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Advanced pressurized water reactor for improved resource utilization, part II - composite advanced PWR concept

Description: This report evaluates the enhanced resource utilization in an advanced pressurized water reactor (PWR) concept using a composite of selected improvements identified in a companion study. The selected improvements were in the areas of reduced loss of neutrons to control poisons, reduced loss of neutrons in leakage from the core, and improved blanket/reflector concepts. These improvements were incorporated into a single composite advanced PWR. A preliminary assessment of resource requirements and costs and impact on safety are presented.
Date: September 15, 1981
Creator: Turner, S.E.; Gurley, M.K.; Kirby, K.D. & Mitchell, W III
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of bridge width measurement and processing capabilities (1985)

Description: An investigation of Mound`s ability to measure and process bridges was conducted in 1985. Prior to improvements in the measuring system and technique, bridge width was found to have a sigma of 0.00019 in. After improvements were made, a sigma of 0.000047 was realized. Bridge length was found to be more erratic than width, although most of the inaccuracy was caused by measurement uncertainty. Length and width were found to have little or no correlation.
Date: May 15, 1989
Creator: Armstrong, K.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary design parameters of 6 GeV storage ring lattice for Synchrotron Light Source

Description: In this note, we describe a design of lattice, which is by no means optimized for the ultimate performance, but these parameters can be used for the starting point of other design efforts. Assumptions and features used in this design are: (1) 32 periods which is reasonably high periodicity for chromaticity corrections. (2) Achromatic bending cell which enables us to make all straight sections to be dispersion free. (3) Twiss parameters at dispersion area are the same for all cells to make undulator straight section can be tuned to wiggler straight section a-id vice versa. (4) No attempt is made to extract the photon beam from bending magnets, and when this feature is added, the lattice design may have to be changed in order to provide-the photon beam channel. (5) Natural emittance in the horizontal plane is made as small as possible in the range of 10-8m radians. This value can be optimized later by judicious choice of the Twiss parameters through the bending magnets. (6) The bending magnet should have parallel edges in order to simplify its construction. This assumption implies that there is vertical focussing from the edge. (7) The beta functions at the straight section should be tunable so that various configurations of the insertion devices should be accommodated.
Date: October 15, 1984
Creator: Cho, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A note on thermal analysis for an inclined plate crotch absorber

Description: Crotch absorbers are used to absorb unwanted synchrotron radiation to prevent most of the photons from striking the wall of a vacuum chamber. Since synchrotron radiation generated by bending the positron beam is very powerful, concentrated and penetrating, the absorber produces high internal heat generation. Depending on the materials used, this energy generation may be restricted near the surface of the absorber or distributed throughout the absorber with exponential decay in the direction of the penetration. The cooling of an absorber is important to prevent melting the material and to retain ultra high vacuum, since photon energy deposition on the metal surface causes the desorption of gases. This note describes an analytical solution of the heat transfer with application to designing a crotch absorber. The effects of angles and thicknesses of the plate and different materials on temperature distributions of the absorber are examined.
Date: June 15, 1989
Creator: Choi, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reaction of Bullfrog tuff with J-13 well water at 90{sup 0}C and 150{sup 0}C

Description: A series of experiments was conducted on crushed tuff at 90{sup 0}C and 150{sup 0}C and on core wafer samples at 150{sup 0}C. The results show the following: increasing the ratio of rock to water increases the rate of approach to steady-state concentrations in solution. Surface outcrop samples of Bullfrog tuff contain a minor component of highly soluble material believed to be a residue from the evaporation of surface runoff water in the pores of the rock. This material can be removed by shaking the crushed rock with water at room temperature and subjecting it briefly to heat with fresh water. Solution analyses for unfiltered samples that have reacted for short periods show higher concentrations of Al and Fe than do analyses for filtered samples; results for other elements are independent of filtration. This difference probably exists because of particulate matter in the solutions that dissolves when the samples are acidified prior to analysis. Agitation of samples during reaction produces sub-0.1 {mu} particles in the solutions. These particles dissolve when samples are acidified, resulting in abnormally high concentration values for some elements, such as Al and Fe. Comparison of the results for crushed rock with those for core wafers shows that the method of sample preparation does not have a large effect on the results of rock-water interaction studies.
Date: September 15, 1983
Creator: Oversby, V.M. & Knauss, K.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ZPPR progress report: November 1987-January 1988

Description: This report details activities for the time period of November, 1987 through January, 1988. Further results are presented from the axially heterogeneous assembly ZPPR-17, a part of the JUPITER-III program. The loading of the ZPPR-17C assembly, with 13 half-inserted control rods, is described along with operational measurements, calculation models, and measurements and prediction of criticality. From ZPPR-17A, calculated and measured results are given for reaction rates and measured results for bowing, expansion and small sample worth experiments. From the earlier metal-fuel ZPPR-15 program results are given for measurements and calculations of Doppler reactivity coefficients.
Date: February 15, 1988
Creator: Collins, P.J. & Brumbach, S.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SPR-8 multi-mega watt space power system (MMW-SPS) concept description and concept refinement plan

Description: The SPR-8 MMW-SPS concept can satisfy both continuous and burst mode power requirements. At 10 MWe continuous mode power for 5 yr and 75 MWe burst mode power for 200 sec, the SPR-8 concept can power radar systems for detecting ballistic missile launchings and for discriminating between warheads and decoys. When enemy action is detected the SPR-8 MMW-SPS can power a rail gun, free electron laser, or particle beam and destroy the missile in the boost phase or warheads in space flight. The SPR-8 concept is based on the SPR-6 system (ref. 1) for providing continuous mode power. The system uses a fast UN-fueled, lithium-cooled reactor. Heat is transferred from the lithium coolant to potassium in a shell and tube heat exchanger-boiler. Potassium vapor is expanded through a turbine in a saturated Rankine cycle. After passing through the turbine the potassium is condensed in a compact heat exchanger by transferring heat to the radiator working fluid. An advanced radiator design is envisioned. Much work will be required in radiator technology to achieve low mass and plan form. For completeness of the SPR-8 system concept, a charged liquid droplet radiator is assumed but other types should be considered. Mechanical pumps are used for simplicity, but other types should be considered. A block diagram of the SPR-8 system is given.
Date: April 15, 1985
Creator: Walter, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overcoring and calibration of IRAD GAGE stressmeters at the Spent Fuel Test in Climax granite

Description: IRAD GAGE vibrating-wire stressmeters were installed in the Spent Fuel Facility at the Nevada Test Site to measure the change in in-situ stress during the Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C). Although extensive pre-installation laboratory tests were conducted, they were generic in nature. Unfortunately the degree of gage-rock contact has a strong influence on gage sensitivity and cannot be predicted before installation. This report discusses the results of removing a cylindrical section of rock and gages as a unit through overcoring and the subsequent post test calibrations of the stressmeters in the laboratory. With the assumption that the gage-rock contact was not disturbed by the overcoring, the results from these calibrations compensate for varying gage-rock contact. The estimated in-situ stresses based on post test calibration data are quite consistent with those directly measured in nearby holes. The magnitude of stress change calculated from pre-installation test data is generally much smaller than that estimated from post test calibration data.
Date: September 15, 1984
Creator: Mao, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen speciation in hydrated layers on nuclear waste glass

Description: The hydration of an outer layer on nuclear waste glasses is known to occur during leaching, but the actual speciation of hydrogen (as water or hydroxyl groups) in these layers has not been determined. As part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project, we have used infrared spectroscopy to determine hydrogen speciations in three nuclear waste glass compositions (SRL-131 & 165, and PNL 76-68), which were leached at 90{sup 0}C (all glasses) or hydrated in a vapor-saturated atmosphere at 202{sup 0}C (SRL-131 only). Hydroxyl groups were found in the surface layers of all the glasses. Molecular water was found in the surface of SRL-131 and PNL 76-68 glasses that had been leached for several months in deionized water, and in the vapor-hydrated sample. The water/hydroxyl ratio increases with increasing reaction time; molecular water makes up most of the hydrogen in the thick reaction layers on vapor-phase hydrated glass while only hydroxyl occurs in the least reacted samples. Using the known molar absorptivities of water and hydroxyl in silica-rich glass the vapor-phase layer contained 4.8 moles/liter of molecular water, and 0.6 moles water in the form hydroxyl. A 15 {mu}m layer on SRL-131 glass formed by leaching at 90{sup 0}C contained a total of 4.9 moles/liter of water, 2/3 of which was as hydroxyl. The unreacted bulk glass contains about 0.018 moles/liter water, all as hydroxyl. The amount of hydrogen added to the SRL-131 glass was about 70% of the original Na + Li content, not the 300% that would result from alkali=hydronium ion interdiffusion. If all the hydrogen is then assumed to be added as the result of alkali-H{sup +} interdiffusion, the molecular water observed may have formed from condensation of the original hydroxyl groups.
Date: January 15, 1987
Creator: Aines, R. D.; Weed, H. C. & Bates, J. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Climax granite test results

Description: The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL), as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) program, is carrying out in situ rock mechanics testing in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This summary addresses only those field data taken to date that address thermomechanical modeling for a hard-rock repository. The results to be discussed include thermal measurements in a heater test that was conducted from October 1977 through July 1978, and stress and displacement measurements made during and after excavation of the canister storage drift for the Spent Fuel Test (SFT) in the Climax granite. Associated laboratory and field measurements are summarized. The rock temperature for a given applied heat load at a point in time and space can be adequately modeled with simple analytic calculations involving superposition and integration of numerous point source solutions. The input, for locations beyond about a meter from the source, can be a constant thermal conductivity and diffusivity. The value of thermal conductivity required to match the field data is as much as 25% different from laboratory-measured values. Therefore, unless we come to understand the mechanisms for this difference, a simple in situ test will be required to obtain a value for final repository design. Some sensitivity calculations have shown that the temperature field is about ten times more sensitive to conductivity than to diffusivity under the test conditions. The orthogonal array was designed to detect anisotropy. After considering all error sources, anisotropic efforts in the thermal field were less than 5 to 10%.
Date: January 15, 1980
Creator: Ramspott, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alleviation of fuselage form drag using vortex flows: Final report

Description: The concept of using vortex generators to reduce the fuselage form drag of transport aircraft combines the outflow from the plane of symmetry which is induced by the rotational component of the vortex flow with the energization of the boundary layer to reduce the momentum thickness and to delay or eliminate flow separation. This idea was first advanced by the author in 1981. Under a DOE grant, the concept was validated in wind tunnel tests of approximately 1:17 scale models of fuselages of Boeing 747 and Lockheed C-5 aircraft. The search for the minimum drag involved three vortex generator configurations with three sizes of each in six locations clustered in the aft regions of the fuselages at the beginning of the tail upsweep. The local Reynolds number, which is referred to the length of boundary layer run from the nose, was approximately 10{sup 7} so that a fully developed turbulent boundary layer was present. Vortex generator planforms ranged from swept tapered, through swept straight, to swept reverse tapered wings whose semi-spans ranged from 50% to 125% of the local boundary layer thickness. Pitch angles of the vortex generators were varied by inboard actuators under the control of an external proportional digital radio controller. It was found that certain combinations of vortex generator parameters increased drag. However, with certain configurations, locations, and pitch angles of vortex generators, the highest drag reductions were 3% for the 747 and about 6% for the C-5, thus confirming the arguments that effectiveness increases with the rate of upsweep of the tail. Greatest gains in performance are therefore expected on aft loading military transports. 10 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.
Date: September 15, 1987
Creator: Wortman, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy changes in transforming solids. Continuation proposal for the period January 1--December 31, 1990

Description: This report describes work completed, work in progress, and work planned during the continuation of funding. Research is being carried out on the following: bonded inclusions are being treated as problems of a homogeneous body; the problem of two cavities or inclusions is being studied; the examination of non-classical transformations is leading to conservation laws in statics and dynamics with applications in fracture and defect mechanics; mathematical and physical modeling of damage in brittle solids is being performed; a theoretical and numerical study of subsonic interfacial waves in bonded piezoelectric dissimilar half-spaces has been completed; the study of which crystal classes are capable of admitting the so-called Type 3 transonic state in anisotropic elasticity is also complete; and wave studies will be extended into the supersonic regime. The authors also intend to complete a study of the general self-force on a 3-dimensional dislocation loop element in an elastic medium of arbitrary anisotropy, as this is currently a needed ingredient in modern fracture and damage mechanics and in the study of defects in integrated circuit materials.
Date: September 15, 1989
Creator: Herrmann, G. & Barnett, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Primate polonium metabolic models and their use in estimation of systemic radiation doses from bioassay data. Final report

Description: A Polonium metabolic model was derived and incorporated into a Fortran algorithm which estimates the systemic radiation dose from {sup 210}Po when applied to occupational urine bioassay data. The significance of the doses estimated are examined by defining the degree of uncertainty attached to them through comprehensive statistical testing procedures. Many parameters necessary for dosimetry calculations (such as organ partition coefficients and excretion fractions), were evaluated from metabolic studies of {sup 210}Po in non-human primates. Two tamarins and six baboons were injected intravenously with {sup 210}Po citrate. Excreta and blood samples were collected. Five of the baboons were sacrificed at times ranging from 1 day to 3 months post exposure. Complete necropsies were performed and all excreta and the majority of all skeletal and tissue samples were analyzed radiochemically for their {sup 210}Po content. The {sup 210}Po excretion rate in the baboon was more rapid than in the tamarin. The biological half-time of {sup 210}Po excretion in the baboon was approximately 15 days while in the tamarin, the {sup 210}Po excretion rate was in close agreement with the 50 day biological half-time predicted by ICRP 30. Excretion fractions of {sup 210}Po in the non-human primates were found to be markedly different from data reported elsewhere in other species, including man. A thorough review of the Po urinalysis procedure showed that significant recovery losses resulted when metabolized {sup 210}Po was deposited out of raw urine. Polonium-210 was found throughout the soft tissues of the baboon but not with the partition coefficients for liver, kidneys, and spleen that are predicted by the ICRP 30 metabolic model. A fractional distribution of 0.29 for liver, 0.07 for kidneys, and 0.006 for spleen was determined. Retention times for {sup 210}Po in tissues are described by single exponential functions with biological half-times ranging from 15 to ...
Date: March 15, 1989
Creator: Cohen, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MCL (Gravimelt) System Integration Project. Quarterly report, October--December 1988

Description: The objective of this project is to construct and operate an integrated test circuit for the Molten-Caustic-Leaching (Gravimelt) process for desulfurization and demineralization of coal to prove process economics assumptions, deliver product coal and to test process conditions aimed at significantly lowering costs. The test circuit consists of six unit operations which together provide a continuous system for leaching coal and regenerating the reactant. These units are: (a) a kiln for reacting molten caustic with coal; (b) a seven stage water washing section for recovering caustic from the coal; (c) a three-stage acid washing section for removing the last traces of metals and alkali and providing an ultra pure coal product; (d) a water treatment section to provide either dischargeable or recyclable water; (e) a regeneration section to provide purified aqueous caustic; and (f) an evaporator section to provide molten-caustic for recycle to the kiln reactor. The integrated test circuit facility contains more than 160 pieces of equipment including filters, centrifuges, tanks, reactors, feeders and the kiln and rising film evaporator. It occupies 3700 square feet and is fitted with more than 6000 feet of piping, 425 valves, 80 instruments and controls as well as a control room with computer control and data acquisition and reduction system. The highlight of the quarter is completion of a week of around-the-clock shakedown of the integrated test circuit.
Date: January 15, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molten-caustic-leaching (Gravimelt) system integration project. Quarterly report, April--June 1989

Description: Operation of the Gravimelt Integrated Test Circuit for desulfurization and demineralization of coal has been completed. A 48-test process matrix was performed over 750 hours of operational time resulting in production of 3,000 pounds of treated coal suitable for further test and evaluation. Optimization testing was performed resulting in product coal containing 0.4 percent sulfur (0.6 lbs SO{sub 2}/MMBtu) and 0.15 percent ash with more than 85 percent organic sulfur removal, 95 percent SO{sub 2} reduction from ROM coal and 91 percent SO{sub 2} reduction from precleaned process feed. This report contains all of the product sulfur, ash, volatiles and heat content data obtained to date.
Date: July 15, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cost comparisons for SSC magnet dependent systems

Description: An SSC Cost Estimating Task Force was appointed by the SSC Director in May, 1985. The charge to the task force was to perform a detailed review of costs for all superconducting magnet design styles that are under consideration for the SSC. Cost information on five magnet styles was reviewed in detail by the task force members. The basic cost information was developed by participating laboratories and by industry. Details of the procedure and analysis are presented in Chapter III. The purpose of this report is to provide a comparison of all SSC construction project cost information that is dependent on the various magnet styles. It is emphasized that the costs displayed in the tables of this report are not the total costs for an SSC construction project. Only those systems for which costs vary with magnet style are included. In Appendix E, current results are compared with the relevant parts of the 1984 SSC Reference Designs Study (RDS) cost estimate. Following the method used in the RDS, the costs that are developed here are non-site specific. The labor rates utilized are based on a national average for the various labor categories. The Conventional Systems costs for underground structures are derived from an extension of the ``median-site`` model as described in the RDS.
Date: August 15, 1985
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department