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Chemical Facility Security: Reauthorization, Policy Issues, and Options for Congress

Description: This report discusses the efforts undertaken since even prior to September 11, 2001, to increase safety and security measures for facilities possessing certain amounts of hazardous chemicals. The 109th congress passed legislation in 2006 providing the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) statutory authority to regulate chemical facilities for security purposes. This statutory authority expires in December 2010. This report provides a brief overview of the existing statutory authority and the regulation implementing this authority. It describes several policy issues raised in previous debates regarding chemical facility security and identifies policy options that might resolve components of these issues. Finally, legislation introduced in the 111th Congress is discussed.
Date: November 15, 2010
Creator: Shea, Dana A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Noise propagation in iterative reconstruction algorithms with line searches

Description: In this paper we analyze the propagation of noise in iterative image reconstruction algorithms. We derive theoretical expressions for the general form of preconditioned gradient algorithms with line searches. The results are applicable to a wide range of iterative reconstruction problems, such as emission tomography, transmission tomography, and image restoration. A unique contribution of this paper comparing to our previous work [1] is that the line search is explicitly modeled and we do not use the approximation that the gradient of the objective function is zero. As a result, the error in the estimate of noise at early iterations is significantly reduced.
Date: November 15, 2003
Creator: Qi, Jinyi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ACCIDENT ANALYSES & CONTROL OPTIONS IN SUPPORT OF THE SLUDGE WATER SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

Description: This report documents the accident analyses and nuclear safety control options for use in Revision 7 of HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, ''K Basins Safety Analysis Report'' and Revision 4 of HNF-SD-SNF-TSR-001, ''Technical Safety Requirements - 100 KE and 100 KW Fuel Storage Basins''. These documents will define the authorization basis for Sludge Water System (SWS) operations. This report follows the guidance of DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports'', for calculating onsite and offsite consequences. The accident analysis summary is shown in Table ES-1 below. While this document describes and discusses potential control options to either mitigate or prevent the accidents discussed herein, it should be made clear that the final control selection for any accident is determined and presented in HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062.
Date: November 15, 2003
Creator: Williams, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electronic Effects on Grain Boundary Structure in BCC Metals

Description: The dominant factor in determining the atomic structure of grain boundaries is the crystal structure of the material, e.g. FCC vs. BCC. However, for a given crystal structure, the structure of grain boundaries can be influenced by electronic effects, i.e. by the element comprising the crystal. Understanding and modeling the influence of electronic structure on defect structures is a key ingredient for successful atomistic simulations of materials with more complicated crystal structures than FCC. We have found that grain boundary structure is a critical test for interatomic potentials. To that end, we have fabricated the identical {Sigma}5 (3l0)/[001] symmetric tilt grain boundary in three different BCC metals (Nb, MO, and Ta) by diffusion bonding precisely oriented single crystals. The structure of these boundaries have been determined by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The boundaries have been found to have different atomic structures. The structures of these boundaries have been modeled with atomistic simulations using interatomic potentials incorporating angularly dependent interactions, such as those developed within Model Generalized Pseudopotential Theory. The differing structures of these boundaries can be understood in terms of the strength of the angular dependence of the interatomic interaction. We report here the results for Ta.
Date: November 15, 1999
Creator: Campbell, G.H.; King, W.E.; Belak, J.A.; Moriarty, J.A. & Foiles, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER, VOLUME 37, RHIC SPIN COLLABORATION MEETING VI (PART 2).

Description: The second part of the sixth RHIC Spin Collaboration (RSC) meeting was held on November 15, 2001 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Previous meetings have elaborated on the new generation of proton spin-structure studies (e.g. gluon polarization and flavor separation of q and {bar q} polarizations via real W{sup {+-}} production) enabled by studying polarized proton collisions at energies and momentum transfers where perturbative QCD models are expected to be applicable. The focus of this meeting was on many of the experimental issues that must be resolved to achieve these physics goals. This summary is written with the benefit of hindsight following the completion of the first-ever run of a polarized proton collider. This first run can be considered as a successfully completed milestone of the RHIC Spin Collaboration. Other milestones remain important. Long term machine items were identified in Waldo Mackay's talk, the most important being the completion of the spin rotator magnets that will be installed in 2002 to allow the flexible orientation of the proton beam polarization at the PHENM and STAR experiments. At the meeting Waldo discussed a stronger partial snake magnet for the AGS as a means of producing highly polarized proton beams to inject into RHIC. Developments subsequent to this meeting suggest that a superconducting helical dipole magnet may be feasible for the AGS, and is likely to be needed to achieve the 70% beam polarization in RHIC. Longer term items were also presented, including potential increases in luminosity by the addition of electron cooling to RHIC and the possibility of increasing the collision energy by {approx}20% by replacement of the DX magnets. These items could be considered for a second generation of RHIC spin experiments. The other topics covered at the meeting were related to polarimetry and to the absolute calibration of the proton ...
Date: November 15, 2001
Creator: Bland, L. & Saito, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of Seismic Design Requirements to Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Structures and Systems and Components

Description: The methodology followed in assignment of Performance Class (PC) for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) seismic loads for Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Structures, Systems and Components is defined. The loading definition associated with each PC and structure, system and component is then defined.
Date: November 15, 1999
Creator: CREA, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Propagation of errors from the sensitivity image in list mode reconstruction

Description: List mode image reconstruction is attracting renewed attention. It eliminates the storage of empty sinogram bins. However, a single back projection of all LORs is still necessary for the pre-calculation of a sensitivity image. Since the detection sensitivity is dependent on the object attenuation and detector efficiency, it must be computed for each study. Exact computation of the sensitivity image can be a daunting task for modern scanners with huge numbers of LORs. Thus, some fast approximate calculation may be desirable. In this paper, we theoretically analyze the error propagation from the sensitivity image into the reconstructed image. The theoretical analysis is based on the fixed point condition of the list mode reconstruction. The non-negativity constraint is modeled using the Kuhn-Tucker condition. With certain assumptions and the first order Taylor series approximation, we derive a closed form expression for the error in the reconstructed image as a function of the error in the sensitivity image. The result provides insights on what kind of error might be allowable in the sensitivity image. Computer simulations show that the theoretical results are in good agreement with the measured results.
Date: November 15, 2003
Creator: Qi, Jinyi & Huesman, Ronald H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Final report: Initial site investigation

Description: Original objective of this project was to retrofit the Balice Boilerhouse with a TCS Coal Micronization system and Amerex baghouses to achieve higher combustion efficiencies and lower air emission, including SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO and particulate matter. The Balice Boilerhouse is located adjacent to the Krakow Airport and provides heating steam for the Polish Military Unit No. 1616. In May 1995 the Polish Military announced it had decided to convert its boiler house to gas; thus cancelling the TCS Project. The balance of 1995 was spent considering alternative Project sites in Krakow for the application of the TCS coal Micronization technology.
Date: November 15, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The relative physiological and toxicological properties of americium and plutonium

Description: The relative physiological and toxicological properties of americium and plutonium have been studied following their intravenous administration to rats. The urinary and fecal excretion of americium was similar to that of plutonium administered as Pu(N0{sub 3}){sub 4}. The deposition of americium the tissues and organs of the rat was also similar to that observed for plutonium. The liver and the skeleton were the major sites of deposition. Zirconium citrate administered 15 minutes after injection of americium increased the urinary excretion of americium and decreased the amount found in the liver and the skeleton at 4 and 16 days. LD{sub 30}{sup 50} studies showed americium was slightly less toxic when given in the acute toxic range than was plutonium. The difference was, however, too slight to be important in establishing a larger tolerance does for americium. Survival studies, hematological observations, bone marrow observations, comparison of tumor incidence and the incidence of skeletal abnormalities indicated that americium and plutonium have essentially the same chronic toxicity when given on an equal {mu}c. basis. These studies support the conclusion that the tolerance values for americium should be essentially the same as those for Plutonium.
Date: November 15, 1951
Creator: Carter, R.E.; Busch, E. & Johnson, O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

Description: The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.
Date: November 15, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Human macrophage differentiation involves an interaction between integrins and fibronectin

Description: The authors have examined the role of the {beta}{sub 1} integrin family of adhesion receptors (VLA) and the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (FN) in macrophage differentiation of (1) human HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and (2) human peripheral blood monocytes induced by either PMA or macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M=CSF). Increased VLA and FN gene expression was observed as early as 4 h after PMA treatment of HL-60 cells and PMA- or M-CSF-treatment of monocytes, and it preceded the manifestation of macrophage markers. Treated HL-60 cells and monocytes also released and deposited FN on the surface of the tissue culture dishes. An HL-60 cell variant, HL-525, which is deficient in protein kinase C {beta} and resistant to PMA-induced differentiation, exhibited elevated levels of the VLA antigen but failed to express the FN gene. Incubation of HL-525 cells on dishes precoated with exogenous FN resulted in a macrophage differentiation. The macrophage phenotype induced in HL-60 cells, HL-525 cells, or monocytes was attenuated to various degrees by anti-VLA or anti-FN MAbs or by exogenous RGDS, a VLA-binding motif on FN. The authors suggest that macrophage differentiation is initiated by the activation of protein kinase C, which leads to the expression of the integrin, FN and related genes. The integrins mediate cell attachment and spreading on appropriate substrates by binding to deposited extracellular proteins such as FN. This attachment and spreading, in turn, leads to the expression of genes that code for the macrophage functions.
Date: November 15, 1996
Creator: Laouar, A.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Collart, F. & Huberman, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data management system: User`s guide

Description: Data Management System (DMS) is a menu-driven, user-friendly system that allows you to manipulate software and data files as follows: Download files and software from the network to your personal computer; Compress files into a single archive file; Decompress files from an archive file; Remove files from your PC; Copy files from the source directory to the destination directory; and Configure DMS for your specific PC and network configuration. This user`s guide provides instructions for operating the system and setup configuration.
Date: November 15, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Audit of groundwater monitoring at Hanford

Description: The Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations is responsible for ensuring that its contractors` tasks are mission oriented and are completed at the least cost to the DOE. The objective of this audit was to determine whether Richland was effectively managing its groundwater monitoring activities so that unnecessary duplication would not occur. The audit`s objective was accomplished by: reviewing laws and regulations; interviewing DOE and contractor personnel; examining procurement and accounting procedures; reviewing plans, budgets, and actual expenditures; reviewing utilization of the DOE drilling equipment; observing well drilling activities; comparing drilling cost to other DOE sites; analyzing groundwater monitoring activities; and, reviewing and comparing groundwater reports.
Date: November 15, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Continuous, Rapid Production of Uniform Microparticles by Electrodispersion

Description: Ultrafine particles constitute the key building blocks for diverse advanced structural and functional materials, such as high-performance ceramics and alloys. These advanced materials have tremendous impact in many areas, including catalysis, separations, electronics, energy production processes, and environmental applications. Of particular importance, nanophase ceramic or metallic materials that contain nanosized (<100 nm) particles/grains show dramatically improved performance (mechanical, electrical, optical, magnetic, and/or catalytic). The characteristics of ultrafine particles (i.e. size, morphology, monodispersity, purity, and homogeneity of composition) directly determine the properties of the materials that are made from them. Thus, the future application of advanced materials depends strongly on the capability to produce particles with outstanding characteristics.
Date: November 15, 1998
Creator: DePaoli, D.W. & Hu, M.Z.-C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ARTI refrigerant database

Description: The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.
Date: November 15, 1996
Creator: Calm, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development & testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3. Eleventh quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

Description: The primary objective of the present effort is to perform the final testing, at a 20Mmbtu/hr commercial scale, of an air cooled, slagging coal combustor for application to industrial steam boilers and power plants. The focus of the test effort is on combustor durability, automatic control of the combustor`s operation, and optimal environmental control of emissions inside the combustor.
Date: November 15, 1994
Creator: Zauderer, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control rod studies (Tory II-C)

Description: This memorandum outlines the area of interest in connection with the SSBN launch application, on modification of the Tory II-C control rod system; and suggest a plan of development of information. Because of the very limited space for overall missile length, little room is available for control rod motion upstream from the core. Shortening the rod stroke, and the total length occupied by control rod mechanism., becomes very desirable. Changes in the actuator and linkage mechanism will clearly help, and should be investigated. However, this is concerned only with neutronic aspects.
Date: November 15, 1962
Creator: Hadley, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department