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Improved collecting apparatus

Description: An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air following therethrough.
Date: March 5, 1981
Creator: Duncan, C.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Bibliography: Usage of E-books With Enriched Bibliographic Records

Description: This bibliography accompanies a presentation for the 2014 Electronic Resources and Libraries Conference. The bibliography contains citations for information related to the usage of e-books with enriched bibliographic records.
Date: March 2014
Creator: Harker, Karen & Sassen, Catherine
Partner: UNT Libraries
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Department of Defense's Waiver of Competitive Prototyping Requirement for Combat Rescue Helicopter Program

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "DOD's rationale for waiving WSARA's competitive prototyping requirement for CRH addresses one of the two bases provided in the statute; namely that the cost of producing competitive prototypes exceeds the expected life-cycle benefits (in constant dollars) of producing the prototypes. The CRH program's acquisition strategy, which anticipates integrating an existing, in-production and flight-proven aircraft with technologically mature subsystems, is consistent with this rationale. The Air Force believes that any technology risk reduction associated with, or potentially benefitting, the CRH program has already occurred during the efforts to develop these in-production aircraft. This includes any risk reduction that could be achieved through competitive prototyping. In granting the waiver, DOD also found reasonable the Air Force's conclusion that the estimated $725 million cost of conducting competitive prototyping exceeded the maximum expected life-cycle benefits of $12 million. However, the Air Force only evaluated one potential approach to implementing competitive prototyping, which involved funding two contractors for much of the program's system development. This resulted in a high cost estimate for competitive prototyping that is more than 10 times greater than the target unit cost of the helicopter. DOD's policy on economic analysis states that each feasible alternative for meeting an objective must be considered, and its life-cycle costs and benefits evaluated. The Air Force could have more fully evaluated the cost and benefits of additional prototyping strategies, including more limited approaches that are mentioned in WSARA or DOD's implementing memorandum, such as producing a single prototype or prototyping critical subsystems before Milestone B. The potential cost and benefits of these strategies were not included in the Air Force's supporting analysis. While there are questions about the methodology the Air Force used to evaluate the cost and benefits of competitive prototyping for …
Date: March 7, 2013
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Defense Infrastructure: Environmental Cleanup of Former Naval Facilities on Vieques

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "This report responds to Congress's request that GAO determine the status and estimated costs of environmental cleanup on the island of Vieques. For decades, the U.S. Navy conducted ship-to-shore bombing exercises and other live-fire training activities on the island, which is located off the coast of Puerto Rico. The Navy ceased its operations on Vieques in 2003. The Navy has transferred the land to the Municipality of Vieques and the Puerto Rico Conservation Trust for conservation purposes and to the Department of the Interior. Although the land has been transferred, the Navy remains responsible for environmental cleanup. The cleanup is being carried out under the Defense Environmental Restoration Program (DERP) that consists of (1) the Installation Restoration Program, which addresses cleanup of hazardous substances, and (2) the Military Munitions Response Program, which addresses cleanup of munitions."
Date: March 26, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Combating Terrorism: Comments on Counterterrorism Leadership and National Strategy

Description: A statement of record issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The federal government will spend approximately $11 billion to combat terrorism In fiscal year 2001. In the event of a domestic terrorist incident, state and local governments have the primary responsibility for managing the consequences of a terrorist attack. However, the federal government can assist state and local authorities if they lack the capability to respond adequately. On the basis of past and ongoing GAO work, two key issues emerge that the new President and Congress will face concerning programs to combat terrorism. First, the overall leadership and management of such programs are fragmented within the federal government. No single entity acts as the federal government's top official accountable to both the President and Congress. Fragmentation exists in both coordination of domestic preparedness programs and in efforts to develop a national strategy. The Department of Justice worked with other agencies to develop the Attorney General's Five-Year Interagency Counterterrorism and Technology Crime Plan. Although this plan is the current document that most resembles a national strategy, GAO believes that it still lacks some critical elements including measurable desired outcomes, linkage to resources, and a discussion of the role of state and local governments."
Date: March 27, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Large Partnerships: Characteristics of Population and IRS Audits

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "This report provides data on the number and characteristics of large partnerships as well as Internal Revenue Service (IRS) audits of large partnership returns. For purposes of this report, GAO did not identify a statutory, IRS, or industry-accepted definition of a large partnership. Instead, GAO used a combination of criteria for partner size and asset size used by IRS to define large partnerships as those that reported having 100 or more direct partners and $100 million or more in assets. The number of large partnerships increased from 720 in tax year 2002 to 2,226 in tax year 2011. Large partnerships also increased in terms of the average number of direct partners and average asset size. IRS had data on two categories of large partnership return audits. First, the number of completed field audits of large partnership returns increased from 11 in fiscal year 2007 to 31 in fiscal year 2013. Second, IRS counted audits closed through its campus function, which increased from 42 to 143 over the same period. Unlike field audits, campus function audits generally do not entail a review of the books and records of the large partnership return but rather were opened to pass through large partnership return audit adjustments to the related partners' returns. The percentage of IRS audits that resulted in no change to the taxpayer's return varied from fiscal year 2007 to 2013 but was 52 percent for campus function audits and 45 percent for field audits in fiscal year 2013."
Date: March 19, 2014
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Information Resource Management Internal Control Issues

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In a recently completed report for Congress, we evaluated how the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Rural Housing Service (RHS) makes eligibility determinations for its rural housing programs. As part of that review, we used 2000 census data to determine the populations of the rural areas that received RHS housing program loans and grants. We obtained information on the RHS loans and grants provided to communities, from October 1998 through April 2004, from databases maintained by USDA's Information Resource Management (IRM) in St. Louis, Missouri. As with any system, the accuracy of the data and the process used for entry affects reliability and usefulness for management and reporting purposes. During our review, we identified several issues that raised concerns about the accuracy of the information in the IRM databases. For example, while we originally intended to geocode (that is, match) 5 years of the national RHS housing loan and grant portfolio to specific communities, the time needed to ensure the reliability of the data required us to limit much of our analysis to five states (Arizona, California, Maryland, Massachusetts, and Ohio). This report is a follow-up on our report to Congress, and its purpose is to discuss the implications of the data issues for the management and reporting functions of the Administrator, Rural Housing Service. In this report, we describe (1) the types of inaccuracies we encountered with the RHS data and (2) what, if any, reviews and systems controls are in place to detect or control database errors."
Date: March 10, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Clean Coal Technology: Status of Projects and Sales of Demonstrated Technology

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program, focusing on the: (1) status of 13 Clean Coal Technology projects that preliminary information indicated could have over $1 million in unspent funds; and (2) extent to which DOE's participants in completed projects have sold demonstrated Clean Coal technologies to coal users."
Date: March 9, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Army Stryker Brigades: Assessment of External Logistics Support Should Be Documented for the Congressionally Mandated Review of the Army's Operational Evaluation Plan

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "We are reviewing the Army's plans for deploying and sustaining Stryker brigades. We plan to complete our review and report the results in June 2003. In the meantime, the Army will be conducting an operational evaluation of the first Stryker brigade from late April through May 2003 as required by law. The purpose of this letter is to bring attention to issues concerning the adequacy of the Army's proposed operational evaluation plan. The operational evaluation is intended to facilitate an understanding of the initial brigade's overall capabilities. The evaluation was first directed by the conference report accompanying the 2001 defense authorization act. Subsequently, Congress included the requirement in Section 113 of the National Defense Authorization Act for fiscal year 2002, which provides that (1) the Secretary of the Army is to evaluate the brigade's execution of combat missions across the full spectrum of potential threats and operational scenarios, (2) the Department of Defense's Director of Operational Test and Evaluation (DOT&E) must approve the Army's operational evaluation plan before the evaluation may be conducted, and (3) the Secretary of Defense is to certify to Congress that the results of the operational evaluation indicate that the Stryker brigades design is operationally effective and operationally suitable. In this letter, we address the adequacy of the Army's operational evaluation plans for assessing the Stryker brigades' external logistics support--that is, the personnel, equipment, and services that will augment these brigades. Stryker brigades are organized and equipped to deploy rapidly and to execute early-entry operations immediately on arrival--potentially, into remote areas of the world. By design, Stryker brigades do not have the capability to sustain operations in this type of environment beyond several days or to perform other than minor vehicle repair and equipment …
Date: March 25, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Group Purchasing Organizations: Federal Oversight and Self-Regulation

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "GPOs are subject to certain federal laws that HHS, DOJ, and FTC are responsible for enforcing. According to HHS Office of Inspector General (HHS-OIG) officials, since 2004, the office has not routinely exercised its authority to request and review disclosures related to GPOs’ contract administrative fees, but it has collected information on GPOs’ contract administrative fees while conducting audits of hospitals’ cost reports. While HHS-OIG is responsible for enforcing the Anti-Kickback statute, the law and regulation do not require routine monitoring of GPO written agreements and disclosures. HHS-OIG officials told us that even if they requested this information from GPOs, it would not necessarily be sufficient to determine whether a GPO violated the Anti-Kickback statute. Officials from HHS-OIG also told us that, since 2004, it participated in two case investigations with DOJ that involved allegations that certain GPOs did not comply with safe harbor requirements and violated the Anti-Kickback statute. Officials told us that HHS-OIG has not imposed administrative penalties on any GPOs since 2004. DOJ and FTC have investigated complaints related to federal antitrust laws, and we identified one lawsuit filed by DOJ against a GPO in 2007. FTC officials told us that while the agency has investigated GPOs to determine whether their behavior was anticompetitive, the agency has not taken any enforcement action against a GPO since 2004."
Date: March 30, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Catalogue of Federal Insurance Activities

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The federal government assumes insurance risk for a wide range of activities that are funded through numerous federal budget accounts and administered by a variety of federal organizations. For some activities, such as those funded through the National Flood Insurance account, the federal government assumes the entire insurance risk. The federal government also assumes part of the risk for insurance activities that are administered by state and local governments--for example, those funded through the Unemployment Trust Fund or that are partly underwritten by private insurers, such as those funded through the Special Workers' Compensation Expenses account. These insurance risks, whether fully or partially assumed by the federal government, are in lines of insurance that private insurers also recognize: health, life, disability, and property/casualty insurance. The federal government has generally assumed insurance risks for at least two reasons. First, the government may step in when insurance is not widely available because private insurers cannot collectively absorb or affordably price the insurance risk. For example, when private insurers were unable to offer affordable terrorism insurance in the aftermath of September 11, 2001, the federal government created a terrorism insurance program. Second, the federal government has self-insured--that is, elected to pay for losses itself when it has determined that doing so is preferable to purchasing insurance in the private market. For example, the government has self-insured for risks associated with legal settlements and awards to resolve property damage claims, employment litigation, and contract disputes, even though recognized lines of private insurance could cover these risks. Federal insurance activities can be difficult to identify in part because no generally accepted definition of federal insurance exists. They may also be difficult to identify because they may be funded through budget accounts with names …
Date: March 4, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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National Institute of Standards and Technology: Carryover Balances for the Advanced Technology Program

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the carry over balances in the Department of Commerce's Advanced Technology Program (ATP), focusing on: (1) balances in the program for fiscal years 1995 through 1999; and (2) any balances that might exist at the end of fiscal year (FY) 2000 that could be used as offsets for the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) programs in the FY 2001 budget."
Date: March 2, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Payment Processing: Documentation Procedures For Electronic Billing and Payment Under the Families First Personal Property Program

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "This letter responds to a Department of the Army request for our views on whether certain payment procedures included in the Defense Department's (DOD) proposed Families First Personal Property Program conform with relevant criteria in GAO's Policy and Procedures Manual for Guidance of Federal Agencies. Families First is a DOD initiative to reengineer its processes for transporting household goods and personal property for its service members and civilians. Army's request is in response to a Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) recommendation that DOD seek our views specifically on whether the proposed procedures for electronic billing and payment meet the supporting documentation requirements in Title VII of GAO's Policy and Procedures Manual for Guidance of Federal Agencies. While the General Services Administration (GSA) is responsible for issuing federal regulations for transportation, including moves of household goods and personal property as well as agency prepayment and postpayment audit requirements for transportation payments, we are responsible for issuing fiscal guidance based on authorities in the U.S. Code. We considered DOD's proposed process of electronic billing and payment in light of our requirements established in Title VII for disbursements and related documentation. Our views are based on our understanding of DOD's planned implementation of the Families First program on a conceptual basis. We did not perform tests of the current or proposed system or validate information provided to us."
Date: March 31, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Railroad Safety--Responses to Posthearing Questions

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "This letter responds to a Congressional request that we provide responses to questions related to our recent testimony before Congress on reauthorizing federal rail safety programs. Our testimony discussed how the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) (1) focuses its efforts on the highest priority risks related to train accidents in planning its oversight, (2) identifies safety problems on railroad systems in carrying out its oversight, and (3) assesses the impact of its oversight efforts on safety. This testimony was based on our recent report on these topics."
Date: March 15, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Summary of Proposals to Address Income Eligibility Requirement for Federal Foster Care Reimbursement

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Twelve of the 14 proposals we identified would eliminate means testing altogether as a requirement for states to receive federal funding to help pay for the costs associated with supporting children in foster care. Two other proposals would link means testing to a different benchmark. Half of the proposals would mitigate a potential increase in federal costs due to the elimination of means testing by either changing the rate of federal reimbursements, capping federal funding, or both. Additionally, half would attempt to mitigate the potentially negative effects of lowering the reimbursement rate on states by, for example, allowing states to access additional funding in the event of an unanticipated increase in foster care placements. All five proposals that specify how states should use any foster care maintenance savings they incur would require states to reinvest these savings in child welfare services that benefit all children at risk of neglect or abuse."
Date: March 25, 2013
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Depot Maintenance: Navy Has Revised Its Estimated Workforce Cost for Basing an Aircraft Carrier at Mayport, Florida

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "This report responds to House Report 111-491 to accompany a bill for the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 (H.R. 5136). The House Report noted that according to the environmental impact statement for the proposed homeporting of additional ships at Naval Station, Mayport, Florida, homeporting of a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier would result in temporary surges of maintenance employees associated with the 3-year depot-level maintenance cycle for the aircraft carrier. The homeporting of the aircraft carrier at Mayport is projected to begin in fiscal year 2019. Also, the House report raised questions about the potential impact that the additional depot-level workload would have on the sustainability, efficiency, capabilities, and stability of the maintenance employees who would travel from Navy depots to Mayport to perform the maintenance. To examine these issues, the House report directed GAO to provide an assessment of the readiness and cost impacts of the aircraft carrier homeporting and maintenance at Mayport on the Navy's traveling workforce. In response, our objectives were to determine the extent to which (1) the Navy has identified potential workforce-related costs associated with the planned move and used cost-estimating best practices to do so and (2) the readiness of the traveling workforce may be affected by having an aircraft carrier homeported in Mayport, and any mitigation measures the Navy has planned and implemented to address any potential impact."
Date: March 3, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Economic Development: Observations Regarding the Economic Development Administration's May 1998 Final Report on Its Public Works Program

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the Economic Development Administration's (EDA) May 1998 report on its public works program, which created jobs in economically distressed communities, focusing on whether: (1) the report's results would be similar if additional variables that directly took into account the prior level of a county's employment or population were included in the analyses; (2) the report's job creation estimates include only new jobs or jobs relocated from another area; and (3) other technical issues might affect the reliability of the cost estimates presented."
Date: March 23, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Activities of the Amtrak Inspector General

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In a prior report we suggested that the consolidation of certain offices of inspectors general (IG) could strengthen the independence, efficiency, and effectiveness of the IGs in the federal government. Based on the potential for benefits and the similarities in their basic missions, we identified the Amtrak Office of Inspector General and the Department of Transportation (DOT) Office of Inspector General as among those Congress might consider for consolidation. We reported that by consolidating the office of the Amtrak IG with the larger DOT IG office, the resulting office would have a larger budget and more staff with which to achieve its mission. Potential benefits include an increased ability to improve the allocation of human and financial resources and to attract and retain an adequate and skilled workforce. We concluded that consolidation of smaller IG offices, if implemented properly with specific plans to mitigate potential weaknesses, is a means of achieving economies of scale and greater independence and of providing critical mass and range of skills, particularly given the ever increasing need for technical staff with specialized skills. This report responds to a Congressional request that, building on our prior report, we review the nature of the audit and investigative activities of the Amtrak IG and further consider the potential for consolidating the Amtrak IG office with the DOT IG office."
Date: March 4, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Federal Employees' Compensation Act: Status of Previously Identified Management Challenges

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Labor and IGs from employing departments and agencies have consistently reported similar FECA program management challenges, such as oversight and information technology, and have linked these to increased program costs through improper payments. For example, one IG reported in 2007 that its department could not appropriately manage its long-term rolls and contain improper payments because staff assigned to this task spent no more than 10 percent of their time managing cases. Additionally, citing ongoing program weaknesses—mostly related to oversight—IGs have reported avoidable costs at employing departments and agencies, which one department reported were as high as $41 million in 2011. Above and beyond the actions departments and agencies can take to address these challenges, some IGs have also reported that legislative reform is necessary to better manage the program. In an effort to alleviate the impact of management challenges, IGs collectively made over 200 recommendations since 1994, mainly to improve FECA’s oversight, and most of these recommendations have been implemented."
Date: March 21, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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U.S. Commission on Civil Rights: Deficiencies Found in Financial Management and Internal Controls

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The United States Commission on Civil Rights (Commission) was first established in 1957 as the Commission on Civil Rights. The Commission's life was extended in 1983 and reestablished again in 1994 with its current name. The Commission's purpose is to collect and study information on discrimination or denials of equal protection of the laws because of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin, or in the administration of justice in such areas as voting rights, enforcement of federal civil rights laws, and equal opportunity in education, employment, and housing. The Commission has been subject to long-standing congressional concerns over the adequacy of its management practices and procedures, concerns that were reinforced by several GAO reports. In July 1997, we issued a report in which we found broad management problems at the Commission, including limited awareness of how its resources were used. In more recent studies, we found that the Commission lacked good project management and transparency in its contracting procedures and needed improved strategic planning. As a result of these reports and other concerns, we conducted additional work at the Commission. Specifically, Congress asked us to determine whether (1) the Commission's financial transactions (receipts, obligations, and expenditures) for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2003, were properly authorized, approved, and supported and (2) the Commission had effective internal controls over financial transactions and reporting. Congress also asked us to review the manner in which the Commission addressed its budget priorities."
Date: March 7, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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At-Risk and Delinquent Youths: Fiscal Year 1998 Programs

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided updated information on the: (1) number of federal programs that served at-risk or delinquent youths in fiscal year (FY) 1998; (2) amount of FY 1998 appropriations dedicated toward youths in these programs; and (3) services these programs provided."
Date: March 30, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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