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COAL AND CHAR STUDIES BY ADVANCED EMR TECHNIQUES

Description: Advanced electronic magnetic resonance (EMR) as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods have been used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. During the span of this grant, progress was made on construction and applications to coals and chars of two high frequency EMR systems particularly appropriate for such studies--48 GHz and 95 GHz electron magnetic resonance spectrometer, on new low-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments to examine the interaction between water and the surfaces of suspended char particulates in slurries, and on a variety of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to measure characteristics of the water directly in contact with the surfaces and pore spaces of carbonaceous particulates.
Date: April 30, 2001
Creator: Belford, R. Linn; Clarkson, Robert B.; Nilges, Mark J.; Odintsov, Boris M. & Smirnov, Alex I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DESIGN OF ATOMIZERS AND BURNERS FOR COAL-WATER SLURRY COMBUSTION

Description: The Falling Droplet device was used to measure the extensional viscosity of a variety of aqueous polymer solutions. These solutions were atomized with the miniature ''inverse'' twin-fluid atomizer. Droplet size measurements were made with a Malvern laser diffraction particle sizing device. Droplet sizes measured did not rank strictly according to either low-shear rate shear viscosity or extensional viscosity.
Date: January 5, 1999
Creator: Hitron, Rony; Humphrey, William & Chigier, Norman
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DESIGN OF ATOMIZERS AND BURNERS FOR COAL-WATER SLURRY COMBUSTION

Description: A detailed compressible airflow analysis was performed on the central air passage of the triple-concentric atomizer. The results show that a minimum mass flow rate of 0.33 g/s ({approx}16 L/min at STP) of air at a supply pressure of 296 kPa(absolute) is required to create a sonic flow at the atomizer exit, which is 0.97 mm in diameter. This result confirms the hypothesis that previous parametric visualization studies of the spray cone did not have sonic air flow in all cases. Additionally, Phase/Doppler droplet size and velocity measurements were made in sprays of both water and a dilute solution (0.05% wt/wt) of high-molecular weight polyacrylamide. The measurements show small increases in mean drop size when the polymer is added to the liquid, which are nevertheless large compared to the percentage of polymer solute in the solution.
Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: Hitron, Rony; Humphrey, William & Chigier, Norman
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dickinson Pure Air Combustion ERIP technical progress report number 4 [for the reporting period 7/98 through 9/98]

Description: Research was focused on work done to date and melding with current market conditions and demand. The overall objective of this program is to demonstrate the feasibility of EnerTech`s combustion technology to produce clean energy efficiently and cost effectively from coal and/or other char slurry fuels. From the data generated in this project, EnerTech will be able to conduct preliminary engineering design work for a process development unit. The design work included simulations that optimize process cycle efficiency, and includes analysis of process temperature, pressures, and mass/energy flows. The overall goal is to conduct the research necessary to launch a commercial process. Market surveys indicated that stand-alone systems would not find a near-term market; therefore, the company is concentrating on a configuration that includes a process that first generates a slurry char product.
Date: September 15, 1998
Creator: Klosky, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DESIGN OF ATOMIZERS AND BURNERS FOR COAL-WATER SLURRY COMBUSTION

Description: A new, miniature variation on the Triple-Concentric atomizer (TCA) was designed and constructed. This prototype will be used to test the applicability of the TCA concept to very fine sprays such as medical nebulizers. Preliminary tests of its performance with plain water were conducted. Atomization tests of an aqueous polymer solution were conducted using the existing TCA. These tests show that there is little change in the Sauter Mean diameter as polymer concentration or molecular weight are increased until the polymer molecules become highly intertwined. This report documents the activities and results from the period 1 April 1998 to 30 June 1998 and the planned activities for the next period, 1 July 1998 to 30 September 1998. Two primary activities were undertaken in this period: investigation of the variation in performance of a miniature TCA with variation in air flow rate and center air tube location; and droplet size measurements of water and aqueous polymer solutions generated by the existing triple-concentric atomizer.
Date: July 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A rheometer for measuring the material moduli for granular solids. Final report, August 7, 1990--February 6, 1995

Description: A great many industrial processes involve interaction between solids and fluids (i.e. gases or liquids). Combustion, gasification of solid fuels, shales or solid wastes, drying of particles, calcining, particle heating, regenerative heat exchangers, oxidation or reduction of ores, metal surface treatments and catalytic and thermal cracking are some of such processes. Solids and fluids serve different roles and several combinations of solids and fluids can arise in a practical situation. Thus, when considering processes or plants it is necessary to be clear as to the particular purpose served by the fluids and the solids. Heating and drying of solids, for example, involve heat and mass transfer only, whereas combustors, gasifiers etc. have the additional complication of chemical reactions which have to be carried out simultaneously with heat and mass transfer. Again, there are many processes where just the flow of granular particles take place, for example, the flow of food grain, coal or sand particles through bin, silo, hoppers, chutes, conveyor belts, inclined planes etc. In most of these cases, a theoretical modeling of the process requires a complete and thorough understanding of the phenomena involved and constitutive modeling of the constituents along with the usual balance laws. In a process, where both a fluid and a solid constituents are involved, it is essential to model both the constituents such that the models accurately describes the characteristics of the constituent concerned. While there are many different models available for fluids, the models for granular materials lack from an understanding of the material parameters.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Rajagopal, K.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1997--September 27, 1997

Description: The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of developing technologies which can potentially decrease DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Phase I was completed on November 1, 1995. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included performing pilot-scale air toxics (i.e., trace elements and volatile organic compounds) testing and evaluating a ceramic filtering device on the demonstration boiler. Also, a sodium bicarbonate duct injection system was installed on the demonstration boiler. An economic analysis was conducted which investigated the benefits of decreased dependence on imported oil by using new coal combustion technologies. Work related to coal preparation and utilization was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction studies, economic analyses of coal use, and evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, and surface-based separation processes. The evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel included receiving three cleaned coals from Cyprus-Amax.
Date: January 6, 1998
Creator: Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F. & Morrison, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 3.16 -- Low-cost coal-water fuel for entrained-flow gasification. Semi-annual report, July 1--December 31, 1995

Description: Continued interest in gasification technologies has led to the need for more technological advances in the area of fuel cleanup and fuel feed systems, which invariably affect the other components comprised by gasification systems. Some entrained-flow gasifiers require the fuel to be a slurry form or a coal-water fuel (CWF). Recent technological advances at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) have led to potential means for improving efficiency and air toxics control for gasifiers that utilize CWF. Highly reactive low-rank coals present an attractive CWF gasification feedstock. Hydrothermally treating low-rank coals allows a CWF to be formulated that has an elevated solids content, which reduces the amount of water fed to the gasifier, thereby decreasing the amount of oxygen needed to gasify the coal. Preliminary measurements show that the process would increase the solids content from 53 to 63 wt%, giving a 20% improvement in energy density. The specific objective of this research project is to assess the potential process efficiency and pollution control benefits that may result from applying the hydrothermal, or hot-water-drying (HWD), process to low-rank coals as related to entrained-flow gasification systems. Project emphasis is on identifying more efficient coal dewatering and CWF formulation methods prior to gasification.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Anderson, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal diesel combined-cycle project. Annual report, January 1996--January 1997

Description: The Clean Coal Diesel project will demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that has technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology enables utilization of coal-based fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. Modular power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. The University of Alaska campus in Fairbanks, Alaska, is the project`s host site. At this location, the University will construct and operate the Clean Coal Diesel System, which will serve as a 6.2 MW diesel powerplant addition. The University will also assemble and operate a 5-ton per hour coal-water fuel processing plant. The plant will utilize local coal, brought by truck from Usibelli`s mine in Healey, AK. The estimated performance characteristics of the mature commercial embodiment of the Clean Coal Diesel, if achieved, will make this technology quite competitive: 48% efficiency; $1,300/kW installed cost; and emission levels controlled to 50--70% below New Source Performance Standards. Specific objectives are to demonstrate that the Coal Diesel Technology: is durable and can operate 6,000 hours in a realistic commercial setting; will meet efficiency targets; can effectively control criteria pollutants to levels that are well below anticipated standards, as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions; and can accommodate substantial power demand swings.
Date: December 31, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering Development of Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR) Technology: Final quarterly technical progress no. 2, 1 July - 30 September 1995

Description: The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Toseland, B.A. & Tischer, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of the Granuflow Process to Pipeline-Transported Coal Slurry CRADA PC96-010, Final Report

Description: In light of the current difficulties in processing fine coal and the potential for a significant increase in fines due to more demanding quality specifications, the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has been involved in the reconstitution of the fine clean coal resulting from advanced fine coal cleaning technologies. FETC has invented and developed a new strategy that combines fine-coal dewatering and reconstitution into one step. The process reduces the moisture content of the clean coal, and alleviates handling problems related to dustiness, stickiness, flowability, and freezing. This process has been named the GranuFlow Process. Early work successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the process for laboratory-scale vacuum filtration dewatering using asphalt emulsion. Further tests focused on the application of the process to a screen-bowl centrifuge via batch mode tests at 300 lb/hr. These tests produced roughly the same results as the laboratory filtration tests did, and they included some testing using Orimulsion, a bitumen emulsion. The Orimulsion seemed to offer greater potential for moisture reduction and was less affected by colder slurry temperatures. Most recently, FETC has conducted several series of tests in its Coal Preparation Process Research Facility. These tests dramatically showed the visible difference in the dewatered product by applying the GranuFlow Process, turning it from a clumpy, wet, sticky material into a granular, dry free-flowing product. In addition, it verified previous results with improvements in moisture content, dustiness, stickiness, and freezing. Orimulsion showed a significant benefit over asphalt emulsion in moisture reduction at additions more than 5%. The overall goal of this project was to successfully apply FETC'S GranuFlow Process to improve coal slurry pipeline operations. Williams Technologies, Inc. (WTI), a leader in pipeline technology, has an interest in reducing the moisture content of the coal at the end of a coal slurry ...
Date: September 24, 1997
Creator: Killmeyer, Richard P. & Wen, Wu-Wey
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1996--March 27, 1997

Description: The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of developing technologies which can potentially decrease DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction studies, economic analyses of coal use, and evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. Preliminary pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction catalyst tests were conducted when firing natural gas in Penn State`s down-fired combustor. This is the first step in the scale-up of bench-scale results obtained in Phase II to the demonstration boiler scale when firing coal. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional/national economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio. The evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel included installing a ribbon mixer into Penn State`s micronized coal-water mixture circuit for reentraining filter cake. In addition, three cleaned coals were received from CQ Inc. and three cleaned coals were received from Cyprus-Amax.
Date: July 22, 1997
Creator: Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F. & Pisupati, S.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Task 6 -- Selective agglomeration laboratory research and engineering development for premium fuels

Description: The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and benchscale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report represents the findings of Subtask 6.5 Selective Agglomeration Bench-Scale Testing and Process Scale-up. During this work, six project coals, namely Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Sunnyside, Taggart, Indiana VII, and Hiawatha were processed in a 25 lb/hr continuous selective agglomeration bench-scale test unit.
Date: June 27, 1997
Creator: Moro, N. & Jha, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semi-annual technical progress report, 15 August 1995--15 February 1996

Description: The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to determine the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State and DOE have entered into a cooperative agreement to determine if CWSFs prepared from cleaned coal (containing approximately 3.5 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can be burned effectively in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. Information will also be generated to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, performing baseline tests firing No. 6 fuel oil, and conducting additional CWSF testing). The first three phases (i.e., the first 1,000-hour demonstration) have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. A maximum coal combustion efficiency of 95% (compared to a target of 98%) was achieved and natural gas cofiring (15% of the total thermal input) was necessary to maintain a stable flame. Consequently, the first demonstration was terminated after 500 hours. The second CWSF demonstration (Phase 4) will be conducted with a proven CWSF-designed burner. Prior to starting the second demonstration, a CWSF preparation circuit was constructed to provide flexibility in CWSF production. The circuit initially installed involved single-stage grinding. A regrid circuit was recently installed and will be evaluated. A burner was installed from ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB/CE) and will be used to generate baseline data firing No. 6 fuel oil and CWSF. ...
Date: June 3, 1997
Creator: Miller, B.G. & Scaroni, A.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15--August 15, 1996

Description: The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, performing baseline tests firing No. 6 fuel oil, and conducting additional CWSF testing). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers is also evaluated. The first three phases have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. A maximum coal combustion efficiency of 95% (compared to a target of 98%) was achieved and natural gas cofiring (15% of the total thermal input) was necessary to maintain a stable flame. Consequently, the first demonstration was terminated after 500 hours. The second CWSF demonstration (Phase 4) was conducted with a proven coal-designed burner. Prior to starting the second demonstration, a CWSF preparation circuit was constructed to provide flexibility in CWSF production. The circuit initially installed involved single-stage grinding. A regrind circuit was recently installed and was evaluated. A burner was installed from ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB/CE) and was used to generate baseline data firing No. 6 fuel oil and fire CWSF. A temporary storage system for No. 6 fuel oil was installed and modifications to the existing CWSF handling and preheating system were made to accommodate No. 6 oil.
Date: June 3, 1997
Creator: Miller, B.G. & Scaroni, A.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semi-annual technical progress report, February 15--September 15, 1995

Description: A coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program is being undertaken to determine if CWSFs prepared from cleaned coal (containing approximately 3.5 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can be burned effectively in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. Information will also be generated to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated In a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. The first three phases have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. A maximum coal combustion efficiency of 95% (target is 98%) was achieved; however, natural gas cofiring was necessary to maintain a stable flame. Consequently, the first demonstration was terminated after 500 hours. The second demonstration (Phase 4) will be conducted after a proven CWSF-designed burner is installed on the boiler. Prior to starting the second demonstration, a CWSF preparation circuit was constructed to provide flexibility in CWSF production.
Date: June 2, 1997
Creator: Miller, B.G. & Scaroni, A.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of atomizers and burners for coal-water slurry combustion. Progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

Description: IN this reporting period, the spray characteristics of the double-concentric air assist atomizer have been explored using the Greenfield digital spray analyzer. Prior to utilizing non-Newtonian fluids to simulate coal-water slurries, water was used for the initial survey.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Mansour, A. & Chigier, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED PHYSICAL FINE COAL CLEANING FOR PREMIUM FUEL APPLICATIONS

Description: Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R&D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program ´┐ŻEngineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications,´┐Ż (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel ...
Date: June 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of coal beneficiation process on rheology/atomization of coal water slurries. Final report, October 1, 1992--July 31, 1996

Description: To examine the factors that govern fine spray production during atomization of coal water slurries, an experimental study of the effect of coal beneficiation and their rheological properties on atomization of clean slurries was proposed. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of low shear, high shear rheology, and viscoelastic behavior on the atomization of beneficiated slurries.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Ohene, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Innovative process for concentration of fine particle coal slurries. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

Description: Williams Technologies, Inc. And Clarke Rajchel Engineering are developing a technology (patent pending) to produce high quality coal water slurries from preparation plant fine coal streams. The WTI/CRE technology uses the novel implementation of high-shear cross-flow separation which replaces and enhances conventional thickening processes by surpassing normally achievable solids loadings. Dilute ultra-fine (minus 100 mesh) solids slurries can be concentrated to greater than 60 weight percent and remixed, as required, with de-watered coarser fractions to produce pumpable, heavily loaded coal slurries. The permeate (filtrate) resulting from this process has been demonstrated to be crystal clear and totally free of suspended solids. The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the WTI/CRE coal slurry production process technology at the pilot scale. The technology can enable Illinois coal producers and users to realize significant cost and environmental benefits both by eliminating fine coal waste disposal problems and producing an IGCC fuel to produce power which meets all foreseeable clean air standards. Testing was also directed at concentrating mine tailings material to produce a tailings paste which can be mine-back- filled, eliminating the need for tailings ponds. During the grant period, a laboratory-scale test apparatus (up to 3 GPM feed rate) was assembled and operated to demonstrate process performance over a range of feed temperatures and pressures. A dilute coal/water slurry from Consol, Inc.`s Rend Lake Preparation Plant was concentrated with the process to a maximum recorded solids loading of 61.9% solids by weight. Analytical results from the concentrate were evaluated by Destec Energy for suitability as an IGCC fuel.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Rajchel, M.; Ehrlinger, H.P.; Harnett, D.; Fonseca, A. & Maurer, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

Description: The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.
Date: April 25, 1997
Creator: Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I. & Yoon, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities: Phase 1 final report. Volume 1: Technical report

Description: The first phase of a three-phase project investigating the development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities has been completed. The objectives of the project are to: decrease DOD`s dependence on foreign oil and increase its use of coal; promote public and private sector deployment of technologies for utilizing coal-based fuels in oil-designed combustion equipment; and provide a continuing environment for research and development of coal-based fuel technologies for small-scale applications at a time when market conditions in the US are not favorable for the introduction of coal-fired equipment in the commercial and industrial capacity ranges. The Phase 1 activities were focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water mixtures (MCWMs) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. The specific objective in Phase 1 was to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWM or DMC. This was achieved through a project consisting of fundamental, pilot-sale, and demonstration-scale activities investigating coal beneficiation and preparation, and MCWM and DMC combustion performance. In addition, detailed engineering designs and an economic analysis were conducted for a boiler located at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, near Crane, Indiana. Results are reported on MCWM and DMC combustion performance evaluation; engineering design; and cost/economic analysis.
Date: January 31, 1997
Creator: Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L. & Pisupati, S.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique: Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, October 1996--December 1996

Description: The advanced fine-coal cleaning techniques such as column flotation, recovers a low-ash ultra-fine size clean-coal product. However, economical dewatering of the clean coal product to less than 20 percent moisture using conventional technology is difficult. This research program objective is to evaluate a novel coal surface modification technique developed at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research in conjunction with conventional and advanced dewatering technique at a pilot scale at the Powell Mountain Coal Company`s Mayflower preparation plant located in St. Charles, VA. During this quarter in the laboratory dewatering studies were conducted using copper and aluminum ions showed that for the low sulfur clean coal slurry addition of 0.1 Kg/t of copper ions was effective in lowering the filter cake moisture from 29 percent to 26.3 percent. Addition of 0.3 Kg/t of aluminum ions provided filter cake with 28 percent moisture. For the high sulfur clean coal slurry 0.5 Kg/t of copper and 0.1 Kg/t of aluminum ions reduced cake moisture from 30.5 percent to 28 percent respectively. Combined addition of anionic (10 g/t) and cationic (10 g/t) flocculants was effective in providing a filter cake with 29.8 percent moisture. Addition of flocculants was not effective in centrifuge dewatering. In pilot scale screen bowl centrifuge dewatering studies it was found that the clean coal slurry feed rate of 30 gpm was optimum to the centrifuge, which provided 65 percent solids capture. Addition of anionic or cationic flocculants was not effective in lowering of filter cake moisture, which remained close to 30 percent for both clean coal slurries.
Date: January 21, 1997
Creator: Tao, D.; Groppo, J.G. & Parekh, B.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental investigation of vibration-induced bulk solids transport and segregation. Final technical report, March 28, 1995--September 26, 1996

Description: We report experiments on the rise time T of a single large sphere within a sinusoidally vibrated bed (amplitude a) of uniform particles (diameter d). At fixed acceleration, three distinct behavioral regimes are identified both from visual observations and from the typical increase of T with frequency f. Two convective regimes separated by a critical frequency are found, and for low a and high f, a {open_quotes}non-convective{close_quotes} regime. In the latter, the bed crystallizes and a size dependent rise is evidenced. The relevance of the non-dimensional parameter a/d is shown and a scaling law is deduced which has the form f {proportional_to} d{sup {minus}1/2}
Date: January 12, 1997
Creator: Plasynski, S.; Rosato, A.D. & Dave, R.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department