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Military Readiness: Civil Reserve Air Fleet Can Respond as Planned, but Incentives May Need Revamping

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "In the event of a national emergency, the Department of Defense (DOD) can use commercial aircraft drawn from the Civil Reserve Air Fleet to augment its own airlift capabilities. The Civil Reserve Air Fleet is a fleet of aircraft owned by U.S. commercial air carriers but committed voluntarily to DOD for use during emergencies. After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, many air carriers experienced financial difficulties. This sparked concern about the fleet's ability to respond, if activated, and prompted the Subcommittee to ask GAO to determine whether the fleet could respond to an activation with the required number of aircraft and crews and in the required time frame. The Subcommittee also wanted to know whether the incentives used to attract and retain participants are effective."
Date: December 30, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2003

Description: The Department of Defense (DOD) administers five environmental programs in response to various requirements under federal environmental laws. These programs include environmental cleanup, environmental compliance, pollution prevention, environmental technology, and conservation. Additionally, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and cleaning up contaminated nuclear weapons sites. The Administration requested a total of $11.17 billion for these programs in FY2003, about $390 million more than the FY2002 funding level of $10.78 billion. Some of the ongoing issues associated with these programs are the adequacy, cost, and pace of cleanup, whether DOD and DOE adequately comply with environmental laws and regulations, and the extent to which environmental requirements encroach upon military readiness.
Date: December 20, 2002
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Projected Response of Typical Detonators to Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Environments

Description: The purpose of this discussion is to indicate the threshold values for low-order detonator response by using first principles applied to pin-to-pin configurations and associated limits in pin-to-case scenarios. In addition an attempt to define the electrical environment by first principles is shown to be inadequate and indicates the need to define the electrical insult by reasonable standards. A comparison of two accepted electrical models and a combination of the extreme reported levels from both standards are used to establish an extreme set of parameters for a safety assessment. A simplification of the critical electrical insult parameters is then shown and demonstrated to provide the initial screening protocol with easily defined electrical dimensions of action integral. Action integral and the conductive material properties are the basic parameters needed to define the solid, liquid, and gas phases of the material used for detonator bridge wires. The resulting material phases are directly related to detonator response thresholds. The discussion concludes by showing the ability of ESD insults to arc from pin-to-case, the limited knowledge of the associated arc initiation process, and the modeling need for a reasonable arc resistance in pin-to-case scenarios.
Date: December 20, 2002
Creator: Wilson, M J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biological and Chemical Security

Description: The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.
Date: December 19, 2002
Creator: Fitch, P J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Personnel: Joint Officer Development Has Improved, but a Strategic Approach Is Needed

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "DOD has increasingly engaged in multiservice and multinational operations. Congress enacted the Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986, in part, so that DOD's military leaders would be better prepared to plan, support, and conduct joint operations. GAO assessed DOD actions to implement provisions in the law that address the development of officers in joint matters and evaluated impediments affecting DOD's ability to fully respond to the provisions in the act."
Date: December 19, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report - Advanced Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry Program - Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Sandia National Laboratory

Description: This report covers the three main projects that collectively comprised the Advanced Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry Program. Chapter 1 describes the direct interrogation of individual particles by laser desorption within the ion trap mass spectrometer analyzer. The goals were (1) to develop an ''intelligent trigger'' capable of distinguishing particles of biological origin from those of nonbiological origin in the background and interferent particles and (2) to explore the capability for individual particle identification. Direct interrogation of particles by laser ablation and ion trap mass spectrometry was shown to have good promise for discriminating between particles of biological origin and those of nonbiological origin, although detailed protocols and operating conditions were not worked out. A library of more than 20,000 spectra of various types of biological particles has been assembled. Methods based on multivariate analysis and on neural networks were used to discriminate between particles of biological origin and those of nonbiological origin. It was possible to discriminate between at least some species of bacteria if mass spectra of several hundred similar particles were obtained. Chapter 2 addresses the development of a new ion trap mass analyzer geometry that offers the potential for a significant increase in ion storage capacity for a given set of analyzer operating conditions. This geometry may lead to the development of smaller, lower-power field-portable ion trap mass spectrometers while retaining laboratory-scale analytical performance. A novel ion trap mass spectrometer based on toroidal ion storage geometry has been developed. The analyzer geometry is based on the edge rotation of a quadrupolar ion trap cross section into the shape of a torus. Initial performance of this device was poor, however, due to the significant contribution of nonlinear fields introduced by the rotation of the symmetric ion-trapping geometry. These nonlinear resonances contributed to poor mass resolution and sensitivity and ...
Date: December 18, 2002
Creator: Whitten, W.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry Analysis of LX-17 and PBX-9502 High Explosive Samples

Description: As part of the Campaign 4 effort in A Division we have done an analysis of several high explosives that are used in the current nuclear stockpile. In particular we have looked at samples of LX-17 and PBX-9502. The analysis was done using the glow discharge mass spectrometer that is currently located in B132N and operated by Mark Lane of the Chemistry and Material Science (CMS) Directorate. George Overturf from CMS obtained small samples of high explosive for the measurements. From the analysis we wanted to verify the actual atomic composition of the high explosive, see how that compared with the nominal composition, and understand whether any significant impurities existed in the samples. We present the analysis of several LX-17 and PBX-9502 samples using the glow discharge mass spectrometer to measure both the main constituents of the high explosive as well as any trace materials that may be present.
Date: December 16, 2002
Creator: Nilsen, J; Castor, J I; Lane, M A & Overturf, G E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low Dose Studies with Focused X-Rays in cell and Tissue Models: Mechanisms of Bystander and Genomic Instability Responses

Description: The management of the risks of exposure of people to ionizing radiation is important in relation to its uses in industry and medicine, also to natural and man-made radiation in the environment. The vase majority of exposures are at a very low level of radiation dose. The risks are of inducing cancer in the exposed individuals and a smaller risk of inducing genetic damage that can be indicate that they are low. As a result, the risks are impossible to detect in population studies with any accuracy above the normal levels of cancer and genetic defects unless the dose levels are high. In practice, this means that our knowledge depends very largely on the information gained from the follow-up of the survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Japanese cities. The risks calculated from these high-dose short-duration exposures then have to be projected down to the low-dose long-term exposures that apply generally. Recent research using cells in culture has revealed that the relationship between high- and low-dose biological damage may be much more complex than had previously been thought. The aims of this and other projects in the DOE's Low-Dose Program are to gain an understanding of the biological actions of low-dose radiation, ultimately to provide information that will lead to more accurate quantification of low-dose risk. Our project is based on the concept that the processes by which radiation induces cancer start where the individual tracks of radiation impact on cells and tissues. At the dose levels of most low-dose exposures, these events are rare and any individual cells only ''sees'' radiation tracks at intervals averaging from weeks to years apart. This contrasts with the atomic bomb exposures where, on average, each cell was hit by hundreds of tracks instantaneously. We have therefore developed microbeam techniques that enable us ...
Date: December 14, 2002
Creator: Held, Kathy; Prise, Kevin; Michael, Barry & Folkard, Melvyn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Management: New Management Reform Program Still Evolving

Description: A briefing report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Secretary of Defense announced a new business transformation program in 2001 with the intent of improving the effectiveness and efficiency of Department of Defense business operations. Concerned that the previous administration's Defense Reform Initiatives (DRI) could not be successful without many years of sustained effort, the Senate Committee on Armed Services issued a September 2001 report directing GAO to assess which DRI initiatives have been carried forward. In completing this assessment, GAO also examined the management structure and types of initiatives contained in the new business transformation program. Also at the request of the Committee, more detailed information on the status of the logistics reform and electronic business/electronic commerce initiatives is provided in the GAO report. GAO interviewed officials involved with the former DRI initiatives, as well as officials operating at all levels of the new business transformation program. In commenting on a draft of this report, DOD concurred with GAO's findings."
Date: December 12, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOD Overseas Schools: Compensation Adequate for Recruiting and Retaining Well-Qualified Teachers

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Defense (DOD) overseas schools educate more than 70,000 children of military service members and DOD civilian employees throughout the world. In order to ensure the continued success of this school system, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2002 directed GAO to assess whether the DOD overseas teachers' compensation package is adequate to recruit and retain qualified teachers. The act also required GAO to determine whether any revisions to the law governing DOD overseas teachers' salaries were advisable."
Date: December 12, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Authorization and Appropriations for FY2003: Defense

Description: This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Energy and Water. It summarizes the current legislative status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related legislative activity. The report lists the key CRS staff relevant to the issues covered and related CRS products.
Date: December 6, 2002
Creator: Daggett, Stephen & Belasco, Amy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Personnel: Oversight Process Needed to Help Maintain Momentum of DOD's Strategic Human Capital Planning

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Defense (DOD) has, in the past, lacked a strategic approach to human capital management. In April 2002, DOD issued two human capital strategic plans for military personnel. One plan addresses military personnel management and policies; the second addresses quality of life issues affecting service members and their families. As a follow-on to its recent work on benefits for military personnel, GAO reviewed the extent that these two plans, in addressing military benefits, promote (1) the integration and alignment of human capital approaches to meet organizational goals and (2) the use of reliable data to make human capital decisions--two critical success factors for human capital planning. GAO also reviewed DOD's plans for overseeing the progress and implementation of its human capital plans."
Date: December 5, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cooperative Threat Reduction Program Annual Report

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Section 1308 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001 requires the Comptroller General to provide Congress with an assessment of the Department of Defense's annual report on the Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) program within 90 days of the submission of the annual report to Congress. The Department of Defense submitted its CTR annual report for Fiscal Year 2002 to Congress on September 3, 2002 almost 19 months after the submission date mandated by law. GAO found that the report (1) did not clearly set forth future funding data required by Congress, (2) did not include certain important planning elements, (3) in some instances asserted the use of a more rigorous methodology than was actually used, and (4) incorporated some but not all prior GAO recommendations."
Date: December 2, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Acquisitions: Factors Affecting Outcomes of Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) program was started by the Department of Defense (DOD) as a way to get new technologies that meet critical military needs into the hands of users faster and less cost. GAO was asked to examine DOD's process for structuring and executing ACTDs."
Date: December 2, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Editing Tips for Technical Publications in the Joint Nuclear Weapons Publication System (JNWPS)

Description: These editing tips contain helpful suggestions to assist writers who are writing, editing, and publishing technical publications in the JNWPS. The suggestions clarify some of the most common writing problems and requirements of two publications used in the JNWPS: ''DOE-DTRA TP 1-1, Joint Nuclear Weapons Publications System Operating Procedures, Specifications, and Standards, and United States Government Printing Office Style Manual''. Topics include requirements for abbreviations, formats for drafts, layouts of illustrations and tables, appropriate wording for interim changes, guidance for creating a list of effective pages, how to insert and delete pages and paragraphs, referencing other technical publications, use of revision bars, requirements for safety precautions, use of hyphens, and how to place warnings, cautions, and notes. Also included are a writer's checklist, samples of draft title pages, and a section of helpful tips for the writers who use the department's desktop publishing software program, Adobe{reg_sign} FrameMaker{reg_sign}.
Date: December 1, 2002
Creator: ALLEN, TARA S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rapid Ultrasensitive Chemical-Fingerprint Detection of Chemical and Biochemical Warfare Agents

Description: Vibrational spectra can serve as chemical fingerprints for positive identification of chemical and biological warfare molecules. The required speed and sensitivity might be achieved with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using nanotextured metal surfaces. Systematic and reproducible methods for preparing metallic surfaces that maximize sensitivity have not been previously developed. This work sought to develop methods for forming high-efficiency metallic nanostructures that can be integrated with either gas or liquid-phase chem-lab-on-a-chip separation columns to provide a highly sensitive, highly selective microanalytical system for detecting current and future chem/bio agents. In addition, improved protein microchromatographic systems have been made by the creation of acrylate-based porous polymer monoliths that can serve as protein preconcentrators to reduce the optical system sensitivity required to detect and identify a particular protein, such as a bacterial toxin.
Date: December 1, 2002
Creator: ASHBY, CAROL I.; SHEPODD, TIMOTHY J.; YELTON, WILLIAM G. & MURON, DAVID J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electronic Warfare: Comprehensive Strategy Still Needed for Suppressing Enemy Air Defenses

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "U.S. military aircraft are often at great risk from enemy air defenses, and the services use specialized aircraft to neutralize or destroy them. In January 2001, GAO reported that a gap existed between the services' suppression capabilities and their needs and recommended that a comprehensive strategy was needed to fix the situation. In response to GAO's report, DOD emphasized that a major study underway at the time would provide the basis for a Department-wide strategy and lead to a balanced set of acquisition programs between the services. This report updates our previous work and assesses actions that DOD has taken to improve its suppression capabilities."
Date: November 25, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Personnel: Management and Oversight of Selective Reenlistment Bonus Program Needs Improvement

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Because of the recent growth in DOD's Selective Reenlistment Bonus Program, the House Appropriations Committee asked GAO to determine (1) the extent to which the services have followed their criteria for managing their programs and (2) whether DOD has provided adequate guidance for and oversight of the program."
Date: November 25, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cross-Section Measurements with the Radioactive Isotope Accelerator (RIA)

Description: RIA will produce beams of exotic nuclei of unprecedented luminosity. Preliminary studies of the feasibility of measuring cross-sections of interest to the science based stockpile stewardship (SBSS) program will be presented, and several experimental techniques will be discussed. Cross-section modeling attempts for the A = 95 mass region will be shown. In addition, several radioactive isotopes could be collected for target production or medical isotope purposes while the main in-beam experiments are running. The inclusion of a broad range mass analyzer (BRAMA) capability at RIA will enable more effective utilization of the facility, enabling the performance of multiple experiments at the same time. This option will be briefly discussed.
Date: November 19, 2002
Creator: Stoyer, M A; Moody, K J; Wild, J F; Patin, J B; Shaughnessy, D A; Stoyer, N J et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical and Biological National Security Program (CBNP) Annual Report FY2002 Overview Local Integration of NARAC With Cities (LINC)

Description: The objective of the Local Integration of NARAC With Cities (LINC) project is to demonstrate the capability for providing local government agencies with advanced, CBNP-developed operational atmospheric plume prediction capabilities that can be seamlessly integrated with appropriate federal agency support for homeland security. LINC's approach is to integrate Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) tools and services with local emergency management and response centers. In the event of an airborne chemical or biological agent release in an urban area, large portions of the city and even the surrounding suburbs may be affected by the airborne plume, depending on the type of agent, size of release, dissemination mechanism and ambient meteorological conditions. The goal of LINC is to provide real-time predictions that would be used by emergency managers and responders (fire, police, hazmat, etc.) to map the extent and effects of hazardous airborne material. Prompt predictions are provided to guide first responders in determining protective actions to be taken (use of personal protective equipment, evacuation, sheltering in place, etc.), safe locations for incident command posts, and critical facilities that may be at risk (hospitals, schools, etc.). LINC also provides response teams from multiple jurisdictions (local, state, and federal) with tools to effectively share information regarding the areas and populations at risk. The ultimate goal of LINC is a seamless and coordinated nationwide system that integrates NARAC prediction and situation awareness resources with the appropriate local, state and federal agencies for homeland security applications ranging from planning to emergency response to consequence assessment and attribution.
Date: November 18, 2002
Creator: Ermak, D L; Nasstrom, J S; Tull, J E; Baskett, R L; Pobanz, B & Mosley-Rovi, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a Microcantilever-Based Pathogen Detector

Description: The ability to detect small amounts of materials, especially whole organisms, is important for medical diagnostics and national security issues. Engineered micro-mechanical systems can serve as multifunctional, highly sensitive, real time, immunospecific biological detectors under certain circumstances. We present qualitative detection of specific Salmonella strains using a functionalized silicon nitride microcantilever. Detection is achieved due to differential surface stress on the cantilever surface in-situ. Scanning electron micrographs indicate that less than 25 adsorbed bacteria are required for detection.
Date: November 18, 2002
Creator: Weeks, B L; Camarero, J; Noy, A; Miller, A E & De Yoreo, J J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Contribution of Neutron Beta Decay to Radiation Belt Pumping from High Altitude Nuclear Explosion

Description: In 1962, several satellites were lost following high altitude nuclear tests by the United States and the Soviet Union. These satellite failures were caused by energetic electrons injected into the earth's radiation belts from the beta decay of bomb produced fission fragments and neutrons. It has been 40 years since the last high altitude nuclear test; there are now many more satellites in orbit, and it is important to understand their vulnerability to radiation belt pumping from nuclear explosions at high altitude or in space. This report presents the results of a calculation of the contribution of neutron beta decay to artificial belt pumping. For most high altitude nuclear explosions, neutrons are expected to make a smaller contribution than fission products to the total trapped electron inventory, and their contribution is usually neglected. However, the neutron contribution may dominate in cases where the fission product contribution is suppressed due to the altitude or geomagnetic latitude of the nuclear explosion, and for regions of the radiation belts with field lines far from the detonation point. In any case, an accurate model of belt pumping from high altitude nuclear explosions, and a self-consistent explanation of the 1962 data, require inclusion of the neutron contribution. One recent analysis of satellite measurements of electron flux from the 1962 tests found that a better fit to the data is obtained if the neutron contribution to the trapped electron inventory was larger than that of the fission products [l]. Belt pumping from high altitude nuclear explosions is a complicated process. Fission fragments are dispersed as part of the ionized bomb debris, which is constrained and guided by the earth's magnetic field. Those fission products that beta decay before being lost to the earth's atmosphere can contribute trapped energetic electrons to the earth's radiation belts. There has ...
Date: November 13, 2002
Creator: Marrs, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Disabling Radiological Dispersal Terror

Description: Terror resulting from the use of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) relies upon an individual's lack of knowledge and understanding regarding its significance. Disabling this terror will depend upon realistic reviews of the current conservative radiation protection regulatory standards. It will also depend upon individuals being able to make their own informed decisions merging perceived risks with reality. Preparation in these areas will reduce the effectiveness of the RDD and may even reduce the possibility of its use.
Date: November 8, 2002
Creator: Hart, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quadrennial Defense Review: Future Reviews Can Benefit from Better Analysis and Changes in Timing and Scope

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Congress mandated that every 4 years the Department of Defense (DOD) conduct a review to examine the national defense strategy and its implications for force structure, modernization, infrastructure and the budget. Because the 2001 review, which was issued on September 30, 2001, will have a significant impact on the department's planning and budget, GAO was asked to assess (1) the strengths and weaknesses of DOD's conduct and reporting of the review, and (2) whether changes in the QDR legislation could improve the usefulness of future reviews."
Date: November 4, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department