ARRAY DETECTOR (MIPA): FIRST TEST RESULTS.

Description: A novel gas proportional detector, consisting of an array of pins immersed into a cathode made out of closely packed hexagonals has been developed. The resulting geometry of the detector is 3 dimensional. Electron multiplication is limited to a region in close proximity to the tip of each pin, where the electric field decreases with distance from the pin at a rate faster than l/r, the rate that exists in a traditional wire chamber. The multiplication region is limited to a small part of the detector volume leading to stability of operation up to high charge gas gains. The amplification region is located far enough from any dielectric surface that the gas gain is insensitive to the charge state of the surface, a significant benefit compared with many other micro-pattern detectors. The microscopic dimensions of the individual pins of the array result in signals whose total duration is about a microsecond. Two identical, but opposite polarity signals are detected, one on the pin and one on the cathode. Both signals can be used by two independent, charge division, read-out systems to obtain unambiguous x-y position information of the primary ionization.
Date: June 28, 1999
Creator: REHAK,P.; SMITH,G.C.; WARREN,J.B. & YU,B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

241-SY-101 DACS instrument problem screen (SCR 448) acceptance test procedure

Description: The operability of the 241-SY-101 Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) to provide proper control and monitoring of the mitigation mixer pump and instrumentation installed in the 241-SY-101 underground storage tank utilizing the [INSTPROB] screen will be systematically evaluated by the performance of this procedure.
Date: June 28, 1999
Creator: Ermi, A. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Pegasus Dynamic Liner Friction Experiment

Description: The authors report on a pulsed power experiment performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Pegasus facility which was designed to measure material flow at metal interfaces driven to high relative velocities. Material motion at and near four flat Ta/Al(6061) interfaces was measured using flash radiographic techniques. A series of fine Pb wires (407 micron diameter) was implanted in the Al normal to the interfaces. The motion of these markers under shock loading provided a picture of material motion in the Al interfacial region. The surface roughness of the interfaces was varied between 32 and 125 micro-inches. The authors discuss the implications of these measurements for constitutive models of high speed friction and interfacial morphological change.
Date: June 28, 1999
Creator: Hammerberg, J.E.; Kyrala, G.A.; Oro, D.M.; Fulton, R.D.; Anderson, W.E.; Obst, A.W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

Description: This thirteenth quarterly report describes work done during the thirteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to a number of outside contacts.
Date: April 28, 1999
Creator: James T. Cobb, Jr.; Neufeld, Ronald D. & Agostini, Jana
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE MURMANSK INITIATIVE - RF: 1994-1999 NEARING THE FINISH LINE.

Description: ''The Murmansk Initiative - RF'' is a tri-lateral project developed to support Russia's ability to meet the London Convention's prohibition on ocean disposal of radioactive waste. The Initiative, under a tripartite agreement, has upgraded an existing low-level liquid radioactive waste treatment facility, increasing capacity from 1,200 m{sup 3}/year to 5,000 m{sup 3}/year, and expanded capability to treat liquids containing salt (up to 10 g/L). The three parties to the agreement, the Russian Federation, Norway, and the United States, have all contributed the project. All construction has been provided by Russia. Construction of mechanical systems (piping and valves, pumps, sorbent columns, settling tanks, and surge tanks) is nearing completion, with instrumentation and control (I&C) systems currently being installed. Delays to the I&C installation have occurred because changes in system specifications required additional U.S. supplied computer control equipment to be purchased, and clearance through customs (both U.S. and Russian) has been slow. Start-up testing has been limited to testing of isolated sub-systems because of the delays in the I&C installation. The current state of the Russian economy and completion of a cementation unit, which was not part of the original tri-partite agreement, have hampered final construction activities. Russian regulatory authorities have stated that final licensing for expanded capacity (5,000 m{sup 3}/year) would not be given until the cementation unit was on-line. Completion of the project is now scheduled for August 1999.
Date: February 28, 1999
Creator: BOWERMAN,B.; CZAJKOWSKI,C. & DYER,R.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plasma Aftertreatment for Simultaneous Control of NOx and Particulates

Description: Plasma reactors can be operated as a particulate trap or as a NO{sub x} converter. The soluble organic fraction (SOF) of the trapped particulates can be utilized for the oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2}. The NO{sub 2} can then be used to non-thermally oxidize the carbon fraction of the particulates. This paper examines the energy density required for oxidation of the SOF hydrocarbons and the fate of NO{sub 2} during the oxidation of the particulate carbon. The energy density required for complete oxidation of the SOF hydrocarbons is shown to be unacceptably large. The reaction of NO{sub 2} with carbon is shown to lead mainly to backconversion of NO{sub 2} to NO. These results suggest that the use of a catalyst in combination with the plasma will be required to efficiently reduce the NO{sub x} and oxidize the SOF hydrocarbons.
Date: October 28, 1999
Creator: Penetrante, B.M.; Brusasco, R.M.; Merritt, B.T.; Pitz, W.J. & Vogtlin, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Composite polymer electrolytes using fumed silica fillers: synthesis, rheology and electrochemistry

Description: The goal of the synthesis research was to devise routes to PEG/fumed silica/lithium salt composites that can be processed and then photochemically cross-linked to form mechanically stable electrolytes. An essential feature of the system is that the ionic conductivity and the mechanical properties must be de-coupled from each other, i.e., cross-linking of the fumed silica matrix must not cause a significant deterioration of the conductivity of the composite. As shown in Figure 2, we prepared a range of surface-modified fumed silicas and investigated their ability to form mechanically stable composite electrolytes. The groups used to modify the surface properties of the silica ranged from simple linear alkyls that render the silica hydrophobia to polyethers that promote compatibility with the electrolyte. From these materials we developed a cross-linkable system that satisfies the criteria of processibility and high-conductivity. The key material needed for the cross-linking reaction are silicas that bear surface-attached monomers. As shown schematically in Figure 3a, we prepared fumed silicas with a combination of surface groups, for example, an octyl chain with different coverages of tethered methacrylates. The length of the tether was varied, and we found that both C{sub 3} and C{sub 8} tethers gave useful composites. The functionalized silicas were combined with PEG-DM, AIBN or benzophenone (free radical initiators), LiClO{sub 4} or Li imide, and either methyl, butyl, or octyl, methacrylate to form stable clear gels. Upon irradiation with UV light, polymerization of both the tethered methacrylate and the added methacrylate took place, yielding a cross-linked rubbery composite material. Ionic conductivity measurements before and after cross-linking showed only a slight decrease (see Figure 9 later), thereby offering strong experimental evidence that the mechanical properties conferred by the silica matrix are de-coupled from the ionic conductivity of the PEG-DM matrix.
Date: June 28, 1999
Creator: Khan, Saad A.; Fedkiw, Peter S. & Baker, Gregory L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BTS Fact Sheet: Improving the efficiency of your duct system

Description: The duct system, used in air heating and air cooling your home, is a collection of tubes that distributes the heated or cooled air to the various rooms. The duct system can have an important effect on health of the occupants through the distribution of indoor air pollution. Changes and repairs to a duct system should always be performed by a qualified professional. This brochure is meant to help you understand the problems that can affect the duct system and how you can save money, improve comfort, and protect against potential health hazards.
Date: December 28, 1999
Creator: Brookhaven National Laboratory
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reservoir Characterization, Production Characteristics, and Research Needs for Fluvial/Alluvial Reservoirs in the United States

Description: The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program was initiated in 1992 to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from known domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. Cost-shared field demonstration projects are being initiated in geology defined reservoir classes which have been prioritized by their potential for incremental recovery and their risk of abandonment. This document defines the characteristics of the fifth geological reservoir class in the series, fluvial/alluvial reservoirs. The reservoirs of Class 5 include deposits of alluvial fans, braided streams, and meandering streams. Deposit morphologies vary as a complex function of climate and tectonics and are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity to fluid flow as a result of extreme variations in water energy as the deposits formed.
Date: April 28, 1999
Creator: Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Jackson, S.R.; Madden, M.P.; Raw-Schatzinger, V.; Salamy, S.P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1 (with Record of Technical Change No. 1 and 2)

Description: This plan contains the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate correction action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 143 consists of two waste dumps used for the disposal of solid radioactive wastes. Contaminated Waste Dump No.1 (CAS 25-23-09) was used for wastes generated at the Reactor Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (R-MAD) Facility and Contaminated Waste Dump No.2 (CAS 25-23-03) was used for wastes generated at the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) Facility. Both the R-MAD and E-MAD facilities are located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site. Based on site history, radionuclides are the primary constituent of concern and are located in these disposal areas; vertical and lateral migration of the radionuclides is unlikely; and if migration has occurred it will be limited to the soil beneath the Contaminated Waste Disposal Dumps. The proposed investigation will involve a combination of Cone Penetrometer Testing within and near the solid waste disposal dumps, field analysis for radionuclides and volatile organic compounds, as well as sample collection from the waste dumps and surrounding areas for off-site chemical, radiological, and geotechnical analyses. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.
Date: June 28, 1999
Creator: United States. Department of Energy. Nevada Operations Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vibration-Based Damage Detection in Rotating Machinery

Description: Damage detection as determined from changes in the vibration characteristics of a system has been a popular research topic for the last thirty years. Numerous damage identification algorithms have been proposed for detecting and locating damage in structural and mechanical systems. To date, these damage-detection methods have shown mixed results. A particular application of vibration-based damage detection that has perhaps enjoyed the greatest success is that of damage detection in rotating machinery. This paper summarizes the state of technology in vibration-based damage detection applied to rotating machinery. The review interprets the damage detection process in terms of a statistical pattern recognition paradigm that encompasses all vibration-based damage detection methods and applications. The motivation for the study reported herein is to identify the reasons that vibration-based damage detection has been successfully applied to rotating machinery, but has yet to show robust applications to civil engineering infrastructure. The paper concludes by comparing and contrasting the vibration-based damage detection applied to rotating machinery with large civil engineering infrastructure applications.
Date: June 28, 1999
Creator: Farrar, C.R. & Duffey, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tensile Creep Properties of the 50Au-50Cu Braze Alloy

Description: The 50Au-50CU (wt.%) alloy is a solid-solution strengthened braze alloy used extensively in conventional, hermetic metal/ceramic brazing applications where low vapor pressure is a requirement. Typical metal/ceramic base materials would be Kovar<sup>TM</sup> alloy and metallized and Ni-plated 94% alumina ceramic. The elevated temperature mechanical properties are important for permitting FEA evaluation of residual stresses in metal/ceramic brazes given specific geometries and braze cooldown profiles. For material with an atomic composition of 76.084 at.% CL 23.916 Au (i.e., on the Cu-rich side of Cu<sub>3</sub>Au) that was annealed for 2 hr. at 750&deg;C and water quenched a Garofalo sinh equation was found to adequately characterize the minimum strain rate data over the temperature mnge 450-850&deg;C. At lower temperatures (250 arid 350&deg;C), a conventional power law equation was found to characterize the data. For samples held long periods of time at 375&deg;C (96 hrs.) and slowly cooled to room temperature, a slight strengthening reaction was observed: with the stress necessary to reach the same strain rate increasing by about 15% above the baseline annealed and quenched data. X-ray diffiction indicates that the 96 hr at 375&deg;C + slow cool condition does indeed order. The microhardness of the ordered samples indicates a value of 94.5 VHN, compared to 93.7 VHN for the baseline annealed and quenched (disordered FCC) samples. From a brazing perspective, the relative sluggishness of this ordering reaction does not appear to pose a problem for braze joints cooled at reasonable rates following brazing.
Date: May 28, 1999
Creator: Stephens, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Etched silicon gratings for NGST

Description: The authors have developed the world's first etched silicon grisms at LLNL in September 1999. The high optical surface quality of the grisms allows diffraction-limited spectral resolution in the IR wavelengths where silicon has good transmission. They estimated that the scattering light level is less than 4% at 2.2 {micro}m. Silicon can significantly increase the dispersive power of spectroscopic instruments for NGST due to its very large refractive index (n = 3.4). For example, a silicon grism with 40 mm clear entrance aperture and a 46 wedge angle can provide R = 10,000--100,000 in {approximately} 1--10 {micro}m. The same grating working in the immersed reflection mode can provide {approximately} three times higher spectral resolution than in the transmission mode. To achieve a desired spectral resolution for NGST, the spectrograph size and weight can be significantly reduced if silicon gratings are used instead of conventional gratings.
Date: October 28, 1999
Creator: Ge, J.; Ciarlo, D.; Kuzmenko, P.; Macintosh, B.; Alcock, C. & Cook, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tritium Concentrations in the F- and H-Area Seeplines and the Fourmile Branch at SRS: March and August 1998 Events and 1989-1998 Summary

Description: The Environmental Analysis Section (EAS) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) conducted a quarterly monitoring program of the Fourmile Branch (FMB) stream and its associated seepline located down gradient from the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins from May 1992 to May 2995. The overall summary (1989-1998) indicates that the tritium plumes are surfacing in somewhat localized areas along the F-Area and 643-E seeplines.
Date: May 28, 1999
Creator: Koch, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assuring the Performance of Buildings and Infrastructures: Report of Discussions

Description: How to ensure the appropriate performance of our built environment in the face of normal conditions, natural hazards, and malevolent threats is an issue of emerging national and international importance. As the world population increases, new construction must be increasingly cost effective and at the same time increasingly secure, safe, and durable. As the existing infrastructure ages, materials and techniques for retrofitting must be developed in parallel with improvements in design, engineering, and building codes for new construction. Both new and renovated structures are more often being subjected to the scrutiny of risk analysis. An international conference, "Assuring the Performance of Buildings and Infrastructures," was held in May 1997 to address some of these issues. The conference was co-sponsored by the Architectural Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), the American Institute of Architects, and Sandia National Laboratories and convened in Albuquerque, NM. Many of the papers presented at the conference are found within this issue of Techno20~. This paper presents some of the major conference themes and summarizes discussions not found in the other papers.
Date: May 28, 1999
Creator: Hunter, Regina L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Parametric Optimization of the MEO Process for Treatment of Mixed Waste Residues

Description: A series of bench-scale experiments were conducted to determine the optimum reaction conditions for destruction of styrene-divinyl benzene based cation resin and methylene chloride by the mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO) process. Reaction parameters examined include choice of electron transfer mediator, reaction temperature and solvent system. For the cation exchange resins, maximum destruction efficiencies were obtained using cerium (IV) as mediator in nitric acid at a temperature of 70 C. Reasonable efficiencies were also realized with silver(II) and cobalt (III) at ambient temperature in the same solvent. Use of sulfuric acid as the solvent yielded much lower efficiencies under equivalent conditions. Methylene chloride was found to react only with silver (II) at ambient temperature in nitric acid media, cobalt (III) and cerium (IV) were totally ineffective. These results demonstrate a need to perform bench-scale experiments to determine optimum operating conditions for each organic substrate targeted for treatment by the MEO process.
Date: February 28, 1999
Creator: Cournoyer, M. E. & Smith, W. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HIGH INTENSITY BEAM OPERATION OF THE BROOKHAVEN AGS

Description: For the last few years the Brookhaven AGS has operated at record proton intensities. This high beam intensity allowed for the simultaneous operation of several high precision rare kaon decay experiments. The record beam intensities were achieved after the AGS Booster was commissioned and a transition jump system, a powerful transverse damper, and an rf upgrade in the AGS were completed. The intensity is presently limited by space charge effects at both Booster and AGS injection and transverse instabilities in the AGS.
Date: June 28, 1999
Creator: ROSER,T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department