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Secondary-electron emission from hydrogen-terminated diamond

Description: Diamond amplifiers demonstrably are an electron source with the potential to support high-brightness, high-average-current emission into a vacuum. We recently developed a reliable hydrogenation procedure for the diamond amplifier. The systematic study of hydrogenation resulted in the reproducible fabrication of high gain diamond amplifier. Furthermore, we measured the emission probability of diamond amplifier as a function of the external field and modelled the process with resulting changes in the vacuum level due to the Schottky effect. We demonstrated that the decrease in the secondary electrons average emission gain was a function of the pulse width and related this to the trapping of electrons by the effective NEA surface. The findings from the model agree well with our experimental measurements. As an application of the model, the energy spread of secondary electrons inside the diamond was estimated from the measured emission.
Date: May 20, 2012
Creator: E., Wang; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Wu, Q.; Dimitrov, D.A. & T. Xin, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

South pole bang-time diagnostic on the National Ignition Facility

Description: The south pole bang-time (SPBT) diagnostic views National Ignition Facility (NIF) implosions through the lower hohlraum laser entrance hole to measure the time of peak x-ray emission (peak compression) in indirect drive implosions. Five chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) diamond photoconductive detectors (PCD's) with different filtrations and sensitivities record the time-varying x rays emitted by the target. Wavelength-selecting highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) crystal mirror monochromators increase the x-ray signal-to-background ratio by filtering for 11-keV emission. Diagnostic timing and the in-situ temporal instrument response function are determined from laser impulse shots on the NIF. After signal deconvolution and background removal, the bang time is determined to 45-ps accuracy. The x-ray 'yield' (mJ/sr/keV at 11 keV) is determined from the total area under the peak.
Date: May 1, 2012
Creator: MacPhee, A.; Edgell, D.; Bradley, D. K.; Bond, E. J.; Burns, S.; Callahan, D. A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dielectric-Lined High-Gradient Accelerator Structure

Description: Rectangular particle accelerator structures with internal planar dielectric elements have been studied, with a view towards devising structures with lower surface fields for a given accelerating field, as compared with structures without dielectrics. Success with this concept is expected to allow operation at higher accelerating gradients than otherwise on account of reduced breakdown probabilities. The project involves studies of RF breakdown on amorphous dielectrics in test cavities that could enable high-gradient structures to be built for a future multi-TeV collider. The aim is to determine what the limits are for RF fields at the surfaces of selected dielectrics, and the resulting acceleration gradient that could be achieved in a working structure. The dielectric of principal interest in this study is artificial CVD diamond, on account of its advertised high breakdown field ({approx}2 GV/m for dc), low loss tangent, and high thermal conductivity. Experimental studies at mm-wavelengths on materials and structures for achieving high acceleration gradient were based on the availability of the 34.3 GHz third-harmonic magnicon amplifier developed by Omega-P, and installed at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory. Peak power from the magnicon was measured to be about 20 MW in 0.5 {micro}s pulses, with a gain of 54 dB. Experiments for studying RF high-field effects on CVD diamond samples failed to show any evidence after more than 10{sup 5} RF pulses of RF breakdown up to a tangential surface field strength of 153 MV/m; studies at higher fields were not possible due to a degradation in magnicon performance. A rebuild of the tube is underway at this writing. Computed performance for a dielectric-loaded rectangular accelerator structure (DLA) shows highly competitive properties, as compared with an existing all-metal structure. For example, comparisons were made of a DLA structure having two planar CVD diamond elements with a all-metal CERN structure ...
Date: April 24, 2012
Creator: Hirshfield, Jay L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Raman Investigation of The Uranium Compounds U3O8, UF4, UH3 and UO3 under Pressure at Room Temperature

Description: Our current state-of-the-art X-ray diffraction experiments are primarily sensitive to the position of the uranium atom. While the uranium - low-Z element bond (such as U-H or U-F) changes under pressure and temperature the X-ray diffraction investigations do not reveal information about the bonding or the stoichiometry. Questions that can be answered by Raman spectroscopy are (i) whether the bonding strength changes under pressure, as observed by either blue- or red-shifted peaks of the Raman active bands in the spectrum and (ii) whether the low-Z element will eventually be liberated and leave the host lattice, i.e. do the fluorine, oxygen, or hydrogen atoms form dimers after breaking the bond to the uranium atom. Therefore Raman spectra were also collected in the range where those decomposition products would appear. Raman is particularly well suited to these types of investigations due to its sensitivity to trace amounts of materials. One challenge for Raman investigations of the uranium compounds is that they are opaque to visible light. They absorb the incoming radiation and quickly heat up to the point of decomposition. This has been dealt with in the past by keeping the incoming laser power to very low levels on the tens of milliWatt range consequently affecting signal to noise. Recent modern investigations also used very small laser spot sizes (micrometer range) but ran again into the problem of heating and chemical sensitivity to the environment. In the studies presented here (in contrast to all other studies that were performed at ambient conditions only) we employ micro-Raman spectroscopy of samples situated in a diamond anvil cell. This increases the trustworthiness of the obtained data in several key-aspects: (a) We surrounded the samples in the DAC with neon as a pressure transmitting medium, a noble gas that is absolutely chemically inert. (b) Through the ...
Date: December 15, 2011
Creator: Lipp, M J; Jenei, Z; Park-Klepeis, J & Evans, W J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THz Pump and X-Ray Probe Development at LCLS

Description: We report on measurements of broadband, intense, coherent transition radiation at terahertz frequencies, generated as the highly compressed electron bunches in Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS) pass through a thin metal foil. The foil is inserted at 45{sup o} to the electron beam, 31 m downstream of the undulator. The THz emission passes downward through a diamond window to an optical table below the beamline. A fully compressed 350-pC bunch produces up to 0.5 mJ in a nearly half-cycle pulse of 50 fs FWHM with a spectrum peaking at 10 THz. We estimate a peak field at the focus of over 2.5 GV/m. A 20-fs Ti:sapphire laser oscillator has recently been installed for electro-optic measurements. We are developing plans to add an x-ray probe to this THz pump, by diffracting FEL x rays onto the table with a thin silicon crystal. The x rays would arrive with an adjustable time delay after the THz. This will provide a rapid start to user studies of materials excited by intense single-cycle pulses and will serve as a step toward a THz transport line for LCLS-II.
Date: November 8, 2011
Creator: Fisher, Alan S; /SLAC, LCLS; Durr, Hermann; /SIMES, Stanford /SLAC, PULSE; Lindenberg, Aaron; Stanford U., Materials Sci.Dept. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Time-Resolved Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction on Pulse Laser Heated Iron in Diamond Anvil Cell

Description: The authors present time-resolved synchrotron x-ray diffraction to probe the {var_epsilon}-{delta} phase transition of iron during pulse-laser heating in a diamond anvil cell. The system utilizes a monochromatic synchrotron x-ray beam, a two-dimensional pixel array x-ray detector and a dual beam, double side laser-heating system. Multiple frames of the diffraction images are obtained in real-time every 22 ms over 500 ms of the entire pulse heating period. The results show the structural evolution of iron phases at 17 GPa, resulting in thermal expansion coefficient 1/V({Delta}V/{Delta}T){sub p} = 7.1 * 10{sup -6}/K for {var_epsilon}-Fe and 2.4 * 10{sup -5}/K for {gamma}-Fe, as well as the evidence for metastability of {gamma}-Fe at low temperatures below the {var_epsilon}-{gamma} phase boundary.
Date: September 21, 2011
Creator: Yoo, C S; Wei, H; Dias, R; Shen, G; Smith, J; Chen, J Y et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthesis and characterization of a nanocrystalline diamond aerogel

Description: Aerogel materials have myriad scientific and technological applications due to their large intrinsic surface areas and ultralow densities. However, creating a nanodiamond aerogel matrix has remained an outstanding and intriguing challenge. Here we report the high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis of a diamond aerogel from an amorphous carbon aerogel precursor using a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Neon is used as a chemically inert, near-hydrostatic pressure medium that prevents collapse of the aerogel under pressure by conformally filling the aerogel's void volume. Electron and X-ray spectromicroscopy confirm the aerogel morphology and composition of the nanodiamond matrix. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements of recovered material reveal the formation of both nitrogen- and silicon- vacancy point-defects, suggesting a broad range of applications for this nanocrystalline diamond aerogel.
Date: July 6, 2011
Creator: Pauzauskie, Peter J.; Crowhurst, Jonathan C.; Worsley, Marcus A.; Laurence, Ted A.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Wang, Yinmin et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel Way to Characterize Metal-Insulator-Metal Devices via Nanoindentation: Preprint

Description: Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) devices are crucial components for applications ranging from optical rectennas for harvesting sunlight to infrared detectors. To date, the relationship between materials properties and device performance in MIM devices is not fully understood, partly due to the difficulty in making and reproducing reliable devices. One configuration that is popular due to its simplicity and ease of fabrication is the point-contact diode where a metal tip serves as one of the metals in the MIM device. The intrinsic advantage of the point-contact configuration is that it is possible to achieve very small contact areas for the device thereby allowing very high-frequency operation. In this study, precise control over the contact area and penetration depth of an electrically conductive tip into a metal/insulator combination is achieved using a nanoindenter with in-situ electrical contact resistance measurement capabilities. A diamond probe tip, doped (degeneratively) with boron for conductivity, serves as the point contact and second 'metal' (b-Diamond) of the MIM diode. The base layer consists of Nb/Nb2O5 thin films on Si substrates and serves as the first metal /insulator combination of the MIM structure. The current-voltage response of the diodes is measured under a range of conditions to assess the validity and repeatability of the technique. Additionally, we compare the results of this technique to those acquired using a bent-wire approach and find that Nb/Nb2O5/b-Diamond MIM devices show an excellent asymmetry (60-300) and nonlinearity values (~6-9). This technique shows great promise for screening metal-insulator combinations for performance without the uncertainty that stems from a typical bent-wire point-contact.
Date: July 1, 2011
Creator: Periasamy, P.; Packard, C. E.; O?Hayre, R. P.; Berry, J. J.; Parilla, P. A. & Ginley, D. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Understanding of Defect Physics in Polycrystalline Photovoltaic Materials: Preprint

Description: The performance of thin-film solar cells is influenced by the quality of interfaces and formation of defects such as point defects, stacking faults, twins, dislocations, and grain boundaries. It is important to understand the defect physics so that appropriate methods may be developed to suppress the formation of harmful defects. Here, we review our understanding of defect physics in thin-film photovoltaic (PV) materials such as Si, CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS), Cu2ZnSnSe2 (CZTSe), and Cu2ZnSnS2 (CZTS) using the combination of nanoscale electron microscopy characterization and density-functional theory (DFT). Although these thin-film PV materials share the same basic structural feature - diamond structure based - the defect physics in them could be very different. Some defects, such as stacking faults and special twins, have similar electronic properties in these thin-film materials. However, some other defects, such as grain boundaries and interfaces, have very different electronic properties in these materials. For example, grain boundaries produce harmful deep levels in Si and CdTe, but they do not produce significant deep levels in CIGS, CZTSe, and CZTS. These explain why passivation is critical for Si and CdTe solar cells, but is less important in CIS and CZTS solar cells. We further provide understanding of the effects of interfaces on the performance of solar cells made of these PV materials.
Date: July 1, 2011
Creator: Yan, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

COMPARISON OF THE ACCURACY OF VARIOUS SPATIAL DISCRETIZATION SCHEMES OF THE DISCRETE ORDINATES EQUATIONS IN 2D CARTESIAN GEOMETRY

Description: We present a comprehensive error estimation of four spatial discretization schemes of the two-dimensional Discrete Ordinates (SN) equations on Cartesian grids utilizing a Method of Manufactured Solution (MMS) benchmark suite based on variants of Larsen’s benchmark featuring different orders of smoothness of the underlying exact solution. The considered spatial discretization schemes include the arbitrarily high order transport methods of the nodal (AHOTN) and characteristic (AHOTC) types, the discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element method (DGFEM) and the recently proposed higher order diamond difference method (HODD) of spatial expansion orders 0 through 3. While AHOTN and AHOTC rely on approximate analytical solutions of the transport equation within a mesh cell, DGFEM and HODD utilize a polynomial expansion to mimick the angular flux profile across each mesh cell. Intuitively, due to the higher degree of analyticity, we expect AHOTN and AHOTC to feature superior accuracy compared with DGFEM and HODD, but at the price of potentially longer grind times and numerical instabilities. The latter disadvantages can result from the presence of exponential terms evaluated at the cell optical thickness that arise from the semianalytical solution process. This work quantifies the order of accuracy and the magnitude of the error of all four discretization methods for different optical thicknesses, scattering ratios and degrees of smoothness of the underlying exact solutions in order to verify or contradict the aforementioned intuitive expectation.
Date: May 1, 2011
Creator: Schunert, Sebastian; Azmy, Yousry Y. & Fournier, Damien
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plasma Sprayed Pour Tubes and Other Melt Handling Components for Use in Gas Atomization

Description: Ames Laboratory has successfully used plasma sprayed ceramic components made from yttria stabilized zirconia as melt pouring tubes for gas atomization for many years. These tubes have proven to be strong, thermal shock resistant and versatile. Various configurations are possible both internally and externally. Accurate dimensions are achieved internally with a machined fugitive graphite mandrel and externally by diamond grinding. The previous study of the effect of spray parameters on density was extended to determine the effect of the resulting density on the thermal shock characteristics on down-quenching and up-quenching. Encouraging results also prompted investigation of the use of plasma spraying as a method to construct a melt pour exit stopper that is mechanically robust, thermal shock resistant, and not susceptible to attack by reactive melt additions. The Ames Laboratory operates two close-coupled high pressure gas atomizers. These two atomizers are designed to produce fine and coarse spherical metal powders (5{mu} to 500{mu} diameter) of many different metals and alloys. The systems vary in size, but generally the smaller atomizer can produce up to 5 kg of powder whereas the larger can produce up to 25 kg depending on the charge form and density. In order to make powders of such varying compositions, it is necessary to have melt systems capable of heating and containing the liquid charge to the desired superheat temperature prior to pouring through the atomization nozzle. For some metals and alloys this is not a problem; however for some more reactive and/or high melting materials this can pose unique challenges. Figure 1 is a schematic that illustrates the atomization system and its components.
Date: April 1, 2011
Creator: Byrd, David; Rieken, Joel; Heidloff, Andy; Besser, Matthew & Anderson, Iver
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress on diamond amplified photo-cathode

Description: Two years ago, we obtained an emission gain of 40 from the Diamond Amplifier Cathode (DAC) in our test system. In our current systematic study of hydrogenation, the highest gain we registered in emission scanning was 178. We proved that our treatments for improving the diamond amplifiers are reproducible. Upcoming tests planned include testing DAC in a RF cavity. Already, we have designed a system for these tests using our 112 MHz superconducting cavity, wherein we will measure DAC parameters, such as the limit, if any, on emission current density, the bunch charge, and the bunch length. The diamond-amplified photocathode, that promises to support a high average current, low emittance, and a highly stable electron beam with a long lifetime, is under development for an electron source. The diamond, functioning as a secondary emitter amplifies the primary current, with a few KeV energy, that comes from the traditional cathode. Earlier, our group recorded a maximum gain of 40 in the secondary electron emission from a diamond amplifier. In this article, we detail our optimization of the hydrogenation process for a diamond amplifier that resulted in a stable emission gain of 140. We proved that these characteristics are reproducible. We now are designing a system to test the diamond amplifier cathode using an 112MHz SRF gun to measure the limits of the emission current's density, and on the bunch charge and bunch length.
Date: March 28, 2011
Creator: Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Kewisch, J.; Chang, X.; Rao, T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPMENT OF BIOMATERIALS: NANOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOFILMS

Description: Biotechnology is the application of biological techniques to develop new tools and products for medicine and industry. Due to various properties including chemical stability, biocompatibility, and specific activity, e.g. antimicrobial properties, many new and novel materials are being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. Many of these materials are less than 100 nanometers in size. Nanotechnology is the engineering discipline encompassing designing, producing, testing, and using structures and devices less than 100 nanometers. One of the challenges associated with biomaterials is microbial contamination that can lead to infections. In recent work we have examined the functionalization of nanoporous biomaterials and antimicrobial activities of nanocrystalline diamond materials. In vitro testing has revealed little antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria and associated biofilm formation that enhances recalcitrance to antimicrobial agents including disinfectants and antibiotics. Laser scanning confocal microscopy studies further demonstrated properties and characteristics of the material with regard to biofilm formation.
Date: November 29, 2010
Creator: Brigmon, R.; Berry, T. & Narayan, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The interplay between magnetism, structure, and strong electron-phonon coupling in binary FeAs under pressure

Description: Unlike the ferropnictide superconductors, which crystallize in a tetragonal crystal structure, binary FeAs forms in an orthorhombic crystal structure, where the local atomic environment resembles a highly distorted variant of the FeAs{sub 4} tetrahedral building block of the ferropnictide superconductors. However, like the parent compounds of the ferropnictide superconductors, FeAs undergoes magnetic ordering at low temperatures, with no evidence favoring a superconducting ground state at ambient pressure. We employ pressure-dependent electrical transport and x-ray diffraction measurements using diamond anvil cells to characterize the magnetic state and the structure as a function of pressure. While the structure persists up to 25 GPa, compressing continuously with pressure, magnetotransport measurements suggests that the magnetic state is destroyed near 11 GPa. The magnetic transition temperature is found to be remarkably robust under pressure, and transport measurements suggest that a dynamical structural instability coupled to the Fermi surface via a strong electron-phonon interaction may play an important role in enabling magnetism in FeAs.
Date: November 10, 2010
Creator: Jeffries, J R; Butch, N P; Cynn, H; Saha, S R; Kirshenbaum, K; Weir, S T et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A diamond detector for inertial confinement fusion X-ray bang-time measurements at the National Ignition Facility

Description: An instrument has been developed to measure X-ray bang-time for inertial confinement fusion capsules; the time interval between the start of the laser pulse and peak X-ray emission from the fuel core. The instrument comprises chemical vapor deposited polycrystalline diamond photoconductive X-ray detectors with highly ordered pyrolytic graphite X-ray monochromator crystals at the input. Capsule bang-time can be measured in the presence of relatively high thermal and hard X-ray background components due to the selective band pass of the crystals combined with direct and indirect X-ray shielding of the detector elements. A five channel system is being commissioned at the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for implosion optimization measurements as part of the National Ignition Campaign. Characteristics of the instrument have been measured demonstrating that X-ray bang-time can be measured with {+-} 30ps precision, characterizing the soft X-ray drive to +/- 1eV or 1.5%.
Date: November 9, 2010
Creator: MacPhee, A G; Brown, C; Burns, S; Celeste, J; Glenzer, S H; Hey, D et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of Recent Tritium Experiments in TPE

Description: Tritium retention in plasma-facing components influences the design, operation, and lifetime of fusion devices such as ITER. Most of the retention studies were carried out with the use of either hydrogen or deuterium. Tritium Plasma Experiment is a unique linear plasma device that can handle radioactive fusion fuel of tritium, toxic material of beryllium, and neutron-irradiated material. A tritium depth profiling method up to mm range was developed using a tritium imaging plate and a diamond wire saw. A series of tritium experiments (T2/D2 ratio: 0.2 and 0.5 %) was performed to investigate tritium depth profiling in bulk tungsten, and the results shows that tritium is migrated into bulk tungsten up to mm range.
Date: October 1, 2010
Creator: Shimada, Masashi; Otsuka, T.; Pawelko, R. J.; Calderoni, P. & Sharpe, J. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of stripper options for FRIB

Description: The US Department of Energy Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University includes a heavy ion superconducting linac capable of accelerating all ions up to uranium with energies higher than 200 MeV/u and beam power up to 400 kW. To achieve these goals with present ion source performance it is necessary to accelerate simultaneously two charge states of uranium from the ion source in the first section of the linac. At an energy of approximately 16.5 MeV/u it is planned to strip the uranium beam to reduce the voltage needed in the rest of the linac to achieve the final energy. Up to five different charge states are planned to be accelerated simultaneously after the stripper. The design of the stripper is a challenging problem due to the high power deposited (approximately 0.7 kW) in the stripper media by the beam in a small spot. To assure success of the project we have established a research and development program that includes several options: carbon or diamond foils, liquid lithium films, gas strippers and plasma strippers. We present in this paper the status of the different options.
Date: September 12, 2010
Creator: Marti, F.; Hershcovitch, A.; Momozaki, Y.; Nolen, J.; Reed, C. & Thieberger, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Booster and AGS transverse emittance during the 2006 and 2009 polarized proton runs

Description: This note is an overview of issues relating to transverse polarized proton emittance in the Booster and AGS. It also compares the transverse emittance during the FY09 polarized proton run with it during the FY06 run as several changes were made for the FY09 run in an attempt to reduce the transverse emittance coming out of the AGS. The FY06 run is used for comparison because it was relatively long, and it's believed that the performance of the injectors for polarized protons, up until FY09, was best during that run. Over the shutdown just before the FY09 run work was done in LEBT and MEBT to reduce the emittance coming out of the Linac. Measurements of the beam coming out of Linac1 indicate that the horizontal normalized emittance was reduced from 11.0 {pi} to 4.5 {pi}mm mrad, and that the vertical normalized emittance was reduced from 12.1 {pi} to 5.5 {pi} mm mrad going from FY06 to FY09. There were 2 new types of stripping foil installed in the Booster, called descriptively the 'strip' (No.6) and 'stamp' (No.2) foil, both nominally 100 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}. Both foils are composed of a diamond like material, and designed to reduce the number of times the beam goes through the foil. Other than those, there are two standard 100 {micro}g/cm carbon foils (No.3 and 5), and one 200 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} carbon foil (No.4). Of the two 100 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} foils, one has shown some deterioration (No.3) in stripping efficiency. During the FY06 run a standard 100 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} foil was generally used, and during the FY09 run the strip foil was generally used, though the stamp foil was also used for the last 3-4 weeks of the run. Both the FY06 and FY09 runs were about 5 months long, starting in late January, FY06 ...
Date: September 1, 2010
Creator: Zeno, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chip-Scale Nanofabrication of Single Spins and Spin Arrays in Diamond

Description: We demonstrate a technique to nanofabricate nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond based on broad-beam nitrogen implantation through apertures in electron beam lithography resist. This method enables high-throughput nanofabrication of single NV centers on sub-100-nm length scales. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements facilitate depth profiling of the implanted nitrogen to provide three-dimensional characterization of the NV center spatial distribution. Measurements of NV center coherence with on-chip coplanar waveguides suggest a pathway for incorporating this scalable nanofabrication technique in future quantum applications.
Date: July 2, 2010
Creator: Toyli, David M.; Weis, Christoph D.; Fuchs, D.; Schenkel, Thomas & Awschalom, David D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Science & Technology Review June 2010

Description: This month's issue has the following articles: (1) A Leader in High-Pressure Science--Commentary by William H. Goldstein; (2) Diamonds Put the Pressure on Materials--New experimental capabilities are helping Livermore scientists better understand how extreme pressure affects a material's structure; (3) Exploring the Unusual Behavior of Granular Materials--Livermore scientists are developing new techniques for predicting the response of granular materials under pressure; (4) A 1-Ton Device in a Briefcase--A new briefcase-sized tool for nuclear magnetic resonance is designed for onsite analysis of suspected chemical weapons; and (5) Targets Designed for Ignition--A series of experiments at the National Ignition Facility is helping scientists finalize the ignition target design.
Date: April 28, 2010
Creator: Blobaum, K. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preface to International Workshop on X-ray Mirror Design, Fabrication, and Metrology

Description: The International Workshop on X-Ray Mirror Design, Fabrication, and Metrology (IWXM), Osaka, Japan, was held as a satellite meeting of the Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation (SRI) 2009, Melbourne, Australia, in October, 2009. The workshop was organized by a collaboration of scientists from a number of leading synchrotron institutions and universities around the World, such as Osaka University, SPring-8, KEK (Japan), ALS, APS and NSLS (USA), ELETTRA (Italy), ESRF, Synchrotron SOLEIL (France), BESSY (Germany), Diamond (UK), SSRF (China), NSRRC (Taiwan) and PAL (Korea). The workshop followed a series of parallel workshops focused on metrology (1st, 2nd and 3rd International Workshop on Metrology for X-ray and Neutron Optics) and on active X-ray optics (1st and 2nd X-ray and XUV Active Optics Workshop, ACTOP06 and ACTOP08) and included the 3rd workshop on X-ray and EUV active optics (ACTOP09). The workshop brought together more than 100 participants: manufacturers, optical and mechanical engineers, designers, and users of X-ray optics; allowing for free exchange of ideas, highlighting of existing problems and challenges, and searching for ways to improve existing instrumentation for sub-microradian and sub-nanometer accuracy. A visit to the Osaka University mirror fabrication laboratory, SPring-8, and the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) facility was included in the workshop.
Date: April 20, 2010
Creator: Yamauchi, Kazuto; Yashchuk, Valeriy V. & Cocco, Daniele
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Pressure - High Temperature Polymorphism in Ta: Resolving an Ongoing Experimental Controversy

Description: Phase diagrams of refractory metals remain essentially unknown. Moreover, there is an ongoing controversy over the high pressure (P) melting temperatures of these metals: results of diamond anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave experiments differ by at least a factor of two. From an extensive ab initio study on tantalum we discovered that the body-centered cubic phase, its physical phase at ambient conditions, transforms to another solid phase, possibly hexagonal omega phase, at high temperature (T). Hence the sample motion observed in DAC experiments is not due to melting but internal stresses accompanying a solid-solid transformation, as explained in more detail in our work. In view of our results on tantalum and previous work on molybdenum, as well as other published data, it is highly plausible that high-PT polymorphism is a general feature of Groups V and VI refractory metals.
Date: April 7, 2010
Creator: Burkovsky, L; Chen, S P; Preston, D L; Belonoshko, A B; Rosengren, A; Mikhaylushkin, A S et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observation of off-Hugoniot shocked states with ultrafast time resolution

Description: We apply ultrafast single shot interferometry to determine the pressure and density of argon shocked from up to 7.8 GPa static initial pressure in a diamond anvil cell. This method enables the observation of thermodynamic states distinct from those observed in either single shock or isothermal compression experiments, and the observation of ultrafast dynamics in shocked materials. We also present a straightforward method for interpreting ultrafast shock wave data which determines the index of refraction at the shock front, and the particle and shock velocities for shock waves in transparent materials. Based on these methods, we observe shocked thermodynamic states between the room temperature isotherm of argon and the shock adiabat of cryogenic argon at final shock pressures up to 28 GPa.
Date: February 23, 2010
Creator: Armstrong, M; Crowhurst, J; Bastea, S & Zaug, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department