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Geology and Thermal Regime of Bert Winn #1 geothermal Test, Franklin County, Idaho

Description: The conclusions of this report are: (1) Bert Winn No.1 did not encounter high-temperature zones of permeability, except possibly at 5,575 to 5,700 feet, where chloride conductivity indicates saline fluid entry, and where stabilized temperature may be 210-215 F. (2) Structurally, Bert Winn No.1 appears to have penetrated into the horst footwall block, penetrating progressively away from the horst-bounding faults believed to leak hot fluids. (3) Projections based on disequilibrium temperatures taken at 24 and 36 hours suggest a stabilized maximum temperature of about 260-265 F at 7,450. Maximum observed temperature was 243 F. (4) Geochemically, temperatures at depth should be over 300 F. On the basis of observed temperatures and gradients, 400 F might not be encountered until 12,000 feet at this site. (5) C.H. Stocks 1-A, about one mile northwest, appears to be hotter at comparable depths, and to be better located to penetrate the range-front fault set at drillable depth. (6) Bert Winn No.1 was sited principally on a geoelectrical anomaly in an area of high temperature gradients. With the remote exception of the saline interval at 5,575 to 5,700 feet, no evidence was seen in drilling and logging of any feature that could serve as the source of the geoelectrical anomaly.
Date: December 1, 1980
Creator: McIntyre, J.B. & Koenig, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Temperature-gradient and heat flow data, Grass Valley, Nevada

Description: A series of 16 shallow and intermediate-depth temperature-gradient holes were drilled for Sunoco Energy Development Co. in Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada, on leases held by Aminoil USA, Inc., under the cost-sharing industry-linked program of the Department of Energy. Thirteen shallow (85-152 m) and 3 intermediate-depth (360-457 m) holes were completed and logged during the period June through September, 1979. The locations of these holes and of pre-existing temperature-gradient holes are shown on plate 1. This report constitutes a final data transmittal and disclosure of results. The drilling subcontractor was Southwest Drilling and Exploration, Inc. of Central, Utah. They provided a Gardner-Denver 15W rig, a 3-man crew, and supporting equipment. A l l holes were drilled with mud as the circulating medium. Drilling histories for each hole are summarized in table 1. GeothermEx, Inc. performed on-site geological descriptions of the cuttings; obtained several temperature profiles for each hole, including an equilibrium profile taken 23 days or more after cessation of drilling; selected samples for thermal conductivity measurements; integrated temperature, temperature-gradient, and heat-flow data obtained in this project with published values; and prepared this report.
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: Koenig, James B. & Gardner, Murray C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal Gradient Drilling and Measurements Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean

Description: This technical report on the Phase II geothermal exploration of Ascension Island documents the data collected during thermal gradient drilling and the subsequent thermal and fluid chemical investigations. It also documents the completion of the Phase II exploration strategy which was proposed at the end of the Phase I--Preliminary Examination of Ascension Island. The thermal gradient drilling resulted in seven holes which range from 206 to 1750 ft (53-533 m) deep, with a cumulative footage of 6563 ft (2000 m). The drilling procedure and the problems encountered during the drilling have been explained in detail to provide information valuable for any subsequent drilling program on the island. In addition, the subsurface geology encountered in the holes has been documented and, where possible, correlated with other holes or the geology mapped on the surface of the island. Temperatures measured in the holes reach a maximum of 130 F (54.4 C) at 1285 ft (391.7 m) in hole GH-6. When the temperatures of all holes are plotted against elevation, the holes can be classed into three distinct groups, those which have no thermal manifestations, those with definite geothermal affinities, and one hole which is intermediate between the other two. From consideration of this information, it is clear that the highest geothermal potential on the island is in the Donkey Flat area extending beneath Middleton Ridge, and in the Cricket Valley area. Because of the greater drilling depths and the remote nature of the Cricket Valley area, it is recommended that future exploration concentrate in the area around Middleton Ridge.
Date: July 1, 1984
Creator: Sibbett, B.S.; Nielson, D.L. & Adams, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The hot dry rock geothermal potential of the Susanville (CA) area

Description: A portion of northeastern California that lies within the Basin and Range Province represents a large, untapped geothermal energy resource in the form of hot, but essential impermeable, rock. If a means of developing sufficient permeability in the deep, granitic basement can be demonstrated, the electric power generation potential would be considerable. The objective of this study is to look at the specific geographical region extending from northeast to southeast of the village of Litchfield to the Nevada border as a target area for the first commercial application of Hot Dry Rock reservoir stimulation techniques. The ultimate goal is to provide background information that could lead to the creation of a commercial-scale, engineered geothermal reservoir in granitic basement rock of low permeability.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Brown, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Natural State Model of the Nesjavellir Geothermal Field, Iceland

Description: The Nesjavellir geothermal system in southern Iceland is very complex from both a thermal and hydrologic point of view. There are large pressure and temperature gradients in the wellfield and zones with drastically different pressure potentials. Thus, natural fluid flow is substantial in the system and flow patterns are complex. We have developed a two-dimensional natural state model for the Nesjavellir system that matches reasonably well the observed pressure and temperature distributions. The match with field data has allowed determination of the energy recharge to the system and the permeability distribution. Fluids recharge the system at rate of 0.02 kg/s/m with an enthalpy of 1460 kJ/kg. The permeability in the main reservoir is estimated to be in the range of 1.5 to 2.0 md, which agrees well with injection test results from individual wells. Permeabilities in shallower reservoirs are about an order of magnitude higher. Most of the main reservoir is under twephase conditions, as are shallow aquifers in the southern part of the field. The model results also suggest that the low temperatures in the shallow part of the northern region of the field may be due to the young age of the system; i.e., the system is gradually heating up. If this is the case the estimated age of the system near the wellfield is on the order of a few thousand years.
Date: January 21, 1986
Creator: Bodvarsson, G. S.; Pruess, K.; Stefansson, V.; Steingrimsson, B.; Bjornsson, S.; Gunnarsson, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geology of Platanares geothermal area, Copan, Honduras

Description: The Platanares, Copan (Honduras) geothermal area is located in a highly faulted terrain of Paleozoic(.) metamorphic rocks, Cretaceous clastic sedimentary rocks, and Tertiary volcanic rocks. All thermal manifestations are located along faults. The volcanic rocks are probably too old to represent the surface expression of an active crustal magma body. Thus, the thermal water is interpreted to be heated during deep circulation in a regime of elevated heat flow. The water chemistry suggests that the geothermal reservoir originates within the Cretaceous sedimentary sequence and that the reservoir temperature may be as high as 240/sup 0/ C. Two exploration coreholes penetrated the volcanic sequence and bottomed within Cretaceous redbeds. Well PLTG-1 is 650 m deep and flows at 3 Mw thermal from a 160/sup 0/ C permeable zone. Well PLTG-2 is 401 m deep and has a thermal gradient of 139/sup 0/ C/km. Exploration drilling is continuing, with a third corehole to be drilled in May, 1987.
Date: May 1, 1987
Creator: Heiken, G.; Duffield, W.; Wohletz, K.; Priest, S.; Ramos, N.; Flores, W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drilling investigations of crustal rifting processes in the Salton Trough, California

Description: The paper describes the results of CSDP activities in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF), concentrating on a shallow heat-flow survey, but also considering preliminary results from the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (SSSDP). Whether the heat input rate to localized systems is high enough to account for the overall thermal budget of the Salton Trough is examined. (ACR)
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Kasameyer, P.W.; Younker, L.W.; Newmark, R.L. & Duba, A.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exploration geothermal gradient drilling, Platanares, Honduras, Central America

Description: This paper is a review and summary of the core drilling operations component of the Honduras Geothermal Resource Development Project at the Platanares geothermal prospect in Honduras, Central America. Three intermediate depth (428 to 679 m) coreholes are the first continuously cored geothermal exploration boreholes in Honduras. These coring operations are part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) effort funded by the Agency for International Development (AID) and implemented by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) in cooperation with the Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica (ENEE) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). This report emphasizes coring operations with reference to the stratigraphy, thermal gradient, and flow test data of the boreholes. The primary objectives of this coring effort were (1) to obtain quantitative information on the temperature distribution as a function of depth, (2) to recover fluids associated with the geothermal reservoir, (3) to recover 75% or better core from the subsurface rock units, and (4) to drill into the subsurface rock as deeply as possible in order to get information on potential reservoir rocks, fracture density, permeabilities, and alteration histories of the rock units beneath the site. The three exploration coreholes drilled to depths of 650, 428 and 679 m, respectively, encountered several hot water entries. Coring operations and associated testing began in mid-October 1986 and were completed at the end of June 1987.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Goff, S.J.; Laughlin, A.W.; Ruefenacht, H.D.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G. & Ramos, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New heat-flow contour map of the conterminous United States

Description: A series of maps is presented, depicting the heat flow within the conterminous United States based on all data available to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as of August 1976. Sources include all published data and about a hundred new USGS values currently being readied for publication. Tables are included on locations, heat flow, and heat production for published values plotted on the maps. (JGB)
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Sass, J. H.; Diment, W. H.; Lachenbruch, A. H.; Marshall, B. V.; Munroe, R. J.; Moses, T. H. Jr. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inversion Approach For Thermal Data From A Convecting Hydrothermal System

Description: Hydrothermal systems are often studied by collecting thermal gradient data and temperature depth curves. These data contain important information about the flow field, the evolution of the hydrothermal system, and the location and nature of the ultimate heat sources. Thermal data are conventionally interpreted by the ''forward'' method; the thermal field is calculated based on selected initial conditions and boundary conditions such as temperature and permeability distributions. If the calculated thermal field matches the data, the chosen conditions are inferred to be possibly correct. Because many sets of initial conditions may produce similar thermal fields, users of the ''forward'' method may inadvertently miss the correct set of initial conditions. Analytical methods for ''inverting'' data also allow the determination of all the possible solutions consistent with the definition of the problem. In this paper we suggest an approach for inverting thermal data from a hydrothermal system, and compare it to the more conventional approach. We illustrate the difference in the methods by comparing their application to the Salton Sea Geothermal Field by Lau (1980a) and Kasameyer, et al. (1984). In this particular example, the inverse method was used to draw conclusions about the age and total rate of fluid flow into the hydrothermal system.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Kasameyer, P.; Younker, L. & Hanson, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Analysis of an extended flow test of well ST-1 on the flanks of Makushin Volcano indicates an extensive, water-dominated, naturally fractured reservoir. The reservoir appears to be capable of delivering extremely large flows when tapped by full-size production wells. A productivity index in excess of 30,000 lb/hr/psi implies a phenomenal permeability-thickness product, in the range of 500,000 to 1,000,000 md-ft. The flowing bottomhole (1,949-foot) temperature of the fluid is 379 F, which is lower than the measured static temperature at that depth (395 F). This phenomenon, coupled with an observed static temperature gradient reversal from the maximum 399 F observed at 1,500 feet, indicates that the reservoir proper is located some distance from the well. presumably it is at a temperature slightly lower than 379 F and communicates with the wellbore via a high conductivity fracture system. A material balance calculation yields an estimate of reserves that are capable of sustaining all of the present power needs of the island (13 {+-} MW peak) with a geothermal power plant for several hundred years. Theoretically, a single large diameter well at the site of ST-1 could satisfy this requirement.
Date: January 22, 1985
Creator: Economides, M.J.; Morris, C.W. & Campbell, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of temperature gradient and heat flow in Santiam Pass Area, Oregon, Volume 1

Description: The conclusions of this report are: (1) There is a weakly defined thermal anomaly within the area examined by temperature-gradient holes in the Santiam Pass area. This is a relict anomaly showing differences in permeability between the High Cascades and Western Cascades areas, more than a fundamental difference in shallow crustal temperatures. (2) The anomaly as defined by the 60 F isotherms at 400 feet follows a north-south trend immediately westward of the Cascade axis in the boundary region. It is clear that all holes spudded into High Cascades rocks result in isothermal and reversal gradients. Holes spudded in Western Cascades rocks result in positive gradients. (3) Cold groundwater flow influences and masks temperature gradients in the High Cascades to a depth of at least 700 feet, especially eastward from the major north-south trending faults. Pleistocene and Holocene rocks are very permeable aquifers. (4) Shallow gradient drilling in the lowlands westward of the faults provides more interpretable information than shallow drilling in the cold-water recharge zones. Topographic and climatological effects can be filtered out of the temperature gradient results. (5) The thermal anomaly seems to have 2 centers: one in the Belknap-Foley area, and one northward in the Sand Mountain area. The anomalies may or may not be connected along a north-south trend. (6) A geothermal effect is seen in holes downslope of the Western-High Cascade boundary. Mixing with cold waters is a powerful influence on temperature gradient data. (7) The temperature-gradient program has not yet examined and defined the geothermal resources potential of the area eastward of the Western Cascades-High Cascades boundary. Holes to 1500-2000 feet in depth are required to penetrate the high permeability-cold groundwater regime. (8) Drilling conditions are unfavorable. There are very few accessible level drill sites. Seasonal access problems and environmental restrictions together with frequent ...
Date: August 1, 1981
Creator: Cox, B.L.; Gardner, M.C. & Koenig, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inversion approach for thermal data from a convecting hydrothermal system. Revision 1

Description: Hydrothermal systems are often studied by collecting thermal gradient data and temperature-depth curves. These data contain important information about the flow field, the evolution of the hydrothermal system, and the location and nature of the ultimate heat sources. Thermal data are conventionally interpreted by the ''forward'' method; the thermal field is calculated based on selected initial conditions and boundary conditions such as temperature and permeability distributions. If the calculated thermal field matches the data, the chosen conditions are inferred to be possibly correct. Because many sets of initial conditions may produce similar thermal fields, users of the ''forward'' method may inadvertently miss the correct set of initial conditions. Analytical methods for ''inverting'' data allow the determination of all the possible solutions consistent with the definition of the problem. In this paper the authors suggest an approach for inverting thermal data from a hydrothermal system, and compare it to the more conventional approach. The authors illustrate the difference in the methods by comparing their application to the Salton Sea Geothermal Field by Lau (1980a) and Kasameyer, et al. (1984). In this particular example, the inverse method was used to draw conclusions about the age and total rate of fluid flow into the hydrothermal system. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.
Date: June 7, 1985
Creator: Kasameyer, P.; Younker, L. & Hanson, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential for generation of natural gas in sediments of the convergent margin of the Aleutian Trench Area

Description: Sediment being subducted in the eastern part of the convergent margin of the Aleutian Trench has a potential to generate large volumes of natural gas, perhaps as much as 2.8 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/ of methane per km/sup 3/ of sediment, even though the content of organic carbon in the sediment is very low, averaging about 0.4%. This high potential for gas generation results primarily from the enormous volume of sediment undergoing subduction. Along the eastern Aleutian Arc-Trench system a 3-km thick sheet of sediment is being subducted at a rate of about 60 km per million years. We estimate, based on considerations of the stability requirements for gas hydrates observed as anomalous reflectors in some of our seismic records, and on one measurement in a deep well, that the geothermal gradient in this region is about 30/sup 0/C/km. Such a gradient suggests a temperature regime in which the maximum gas generation in the subducting sediment occurs beneath the upper slope. Thus the sediment of the upper slope, as opposed to that of the shelf and lower slope, could be the most prospective for gas accumulation if suitable reservoirs are present. 40 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Kvenvolden, K.A. & von Huene, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal corehole drilling and operations, Platanares, Honduras, Central America

Description: Two slim exploration coreholes to depths of 650 m and 428 m, respectively, have been completed at the Platanares geothermal site, Honduras, Central America. A third corehole is now being drilled. These boreholes have provided information on the stratigraphy, temperature variation with depth, nature and compositions of fluids, fracturing, permeability, and hydrothermal alterations associated with the geothermal reservoir. Eruptions of hot water occurred during the drilling of both the first and third boreholes. Recovery of >98% core has been obtained even under difficult superheated conditions.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Goff, S.; Rufenacht, H.D.; Laughlin, A.W.; Adams, A.; Planner, H. & Ramos, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Cove Fort-Sulphurdale KGRA, a geologic and geophysical case study

Description: Geological, geochemical and geophysical data are presented for one of the major geothermal systems in the western United States. Regional data indicate major tectonic structures which are still active and provide the conduits for the geothermal system. Detailed geologic mapping has defined major glide blocks of Tertiary volcanics which moved down from the Tushar Mountains and locally act as a leaky cap to portions of the presently known geothermal system. Mapping and geochemical studies indicate three periods of mineralization have affected the area, two of which are unrelated to the present geothermal activity. The geologic relationships demonstrate that the major structures have been opened repeatedly since the Tertiary. Gravity and magnetic data are useful in defining major structures beneath alluvium and basalt cover, and indicate the importance of the Cove Fort-Beaver graben and the Cove Creek fault in localizing the geothermal reservoir. These structures and a high level of microearthquake activity also suggest other target areas within the larger thermal anomaly. Electrical resistivity surveys and thermal gradient holes both contribute to the delineation of the known reservoir. Deep exploration wells which test the reservoir recorded maximum temperatures of 178 C and almost isothermal behavior beginning at 700 to 1000 m and continuing to a depth of 1800 m. Costly drilling, high corrosion rates and low reservoir pressure coupled with the relatively low reservoir temperatures have led to the conclusion that the reservoir is not economic for electric power production at present. Plans are underway to utilize the moderate-temperature fluids for agribusiness, and exploration continues for a deep high-temperature reservoir.
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Ross, Howard P.; Moore, Joseph N. & Christensen, Odin D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geological, Geophysical, And Thermal Characteristics Of The Salton Sea Geothermal Field, California

Description: The Salton Sea Geothermal Field is the largest water-dominated geothermal field in the Salton Trough in Southern California. Within the trough, local zones of extension among active right-stepping right-lateral strike-slip faults allow mantle-derived magmas to intrude the sedimentary sequence. The intrusions serves as heat sources to drive hydrothermal systems. We can characterize the field in detail because we have an extensive geological and geophysical data base. The sediments are relatively undeformed and can be divided into three categories as a function of depth: (1) low-permeability cap rock, (2) upper reservoir rocks consisting of sandstones, siltstones, and shales that were subject to minor alterations, and (3) lower reservoir rocks that were extensively altered. Because of the alteration, intergranular porosity and permeability are reduced with depth. permeability is enhanced by renewable fractures, i.e., fractures that can be reactivated by faulting or natural hydraulic fracturing subsequent to being sealed by mineral deposition. In the central portion of the field, temperature gradients are high near the surface and lower below 700 m. Surface gradients in this elliptically shaped region are fairly constant and define a thermal cap, which does not necessarily correspond to the lithologic cap. At the margin of the field, a narrow transition region, with a low near-surface gradient and an increasing gradient at greater depths, separates the high temperature resource from areas of normal regional gradient. Geophysical and geochemical evidence suggest that vertical convective motion in the reservoir beneath the thermal cap is confined to small units, and small-scale convection is superimposed on large-scale lateral flow of pore fluid. Interpretation of magnetic, resistivity, and gravity anomalies help to establish the relationship between the inferred heat source, the hydrothermal system, and the observed alteration patterns. A simple hydrothermal model is supported by interpreting the combined geological, geophysical, and thermal data. In the ...
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Younker, L.W.; Kasameyer, P. W. & Tewhey, J. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of small diameter coreholes for reservoir information

Description: Geothermal exploration has been highly successful to date in locating targets for drilling. However, the requirements for an economically successful geothermal well are both high flow rate and high temperature. Most geophysical and geochemical exploration methods have not been highly accurate in predicting the depth and actual temperature of a reservoir, nor have they been able to locate high permeability zones. The result is that most geothermal exploration is conducted by drilling core holes to better understand the heat flow in an area followed by drilling of production diameter exploration wells which can be flow tested to ascertain the permeability. The goal of any exploration program is to determine reservoir economics. The cost of wells makes up between one quarter and one half the total cost of producing geothermal power. The number, design, depth of wells and placement of injectors are important to the optimal exploitation of the reservoir. Although early efforts at development have focused on rapid plant construction to begin cash flow, the history of producing fields emphasizes that understanding reservoirs can reduce the risk of rapid temperature or pressure declines and increase the success of step out drilling following initial exploitation. The high cost of large diameter production wells makes the collecting of exploration data on the reservoir through some less expensive method desirable. Geothermal developers are still drilling resources with surface expression, hot springs and surface mappable fractures and faults. As these obvious resources are developed and as the obvious targets in productive fields are exhausted, new exploration tools are needed. One possibility is the use of deep core holes drilled for temperature gradient data to provide more reservoir information. Two methods not previously applied to geothermal reservoir assessment are suggested to augment other data obtained from coreholes.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Petty, Susan; Adair, Richard G. & Livesay, Bill
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal resource potential of the Socorro Area, New Mexico

Description: This report provides a regional synthesis of geology, geochemistry, hydrology and geophysical data for the Socorro, New Mexico, area. It is based principally on extensive drill-hole data supplied by, and proprietary to, Gulf Mineral Resources Company and Sunoco Energy Development Co. These temperature-gradient and heat-flow data are integrated with older gradient and heat-flow data, groundwater chemistry, studies of local seismicity, regional and local geologic mapping, and other data. This synthesis yields a revised estimate of the geothermal energy potential for the Socorro area. it should be recalled that attention has been focused on Socorro and vicinity because of reported high heat flow and probable magmatic bodies within the shallow crust. Some 20 man-days of effort have gone into this study, exclusive of time spent earlier in logging temperature gradients and studying drill-hole cuttings.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Petersen, C.A. & Koenig, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NGA Industry Critique of the Exploration Component

Description: The author critiques the Exploration component of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Program Review X. The comments focus principally on the hydrothermal portion of the DOE program, but he also makes some commentary on the Long Valley Exploratory Well and Geopressured-Geothermal components of the program, as well as some general comments. Before I do that, I would like to review the current state of geothermal exploration in the United States. According to Koenig (1989, 1990) who critiqued the DOE Geothermal Program in those years, geothermal exploration in the western U.S. has been conducted in virtually all of the apparent geothermal resource areas. Many of these areas which were under exploration in the 1960s and 1970s, and were explored in part under the U.S. DOE Industry Coupled Program have progressed to commercial status in the 80s. The DOE March (1992) Draft Multi-Year Program Plan for FY 1993-1997 states that 8 out of the 14 geothermal resource areas explored under this Industry Coupled Program in the late 1970s are currently under production. I do not think we will find anyone in this room, in the geothermal industry, or in the United States that will argue with the clear and outstanding success of that government program. When the prices of oil dropped in the 1980s, many geothermal operators left the industry, and with the dramatic decrease in activity, many of the service companies went by the wayside also. By and large, the domestic geothermal industry today is emaciated. As a result of the capital intensive nature of geothermal development, the historical long lead times to go from exploration to production, the highly entrepreneurial nature of the industry, and the lack of an economic market, virtually no new exploration has been conducted in the U.S. in about 10 years. The consequence of ...
Date: March 24, 1992
Creator: Iovanetti, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-to-moderate temperature geothermal resource assessment for Nevada: Area specific studies, final report for the period June 1, 1980-August 30, 1981

Description: The Hawthorne study area is located in Mineral County, Nevada and surrounds the municipality of the same name. It encompasses an area of approximately 310 sq. km (120 sq. mi), and most of the land belongs to the US Army Ammunition Plant. The energy needs of the military combined with those of the area population (over 5,000 residents) are substantial. The area is classified as having a high potential for direct applications using the evaluation scheme described in Trexler and others (1979). A variety of scientific techniques was employed during area-wide resource assessment. General geologic studies demonstrate the lithologic diversity in the area; these studies also indicate possible sources for dissolved fluid constituents. Geophysical investigations include aeromagnetic and gravity surveys which aid in defining the nature of regional, and to a lesser extent, local variations in subsurface configurations. Surface and near-surface structural features are determined using various types of photo imagery including low sun-angle photography. An extensive shallow depth temperature probe survey indicates two zones of elevated temperature on opposite sides of the Walker Lake basin. Temperature-depth profiles from several wells in the study area indicate significant thermal fluid-bearing aquifers. Fluid chemical studies suggest a wide spatial distribution for the resource, and also suggest a meteoric recharge source in the Wassuk Range. Finally, a soil-mercury survey was not a useful technique in this study area. Two test holes were drilled to conclude the area resource assessment, and thermal fluids were encountered in both wells. The western well has measured temperatures as high as 90 C (194 F) within 150 meters (500 ft) of the surface. Temperature profiles in this well indicate a negative temperature gradient below 180 meters (590 ft). The eastern hole had a bottom hole temperature of 61 C (142 F) at a depth of only 120 meters ...
Date: August 30, 1981
Creator: Trexler, Dennis T.; Koeing, Brian A.; Flynn, Thomas; Bruce, James L. & Ghusn, George Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation and targeting of geothermal energy resources in the southeastern United States. Progress report, July 1--September 30, 1977

Description: The objective of this program is to develop and apply targeting procedures for the evaluation of low-temperature radiogenically-derived geothermal resources in the eastern United States utilizing geological, geochemical, and geophysical data. The near-term resource assessment for Region V (the states east of the Rocky Mountains, excluding Texas and Louisiana) places primary programmatic emphasis on the confirmation of radiogenic resources in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. This emphasis is based on the partial confirmation of the radiogenic model as described in this and previous reports from VPI and SU. Geothermal gradients known to date in the Atlantic Coastal Plain are consistent with those expected from a concealed radiogenic source. Our current work in the Piedmont appears to be confirming the linear relationship between heat flow and heat generation. This is important because it permits theoretical calculations of temperatures to be expected within the sediments of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, in the granitic rocks beneath the Coastal Plain, and in those exposed in the Piedmont. Sixteen holes suitable for excellent heat flow determinations have been drilled by VPI and SU and will be reported on as the holes reach thermal equilibrium and chemical analyses and heat determination of core samples are completed. Reconnaissance surface sampling of igneous rocks was carried out to define the variation in surface heat generation that might be expected. Collation of existing gravity and magnetic data available for the Atlantic Coastal Plain was completed and modeling of selected negative gravity anomalies has begun. Insight into restrictions on the vertical distribution of heat-producing elements is being obtained by consideration of restraints imposed by analyses of metamorphic mineral assemblages.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Costain, J.K.; Glover, L. III & Krishna Sinha, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geological occurrence of gas hydrates at the Blake Outer Ridge, western North Atlantic

Description: The occurrence of gas hydrates at the Blake Outer Ridge, as confirmed by the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), is governed not only by gas-water phase relationships but also by interrelated geological constraints. The results of this reexamination of the DSDP data show that seafloor processes, topography, and sediment properties are among the factors that impact the stability and distribution of gas hydrate at the ridge. Rapid sedimentation and erosion have local and transient effects on thermal gradients, which cause the base of the hydrate stability zone to migrate. To a large degree, the convex shape of the Blake Outer Ridge allows gas hydrates to be stable. Low-permeability sediments occupy the interval in which the stability zone exists, and they influence hydrate occurrence by controlling the distribution of gas. A brief comparison of the Blake Outer Ridge with two more recently confirmed hydrate localities (the northern Gulf of Mexico and the Middle America's trench) shows little similarity among the three hydrate environments, but calls attention to the complex and often subtle effects that the geological system imposes on hydrate stability. 47 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1986
Creator: Dominic, K.L. & Barlow, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department