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Kinetics of Chemical Reactions in Flames

Description: In part I of the paper the theory of flame propagation is developed along the lines followed by Frank-Kamenetsky and one of the writers. The development of chain processes in flames is considered. A basis is given for the application of the method of stationary concentrations to reactions in flames; reactions with branching chains are analyzed. The case of a diffusion coefficient different from the coefficient of temperature conductivity is considered.
Date: June 1946
Creator: Zeldovich, Y. & Semenov, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Equations for Adiabatic but Rotational Steady Gas Flows without Friction

Description: This paper makes the following assumptions: 1) The flowing gases are assumed to have uniform energy distribution. ("Isoenergetic gas flows," that is valid with the same constants for the the energy equation entire flow.) This is correct, for example, for gas flows issuing from a region of constant pressure, density, temperature, end velocity. This property is not destroyed by compression shocks because of the universal validity of the energy law. 2) The gas behaves adiabatically, not during the compression shock itself but both before and after the shock. However, the adiabatic equation (p/rho(sup kappa) = C) is not valid for the entire gas flow with the same constant C but rather with an appropriate individual constant for each portion of the gas. For steady flows, this means that the constant C of the adiabatic equation is a function of the stream function. Consequently, a gas that has been flowing "isentropically",that is, with the same constant C of the adiabatic equation throughout (for example, in origination from a region of constant density, temperature, and velocity) no longer remains isentropic after a compression shock if the compression shock is not extremely simple (wedge shaped in a two-dimensional flow or cone shaped in a rotationally symmetrical flow). The solution of nonisentropic flows is therefore an urgent necessity.
Date: August 1, 1947
Creator: Schäefer, Manfred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Two-Dimensional Potential Flows

Description: Contents include the following: Characteristic differential equations - initial and boundary conditions. Integration of the second characteristic differential equations. Direct application of Meyer's characteristic hodograph table for construction of two-dimensional potential flows. Prandtl-Busemann method. Development of the pressure variation for small deflection angles. Numerical table: relation between deflection, pressure, velocity, mach number and mach angle for isentropic changes of state according to Prandtl-Meyer for air (k = 1.405). References.
Date: November 1949
Creator: Schäefer, Manfred & Tollmien, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rotationally Symmetric Potential Flows

Description: This paper includes the following topics: 1) Characteristic differential equations; 2) Treatment of practical examples; 3) First example: Diffuser; and 4) Second Example: Nozzle.
Date: November 1949
Creator: Schäefer, Manfred & Tollmien, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theory of Characteristics

Description: The theory of characteristics will be presented generally for quasilinear differential equations of the second order in two variables. This is necessary because of the manifold requirements to be demanded from the theory of characteristics.
Date: September 1949
Creator: Tollmien, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of the Method of Coordinate Perturbation to Unsteady Duct Flow

Description: The method of coordinate perturbation is applied to the unsteady flow of a compressible fluid in ducts of variable cross section. Solutions, in the form of perturbation series, are obtained for unsteady flows in ducts for which the logarithmic derivative of area variation with respect to the space coordinate is a function of the 'smallness' parameter of the perturbation series. This technique is applied to the problem of the interaction of a disturbance and a shock wave in a diffuser flow. It is found that, for a special choice of the function describing the disturbance, the path of the shock wave can be expressed in closed form to first order. The method is then applied to the determination of the flow field behind a shock wave moving on a prescribed path in the x,t-plane. Perturbation series solutions for quite general paths are developed. The perturbation series solutions are compared with the more exact solutions obtained by the application of the method of characteristics. The approximate solutions are shown to be in reasonably accurate agreement with the solutions obtained by the method of characteristics.
Date: September 1958
Creator: Himmel, Seymour C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of the Acceleration of Elongated Bodies of Revolution Upon the Resistance in a Compressible Flow

Description: The problem of the motion of an elongated body of revolution in an incompressible fluid may, as is known, be solved approximately with the aid of the distribution of sources along the axis of the body. In determining the velocity field, the question of whether the body moves uniformly or with an acceleration is no factor in the problem. The presence of acceleration must be taken into account in determining the pressures acting on the body. The resistance of the body arising from the accelerated motion may be computed either directly on the basis of these pressures or with the aid of the so-called associated masses (inertia coefficients). A different condition holds in the case of the motion of bodies in a compressible gas. In this case the finite velocity of sound must be taken into account.
Date: May 1949
Creator: Frankl, F. I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the Formation of Shock Waves in Subsonic Flows With Local Supersonic Velocities

Description: In the flow about a body with large subsonic velocity if the velocity of the approaching flow is sufficiently large, regions of local supersonic velocities are formed about the body. It is known from experiment that these regions downstream of the flow are always bounded by shock waves; a continuous transition of the supersonic velocity to the subsonic under the conditions indicated has never been observed. A similar phenomenon occurs in pipes. If at two cross sections of the pipe the velocity is subsonic and between these sections regions of local supersonic velocity are formed without completely occupying a single cross section, these regions are always bounded by shock waves.
Date: April 1950
Creator: Frankl, F. I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

First experiences with the rotating laboratory

Description: This report describes experiences with a rotating cylinder to explore the effects of motion and flow upon human sensory organs. One observation was that the variation of the resultant line of gravity (from gravity and centrifugal force) was not felt so strongly as might be expected. The impressions produced by the physical effects on the members of the body, especially the ones caused by the deflecting force (Coriolis force), are exactly what the laws of physics would lead us to expect, although somewhat surprising when observed in one's own body.
Date: July 1926
Creator: Prandtl, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flow around wings accompanied by separation of vortices

Description: The flow around wings computed by the usual method leads in the case of a finite trailing edge to a stagnation point in the trailing edge due to the Kutta-Joukowsky condition of flow governing this region. As a result, the theoretical pressure distribution differs substantially from the experimental values in the vicinity of the trailing edge. The present report describes an alternative method of calculation in which the rear stagnation point no longer appears. The stream leaves the trailing edge tangentially on the pressure side and a similar tangential separation occurs on the suction side of the profile at a point slightly in front of the trailing edge.
Date: December 1940
Creator: Schmieden, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flow of Gas Through Turbine Lattices

Description: This report is concerned with fluid mechanics of two-dimensional cascades, particularly turbine cascades. Methods of solving the incompressible ideal flow in cascades are presented. The causes and the order of magnitude of the two-dimensional losses at subsonic velocities are discussed. Methods are presented for estimating the flow and losses at high subsonic velocities. Transonic and supersonic flows in lattices are then analyzed. Some three-dimensional features of the flow in turbines are noted.
Date: May 1, 1956
Creator: Deich, M E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The fundamental principles of high-speed semi-diesel engines. Part 1: a general discussion of the subject of fuel injection in diesel engines and detailed descriptions of many types of injection nozzles

Description: Three questions relating to the technical progress in the utilization of heavy oils are discussed. The first question considers solid injection in high-speed automobile engines, the second concerns the development of the hot-bulb engine, and the third question relates to the need for a more thorough investigation of the processes on which the formatation of combustible, rapidly-burning mixtures depend.
Date: April 1926
Creator: Büchner
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integral methods in the theory of the boundary layer

Description: From Summary: "The application of the well-known basic principle of mechanics, the principle of Jourdain, to problems of the theory of the boundary layer leads to an equation from which the equations of Von Karman, Leibenson, and Golubev are derived as special cases. The given equation may be employed in other integral methods. The present paper deals with the method of the variation of the thickness of the boundary layer. A number of new approximate formulas valuable in aerodynamic calculations for the friction distribution are derived from this procedure. The method has been applied only to laminar boundary layers, but it seems probable that it may be generalized to include turbulent layers as well."
Date: July 1944
Creator: Loitsianskii, L. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Instrument for measuring the wall shearing stress of turbulent boundary layers

Description: It is shown that at a smooth wall in a turbulent boundary layer the velocity profile next to the wall is dependent, aside from the material constants of the flowing medium, only on the shearing stress transmitted to the wall, even with pressure rise or with pressure drop. Consequently, the heat transfer of a small element that is built into the wall and has a higher temperature than that of the flowing medium is a measure of the wall shearing stress. Theoretical considerations indicate that the wall shearing stress of the boundary layer can be defined by means of a heat-transfer measurement with an instrument mounted in the wall. Such an instrument is described. The calibration curve and its directional sensitivity curve are indicated. It permits the determination of the wall shearing stress in magnitude and direction.
Date: May 1950
Creator: Ludwieg, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inherent stability of helicopters

Description: The equilibrium, in still air, of a "stationary" helicopter (i.e., of one having neither vertical nor translational velocity, but a tendency to remain practically motionless within restricted limits of space) presents some difficulty in practice and justifies a theoretical investigation of its "inherent stability," i.e., independent of the pilot.
Date: October 1923
Creator: Crocco, G. Arturo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A method for the direct determination of wing-section drag

Description: In order that the method may be more easily understood, we will first consider the simpler case when there is no lift, but only drag, and when the streamlines at the measuring point behind the obstacle are nearly parallel. Moreover, the flow is assumed not to deviate much from the two-dimensional flow.
Date: November 1925
Creator: Betz, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Method of characteristics for three-dimensional axially symmetrical supersonic flows

Description: An approximation method for three-dimensional axially symmetrical supersonic flows is developed; it is based on the characteristics theory (represented partly graphically, partly analytically). Thereafter this method is applied to the construction of rotationally symmetrical nozzles. (author).
Date: January 1947
Creator: Sauer, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New frictional resistance law for smooth plates

Description: From measurements in the free boundary layer of a plate the laws governing the velocity distribution and a new resistance law are derived which, by increasing Reynolds number Re(sub x) afford lower resistance values than the logarithmic law. The transverse velocities, the shearing stress, and the mixing path profiles were also defined.
Date: September 1941
Creator: Schultz-Grunow, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The new interpretation of the laws of air resistance

Description: A closer examination of Newton's formula for air resistance shows that it is well to consider the air as an ordinary fluid, and, indeed for most of the velocities considered, as a non-compressible fluid, so long as the dimensions of the moving body are large in comparison with the mean free path of the particles of air.
Date: April 1923
Creator: Prandtl, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A new spinning-test method

Description: This report contains a description of a new spinning-test arrangement wherein the otherwise customary rotation of the model about a fixed axis is abandoned in favor of a corresponding rotation of the air stream. The advantage of this method lies in the fact that the model is at rest while the spin is recorded. In this manner it is possible to secure systematic results with little loss of time while employing 3- or 6-component wind-tunnel balances. The troublesome equalization of the mass forces is eliminated and the flow phenomena are accessible to direct observation.
Date: April 1938
Creator: Kramer, M. & Krüger, K. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NACA Conference on Aircraft Loads, Structures, and Flutter

Description: This document contains reproductions of technical papers on some of the most recent research results on aircraft loads, flutter, and structures from the NACA laboratories. These papers were presented by members of the staff of the NACA laboratories at the Conference held at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory March 5, 6, and 7, 1957. The primary purpose of this Conference was to convey to contractors of the military services and others concerned with the design of aircraft these recent research results and to provide those attending an opportunity to discuss the results. The papers in this document are in the same form in which they were presented at the Conference in order to facilitate their prompt distribution. The original presentation and this record are considered as complementary to, rather than as substitutes for, the Committee?s more complete and formal reports. Accordingly, if information from this document is utilized it is requested that this document not be listed as a reference. Individual reports dealing with most of the information presented at the Conference will subsequently be published by NACA and will therefore be suitable as reference material.
Date: March 5, 1957
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department