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Design, build, develop and test a fieldworthy spiral tool and packer for casing repair

Description: A method for sealing casing is currently under development by Nu-Bore Systems. The method involves internally lining a section of the wellbore with a multi-layer spiral wrapping of a high strength, corrosion resistant metal, interleaved with a high bond strength, resilient epoxy. The high strength metal is preferably a copper based alloy hardened to a very high strength in order to resist the internal and external pressures of downhole environments. The epoxy adhesive formulation is one that forms a bond between the steel inner wall of the casing and copper alloy strip. The copper alloy strip spiral wraps are interleaved with epoxy, and the whole system provides a high level of outward directed spring force and, thus, resists both internal and externally directed forces. In this report, the cost savings to the nation's energy program was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of millions of dollars per year, and the method wag judged technically feasible once certain well defined engineering obstacles are overcome.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Koster, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of stress on the microstructure of a graywacke sandstone from the site of the Rio Blanco gas-stimulation experiment

Description: Project Rio Blanco was designed to increase rock permeability in an existing gas reservoir by fracturing the rock with a vertical array of three simultaneous nuclear explosions. The project site was CER Geonuclear hole RB-E- 01, Section 14, T35, R98W, Rio Blanco County, in the Piceance Creek Basin of northwest Colorado. The most essential part of this project was to produce fracturing in, and thereby to increase the permeability of, the reservoir rock. This report contains the results of optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies done on unstressed and laboratory-stressed samples of graywacke sandstone from the 6458-ft level of the emplacement hole. Laboratory-stressed samples were from uniaxial-stress and uniaxial-strain tests made as part of equation-of-state measurements used to provide input parameters for preshot code calculations. (auth)
Date: September 30, 1975
Creator: Dengler, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas hydrate reservoir characteristics and economics

Description: The primary objective of the DOE-funded USGS Gas Hydrate Program is to assess the production characteristics and economic potential of gas hydrates in northern Alaska. The objectives of this project for FY-1992 will include the following: (1) Utilize industry seismic data to assess the distribution of gas hydrates within the nearshore Alaskan continental shelf between Harrison Bay and Prudhoe Bay; (2) Further characterize and quantify the well-log characteristics of gas hydrates; and (3) Establish gas monitoring stations over the Eileen fault zone in northern Alaska, which will be used to measure gas flux from destabilized hydrates.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Collett, T.S.; Bird, K.J.; Burruss, R.C. & Lee, Myung W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydraulic fracture design optimization

Description: This research and development investigation, sponsored by US DOE and the oil and gas industry, extends previously developed hydraulic fracture geometry models and applied energy related characteristic time concepts towards the optimal design and control of hydraulic fracture geometries. The primary objective of this program is to develop rational criteria, by examining the associated energy rate components during the hydraulic fracture evolution, for the formulation of stimulation treatment design along with real-time fracture configuration interpretation and control.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Lee, Tae-Soo & Advani, S.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Volume 1. Executive Summary and Task Reports. Annual progress report

Description: The first portion of the report, from the Executive Summary (page 1) through the Schedule of Milestones (page 10), gives a general overview which highlights our progress and problems for the second year. The Task report portion of the text, written by individual task investigators, is designed primarily for scientists interested in technical details of the second year's work. The second portion of the report consists of appendices of data compiled by the principal investigators.
Date: October 1, 1978
Creator: Shumaker, R.C.; de Wys, J.N. & Dixon, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rock matrix and fracture analysis of flow in western tight gas sands

Description: Advanced core analysis includes measurements on the matrix properties of the rock. Matrix properties are important even in fractured wells since it is these properties which determine the rate of gas flow into the fractures. Cores are being tested from the fluvial, coastal, and paludal zones of the Mesaverde. At least two cores from each of these zones from all three wells will be analyzed. Properties measured include permeability as a function of confining pressure over the range of 500 to 5000 psi. A minimum of two Klinkenberg permeabilities are being determined from at least five data points. Interpretation includes estimates of pore size from gas slippage. Water adsorption and desorption isotherms will be determined for selected samples with data points being obtained at the following relative humidities: 0, 20, 40, 60, 75, 90, 92, 95 and 98. Porosity measurements from both thin section examination and volumetric measurements are being made. These results will be compared with the porosities of the cored internals determined from logs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Morrow, N.R.; Brower, K.R. & Ward, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Horizontal drilling in shallow reservoirs

Description: The objectives of this joint horizontal drilling effort by the US DOE and Belden Blake in the complex, low permeability Clinton Sandstone will focus on the following objectives: (1) apply horizontal drilling technology in hard, abrasive, and tight Clinton Sandstone; (2) evaluate effects of multiple hydraulic fracturing in a low permeability horizontal wellbore; (3) assess economic viability of horizontal drilling in the Clinton and similar tight gas sands.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Murray, W.F. Jr.; Schrider, L.A.; Haynes, C.D. & Mazza, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Color movie simulation of a gas--water reservoir

Description: This paper presents the methodology for simulating hydrocarbon production from a gas-water reservoir using the GASP IV Simulation Language. A novel feature of this simulation application is the development of a 16 mm color movie for presentation of the results. This movie provides an effective mechanism for describing the behavior of the gas-water reservoir model under various operating conditions.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Johnson, M.E. & Monash, E.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TRU VU rig instrumentation

Description: TRU VU was developed in response to the growing need for real time rig instrumentation that interface various rig systems into a common database. TRU VU is a WITS compatible (Wellsite Information Transfer Standard) system that logs drilling data and MWD data into a common database. Real time data as well as historical data can be viewed from up to eight locations on the rig or from numerous locations in communication with the rig. The TRU VU well monitoring package can be configured to operate manned or unmanned depending on the specific requirements of the operator or drilling contractor. TRU VU does not require a drilling recorder and is totally independent of all rig systems. For example, depth is monitored directly from the draw works and can monitor pipe movement while drilling or tripping. Weight on bit is zeroed automatically on each connection and does not require manual input.
Date: February 15, 1993
Creator: Boone, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multiwell experiment: Overview

Description: This field laboratory has been established about 7 mi southwest of Rifle, Colorado. Here the Mesaverde formation lies at a depth of 4000 to 8250 ft. This interval contains different, distinct reservoir types depending upon their depositional environments. These different zones serve as the focus of the various testing and stimulation programs. One key to the Multiwell Experiment is three closely spaced wells. Their 110 to 215 ft separation at depth is less than the nominal dimensions of the lenses in the area. Core, log, well testing, and well-to-well seismic data are providing a far better definition of the geological setting than has been available previously. Comprehensive logging and core analysis programs were conducted. The closely spaced wells also allow interference and tracer tests to obtain in situ reservoir parameters. The vertical variation of in situ stress throughout the intervals of interest is being measured. A series of stimulation experiments is being conducted in one well and the other two wells are being used as observation wells for improved fracture diagnostics and well testing. Another key to achieving the Multiwell Experiment objectives is the synergism resulting from a broad spectrum of activities: geophysical surveys, sedimentological studies, core and log analyses, well testing, in situ stress determination, stimulation, fracture diagnostics, and reservoir analyses. The results from the various activities will define the reservoir and the hydraulic fracture. These, in turn, define the net pay stimulated: the intersection of a hydraulic fracture of known geometry with a reservoir of known morphology and properties. These definitions are further enhanced by the fact that most data will come from closely spaced wells. Thus, spatial variations in reservoir properties can be quantified. 10 refs.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Lorenz, J.C.; Sattler, A.R.; Warpinski, N.R.; Thorne, B.J. & Branagan, P.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mud Pulse Logging While Drilling Telemetry System: Design, Development, and Demonstrations

Description: Mud pulse telemetry is a method of transmitting information from the vicinity of the drill bit to the surface drilling platform while drilling. Information can be conveyed through a flowing column of drilling mud by the presence or absence of pressure pulses arranged in a binary code. Pressure in the flowing mud column is periodically modulated at a point downhole by mechanical means, and the resulting periodic pressure pulses appearing at the surface end of the mud column are detected by a pressure transducer conveniently located in the standpipe. Although the concept of mud-pulse telemetry is not new, only recently have sophisticated systems embodying mud-powered turbine generators and solid-state electronics been developed to the point of being able to withstand the hostile downhole environment. After ten years of active technology development and over $10 million of R and D expenditures, Teleco has demonstrated through field tests carried out in the Gulf of Mexico during 1977, that equipment reliability necessary for commercial operation is essentially at hand. Three generations of prototype systems were tested under actual drilling conditions during 1968 through 1977. Using eight new production systems, Teleco began a Pilot Service Demonstration in August 1977, under a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy and six major oil companies. Each system consisting of a sensor assembly and mud pulse telemetry transmitter measures borehole azimuth, inclination, and tool facing. Accurate directional measurements have been provided from kick-off through to target depth with minimum interruption to the drilling operation. Tool face information has been used to successfully kick-off directional wells using both mud motor and jet deflection techniques. Equipment reliability, as indicated by recent test runs of 254 and 272 hours of drilling with two separate systems, without failure, is approaching the level needed for commercial service.
Date: July 1978
Creator: Spinnler, R. F. & Stone, F. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design, build, develop, and test a fieldworthy spiral tool and packer for casing repair

Description: A new method for sealing casing is currently under development by Nu-Bore Systems. The method involves internally lining a section of the wellbore with a multi-layer spiral wrapping of a high strength, corrosion resistant metal interleaved with a high bond strength, resilient epoxy. The high strength metal is preferably a copper based alloy hardened to a very high strength in order to resist the internal and external pressures of downhole environments. The epoxy adhesive formulation is one that forms a bond between the steel inner wall of the casing and copper alloy strip. The copper alloy strip spiral wraps are interleaved with epoxy, and the whole system provides a high level of outward directed spring force and, thus, resists both internal and externally directed forces. This method has been assessed by the Department of Energy, and the magnitude of the oilfield need and the technology are described in a DoE report entitled, Downhole Casing Repair System'' (OERI Number 013152). In this report, the cost savings to the nation's energy program was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of millions of dollars per year, and the method was judged technically feasible once certain well defined engineering obstacles are overcome.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Koster, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonlinear filtering in oil/gas reservoir simulation: filter design

Description: In order to provide an additional mode of utility to the USGS reservoir model VARGOW, a nonlinear filter was designed and incorporated into the system. As a result, optimal (in the least squares sense) estimates of reservoir pressure, liquid mass, and gas cap plus free gas mass are obtained from an input of reservoir initial condition estimates and pressure history. These optimal estimates are provided continuously for each time after the initial time, and the input pressure history is allowed to be corrupted by measurement error. Preliminary testing of the VARGOW filter was begun and the results show promise. Synthetic data which could be readily manipulated during testing was used in tracking tests. The results were positive when the initial estimates of the reservoir initial conditions were reasonably close. Further testing is necessary to investigate the filter performance with real reservoir data.
Date: October 1, 1980
Creator: Arnold, E.M.; Voss, D.A. & Mayer, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the natural gas research and development contractors review meeting

Description: The purpose of this meeting was to present results of the research in the DOE-sponsored Natural Gas Program, and simultaneously to provide a forum for real-time technology transfer, to the active research community, to the interested public, and to the natural gas industry, who are the primary users of this technology. The current research focus is to expand the base of near-term and mid-term economic gas resources through research activities in Eastern Tight Gas, Western Tight Gas, Secondary Gas Recovery (increased recovery of gas from mature fields); to enhance utilization, particularly of remote gas resources through research in Natural Gas to Liquids Conversion; and to develop additional, long term, potential gas resources through research in Gas Hydrates and Deep Gas. With the increased national emphasis on the use of natural gas, this forum has been expanded to include summaries of DOE-sponsored research in energy-related programs and perspectives on the importance of gas to future world energy. Thirty-two papers and fourteen poster presentations were given in seven formal, and one informal, sessions: Three general sessions (4 papers); Western Tight Gas (6 papers); Eastern Tight Gas (8 papers); Conventional/Speculative Resources (8 papers); and Gas to Liquids (6 papers). Individual reports are processed separately on the data bases.
Date: November 1, 1990
Creator: Malone, R.D.; Shoemaker, H.D. & Byrer, C.W. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources

Description: The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.
Date: June 1, 1991
Creator: Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D. & Patil, S.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

Description: The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC's existing electromagnetic (e-m) CABLELESS''{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Rubin, L.A. & Harrison, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulator for unconventional gas resources multi-dimensional model SUGAR-MD. Volume I. Reservoir model analysis and validation

Description: The Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, has been supporting the development of flow models for Devonian shale gas reservoirs. The broad objectives of this modeling program are: (1) To develop and validate a mathematical model which describes gas flow through Devonian shales. (2) To determine the sensitive parameters that affect deliverability and recovery of gas from Devonian shales. (3) To recommend laboratory and field measurements for determination of those parameters critical to the productivity and timely recovery of gas from the Devonian shales. (4) To analyze pressure and rate transient data from observation and production gas wells to determine reservoir parameters and well performance. (5) To study and determine the overall performance of Devonian shale reservoirs in terms of well stimulation, well spacing, and resource recovery as a function of gross reservoir properties such as anisotropy, porosity and thickness variations, and boundary effects. The flow equations that are the mathematical basis of the two-dimensional model are presented. It is assumed that gas transport to producing wells in Devonian shale reservoirs occurs through a natural fracture system into which matrix blocks of contrasting physical properties deliver contained gas. That is, the matrix acts as a uniformly distributed gas source in a fracture medium. Gas desorption from pore walls is treated as a uniformly distributed source within the matrix blocks. 24 references.
Date: January 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility study of a hybrid erosion drilling concept

Description: The results of a system analysis of the ERODRILL concept are presented. ERODRILL is an erosion drilling technique that uses a stream of propellant capsules carried in the drilling mud and ignited near the bottom of the drill hole to provide a fluid jet on the rock face. The concept evaluated in this study was a hybrid system using the erosion drill to cut a kerf for a conventional rotary drill to break to. A preliminary design was made and a hypergolic propellant, Hercules HES 6573, was chosen. The background and rationale for this program are presented. The system, from its initial conception to its current hybrid design, is described. The propellant selection process is presented. The hazard evaluation, reliability analysis, and the economic analysis are given. Conclusions and recommendations are included. (MHR)
Date: June 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drilling and early testing of a sidetrack from the slant hole completion test well

Description: During the winter of 1990 to 1991, the Department of Energy evaluated several options to completing the originally-planned slant hole production tests. A decision was made to sidetrack the original hole and to redrill the 60 and 90{degrees} sections. The objectives for drilling the sidetrack to the original slant hole wellbore are as follows: (1) Test high angle and horizontal drilling and completion technologies as an alternative to vertical wells and hydraulic fracture treatments in tight, naturally-fractured reservoirs. (2) Production test the Cozzette open-hole interval into the pipeline to determine long-term gas productivity. (3) Production test selected paludal sandstones in the 60{degrees} section of the wellbore to determine long term gas productivity. A complex well path was designed to parallel the optimum northerly azimuth and the high angle-horizontal inclination program, but to directionally drill the lower wellbore 1000 ft to the east of the old hole. The hole displacement was planned to avoid formation damage from over 1500 barrels of drilling mud lost in the first well. Figure 1 presents the Mesaverde geologic column near the wellsite.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Myal, F.R. & Branagan, P.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydraulic fracturing of the Devonian Shale with a non-damaging fluid

Description: The objectives of this project are: (1) To demonstrate within the Appalachian Basin the use of liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as a medium for hydraulically fracturing the Devonian Shale, while transporting sand as a proppant. The project scope includes considering candidate wells in up to five (5) states, Kentucky, Ohio, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. (2) To compare and rank the gas production responses from wells treated with liquid CO{sub 2} with other types of treatments (shooting, water based, nitrogen, etc. ). These demonstrations will involve two phases: Phase I -- up to fifteen (15) wells in up to five (5) target areas. (Aug. 93); Phase II -- up to nine (9) wells in up to three (3) target areas (seventeen (17) months).
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Mazza, R.L. & Gehr, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Collection of VLE data for acid gas-alkanolamine systems using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

Description: The industrial standard process for the purification of natural gas is to remove acid gases, mainly hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, by the absorption and reaction of these gases with alkanolamines. Inadequate data for vapor -- liquid equilibrium (VLE) hinder the industry from converting operations to more energy efficient amine mixtures and conserving energy. Some energy reductions have been realized in the past decade by applying such amine systems as hindered'' amines, methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and MDEA based amine mixtures. However, the lack of reliable and accurate fundamental VLE data impedes the commercial application of these more efficient alkanolamine systems. The first project objective is to improve the accuracy of vapor -- liquid equilibrium measurements at low hydrogen sulfide concentrations. The second project objective is to measure the VLE for amine mixtures. By improving the accuracy of the VLE measurements on MDEA and mixtures with other amines, energy saving can be quickly and confidently implemented in the many existing absorption units already in use. If about 25% of the existing 95.3 billion SCFD gas purification capacity is converted to these new amine systems, the energy savings are estimated to be about 3 {times} 10{sup 14} BTU/yr.
Date: September 1, 1991
Creator: Bullin, J.A. & Frazier, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation studies to evaluate the effect of fracture closure on the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs

Description: The study has two principal objectives: (1) To evaluate the effects of fracture closure on the recovery of oil and gas reserves from naturally fractured petroleum or natural gas reservoirs. (2) To evaluate procedures for improving the recovery of these reserves using innovative fluid injection techniques to maintain reservoir pressure and mitigate the impact of fracture closure. The total scope of the study has been subdivided into three main tasks: (1) Baseline studies (non-pressure sensitive fractures); (2)studies with pressure sensitive fractures; and (3) innovative approaches for improving oil recovery.
Date: July 15, 1991
Creator: Dauben, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department