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Two-Dimensional Potential Flows

Description: Contents include the following: Characteristic differential equations - initial and boundary conditions. Integration of the second characteristic differential equations. Direct application of Meyer's characteristic hodograph table for construction of two-dimensional potential flows. Prandtl-Busemann method. Development of the pressure variation for small deflection angles. Numerical table: relation between deflection, pressure, velocity, mach number and mach angle for isentropic changes of state according to Prandtl-Meyer for air (k = 1.405). References.
Date: November 1949
Creator: Schäefer, Manfred & Tollmien, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rotationally Symmetric Potential Flows

Description: This paper includes the following topics: 1) Characteristic differential equations; 2) Treatment of practical examples; 3) First example: Diffuser; and 4) Second Example: Nozzle.
Date: November 1949
Creator: Schäefer, Manfred & Tollmien, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theory of Characteristics

Description: The theory of characteristics will be presented generally for quasilinear differential equations of the second order in two variables. This is necessary because of the manifold requirements to be demanded from the theory of characteristics.
Date: September 1949
Creator: Tollmien, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of the Method of Coordinate Perturbation to Unsteady Duct Flow

Description: The method of coordinate perturbation is applied to the unsteady flow of a compressible fluid in ducts of variable cross section. Solutions, in the form of perturbation series, are obtained for unsteady flows in ducts for which the logarithmic derivative of area variation with respect to the space coordinate is a function of the 'smallness' parameter of the perturbation series. This technique is applied to the problem of the interaction of a disturbance and a shock wave in a diffuser flow. It is found that, for a special choice of the function describing the disturbance, the path of the shock wave can be expressed in closed form to first order. The method is then applied to the determination of the flow field behind a shock wave moving on a prescribed path in the x,t-plane. Perturbation series solutions for quite general paths are developed. The perturbation series solutions are compared with the more exact solutions obtained by the application of the method of characteristics. The approximate solutions are shown to be in reasonably accurate agreement with the solutions obtained by the method of characteristics.
Date: September 1958
Creator: Himmel, Seymour C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of the Acceleration of Elongated Bodies of Revolution Upon the Resistance in a Compressible Flow

Description: The problem of the motion of an elongated body of revolution in an incompressible fluid may, as is known, be solved approximately with the aid of the distribution of sources along the axis of the body. In determining the velocity field, the question of whether the body moves uniformly or with an acceleration is no factor in the problem. The presence of acceleration must be taken into account in determining the pressures acting on the body. The resistance of the body arising from the accelerated motion may be computed either directly on the basis of these pressures or with the aid of the so-called associated masses (inertia coefficients). A different condition holds in the case of the motion of bodies in a compressible gas. In this case the finite velocity of sound must be taken into account.
Date: May 1949
Creator: Frankl, F. I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the Formation of Shock Waves in Subsonic Flows With Local Supersonic Velocities

Description: In the flow about a body with large subsonic velocity if the velocity of the approaching flow is sufficiently large, regions of local supersonic velocities are formed about the body. It is known from experiment that these regions downstream of the flow are always bounded by shock waves; a continuous transition of the supersonic velocity to the subsonic under the conditions indicated has never been observed. A similar phenomenon occurs in pipes. If at two cross sections of the pipe the velocity is subsonic and between these sections regions of local supersonic velocity are formed without completely occupying a single cross section, these regions are always bounded by shock waves.
Date: April 1950
Creator: Frankl, F. I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The fundamental principles of high-speed semi-diesel engines. Part 1: a general discussion of the subject of fuel injection in diesel engines and detailed descriptions of many types of injection nozzles

Description: Three questions relating to the technical progress in the utilization of heavy oils are discussed. The first question considers solid injection in high-speed automobile engines, the second concerns the development of the hot-bulb engine, and the third question relates to the need for a more thorough investigation of the processes on which the formatation of combustible, rapidly-burning mixtures depend.
Date: April 1926
Creator: Büchner
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integral methods in the theory of the boundary layer

Description: From Summary: "The application of the well-known basic principle of mechanics, the principle of Jourdain, to problems of the theory of the boundary layer leads to an equation from which the equations of Von Karman, Leibenson, and Golubev are derived as special cases. The given equation may be employed in other integral methods. The present paper deals with the method of the variation of the thickness of the boundary layer. A number of new approximate formulas valuable in aerodynamic calculations for the friction distribution are derived from this procedure. The method has been applied only to laminar boundary layers, but it seems probable that it may be generalized to include turbulent layers as well."
Date: July 1944
Creator: Loitsianskii, L. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A new spinning-test method

Description: This report contains a description of a new spinning-test arrangement wherein the otherwise customary rotation of the model about a fixed axis is abandoned in favor of a corresponding rotation of the air stream. The advantage of this method lies in the fact that the model is at rest while the spin is recorded. In this manner it is possible to secure systematic results with little loss of time while employing 3- or 6-component wind-tunnel balances. The troublesome equalization of the mass forces is eliminated and the flow phenomena are accessible to direct observation.
Date: April 1938
Creator: Kramer, M. & Krüger, K. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical methods for computing the polar curves of airplanes

Description: This report presents a method of calculating polar curves which is at least as precise as graphical methods, but it more rapid. Knowing the wind tunnel test of a wing and the performances of an airplane of the same profile, it is easy to verify the characteristic coefficients and, at the same time, the methods determining induced resistances.
Date: March 1921
Creator: Le Sueur
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air forces and air-force moments at large angles of attack and how they are affected by the shape of the wing

Description: From Summary: "The present report is, in the first place, a compilation of the test results now available from wing tests up to angles of attack 90^o. Reports are also given of tests with monoplane and auxiliary wings in the Gottingen wind tunnel for the purpose of plotting a steadily rising curve of the normal force as a foundation of the angle of attack."
Date: July 1930
Creator: Fuchs, Richard & Schmidt, Wilhelm
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air reactions to objects moving at rates above the velocity of sound with application to the air propeller

Description: From Discussion: "To meet these unusual conditions three sets of ball-bearings were employed and arranged in tandem, thereby reducing their speeds by the ratio of the number of sets used, as shown in Fig.3. This proved to be a complete success. The results obtained in experiments with a two-blade, 4 foot propeller of series 2, are given in Fig. 9."
Date: November 1922
Creator: Reed, S. Albert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The apparent width of the plate in compression

Description: This report discusses an investigation that treats the load capacity of a rectangular plate stressed in compression on one direction (x) beyond the buckling limit and the plate is rotatable (i.e., free from moments) supported at all four sides by bending-resistant beams.
Date: July 1937
Creator: Marguerre, Karl
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental study of flow past turbine blades

Description: From Introduction: "The requirements on gas turbines for aircraft power units, namely, adequate efficiency, operation at high gas temperatures, low weight, and small dimensions, must be taken into consideration during the design of the blading. To secure good efficiency, it is necessary that the gas flow past the blades as smoothly as possible without separation. This is relatively easily obtainable in the accelerated flow of turbine blading, if the blade spacing is chosen small enough. A small blade spacing, however, is detrimental to the other requirements outlined above. Operation at high gas temperatures usually calls for blade cooling. This cooling is associated with a power input that lowers the turbine efficiency. Since the amount of heat that must be carried off for coding a blade can be influenced rather little, the gross power input for a turbine stage can be reduced by keeping the number of blades to a minimum, that is, with blades of high spacing ratio. But here also a limit is imposed, the exceeding of which is followed by separation of flow. Hence the requirement of finding blade forms on which the flow separates at rather high spacing ratios."
Date: June 1949
Creator: Eckert, E. & Vietinghoff-Scheel, K. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Heat Transfer to a Plate in Flow at High Speed

Description: From Summary: "The heat transfer in the laminar boundary layer of a heated plate in flow at high speed can be obtained by integration of the conventional differential equations of the boundary layer, so long as the material values can be regarded as constant. This premise is fairly well satisfied at speeds up to about twice the sonic speed and at not excessive temperature rise of the heated plate. The general solution of the equation includes Pohlhausen's specific cases of heat transfer to a plate at low speeds and of the plate thermometer. The solution shows that the heat transfer coefficient at high speed must be computed with the same equation as at low speed, when it is referred to the difference of the wall temperature of the heated plate in respect to its "natural temperature." Since this fact follows from the linear structure of the differential equation describing the temperature field, it is equally applicable to the heat transfer in the turbulent boundary layer."
Date: May 1943
Creator: Eckert, E. & Drewitz, O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The 5- by 7-meter wind tunnel of the DVL

Description: The report contains a description of the DVL wind tunnel. According to the cones fixed, an elliptical stream with axes 5 by 7 meters and length 9 meters, or a stream 6 by 8 meters in cross section and 11 meters in length is available. The top speed with the smaller cone is 65 meters per second. The testing equipment consists of an automatic six-component balance and a test rig for propellers and engines up to 650 horsepower.
Date: March 1936
Creator: Kramer, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Systematic airfoil tests in the large wind tunnel of the DVL

Description: The present report is a description of systematic tests at maximum lift on airfoils with and without split flap and of profile drag at low lift. In order to obtain an opinion as to the suitability of the airfoils with flaps, the maximum-lift measurements were repeated on airfoils with split flaps. The profile drag at low lift was arrived at by direct weighing and momentum measurements and, since the profiles were of unusual depth, extended to large Reynolds numbers.
Date: March 1938
Creator: Doetsch, H. & Kramer, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistical analysis of the time and fatigue strength of aircraft wing structures

Description: The results from stress measurements in flight operation afford data for analyzing the frequency of appearance of certain parts of the static breaking strength during a specified number of operating hours. Appropriate frequency evaluations furnish data for the prediction of the required strength under repeated stress in the wing structures of aircraft of the different stress categories for the specified number of operating hours demanded during the life of a component.
Date: October 1941
Creator: Kaul, Hans W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department