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Bouncing Back: Resilience as a Moderator between Aggression and Depression in Older Gay Men and Lesbians-Group Differences

Description: Older gay men and lesbians may be at greater risk for depression than older sexual majority adults due to a lifetime of sexual minority stress. We hypothesize that aggression and being single are positively associated with depression. Resilience is negatively associated with depression. Aggression, being single and resilience account for a significant proportion of variance in depression. Resilience moderates the relationship between aggression and depression. Significant differences between older gay men and older lesbians' aggression, resilience and depression scores exist. For our older gay men and lesbian combined group, a moderation analysis indicated that in addition to aggression and resilience, being single significantly predicted depression accounting for approximately 57% of the variance in depression. Furthermore, resilience significantly moderated the relationship between aggression and depression in our model of older gay men and lesbians. For our older gay men-only group a moderation analysis (indicated that and resilience significantly predicted depression accounting for approximately 57% of the variance in depression. Furthermore, resilience significantly moderated the relationship between aggression and depression in our model, in our sample of older gay men. Four our lesbian-only group a moderation analysis indicated that being single and resilience significantly predicted depression accounting for approximately 54% of the variance in depression.
Date: May 2019
Creator: Griggs, Tosha
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Trauma Experiences and PTSD Severity on Positive Memory Recall and Memory Phenomenology

Description: Positive memories play an important role in the etiology and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Additionally, there are potential clinical benefits of recalling positive memories on affect, cognitions, and behaviors. However, most research/clinical work has focused on the role of traumatic memories in PTSD's symptomatology and treatment. The current study examined positive memory recall difficulties and positive memory phenomenology among 185 trauma-exposed individuals with varying PTSD severity. Participants completed the Life Events Checklist for DSM-5, PTSD Checklist for DSM-5, Autobiographical Memory Test, Memory Experiences Questionnaire – Short Form, Ruminative Thought Style Questionnaire, Difficulties in Emotional Regulation Scale – Brief 16-Item Version, Difficulties in Emotional Regulation Scale – Positive Emotions, the Positive Affect subscale of the Affective Control Scale, and two items from the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. Results showed that (1) greater PTSD severity was a marginally significant predictor of fewer recalled positive memories; (2) greater positive emotional dysregulation predicted fewer recalled positive memories controlling for PTSD severity; and (3) increasing PTSD severity predicted more negative valence, less vividness, less coherence, less accessibility, less clear time perspective, fewer sensory details, and greater distancing ratings of the recalled positive memory, controlling for sleep quantity/quality. Such findings add to the PTSD-positive memory literature by informing PTSD theoretical perspectives; enhancing an understanding of if/how positive memories may be incorporated into PTSD treatments; and highlighting potential clinical targets, such as positive emotional regulation skills, when integrating a focus on positive memories into PTSD intervention.
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Date: May 2019
Creator: Dolan, Megan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Independence of Mania and Depression across 4 Years in Bipolar Disorder

Description: If mania and depression are part of the same pathological processes, one would predict that episodes of one prospectively increase the odds of episodes of the other. The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis. For comparison purposes, their relationship was contrasted to the relationship between mania and periods of psychosis. Exploratory analyses also tested the degree to which episodes of each occur with greater frequency over time (i.e., kindling). Participants for the present study came from the Suffolk County Mental Health Project (N = 628), a study of first-admission patients with psychosis. Of these participants, 144 met diagnostic criteria for bipolar I disorder and were analyzed for the current study. Results indicated that mania in a given month predicted depression the following month, even after controlling for other symptoms. The reverse, however, was not the case. Mania and psychosis, in contrast, were found to be robust predictors of one another from month to month. Effects were not due to treatment or demographic differences. These findings provide evidence that mania and depression are weakly related. In contrast, mania and psychosis are more closely linked. Findings are consistent with suggestions that psychiatric nosology regroup mania more closely with thought disorders rather than with internalizing or depressive ones. They also alert clinicians to the strong, longitudinal persistence and comorbidity among these syndromes.
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Date: May 2019
Creator: Bennett, Charles B
Partner: UNT Libraries

Insomnia and Cognitive Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Description: Daytime cognitive performance and sleep/wake cycles are strongly interrelated, and cognitive dysfunction has been extensively investigated in relation to insomnia. However, methods and outcomes vary widely by study, making comparison difficult without more systematic evaluation. Review of the literature reveals discrepant findings for the relationship between both subjective and objective measures of cognitive performance and insomnia. The current meta-analysis included 42 studies investigating the relationship between insomnia and cognitive performance. Results confirmed the discrepant nature of previous findings and suggest that type of cognitive performance (e.g., simple attention, procedural memory, verbal functions) is important to consider when discussing the impact of insomnia. Mixed-effect meta-analysis of aggregate effect sizes suggest impairments in working memory, complex attention, and episodic memory are significantly associated with insomnia. Analysis of the grouped subjective cognitive performance effect size revealed no significant impact of insomnia. Average age and gender makeup of the sample, study quality, and type of insomnia measure (i.e., clinical or diagnostic criteria, validated scale, or single unvalidated item) did not consistently moderate findings. These results confirm the equivocal nature of the relationship between insomnia and cognitive performance. Overall, about 44% of the studies included in the analysis failed to use DSM or ICSD criteria when categorizing insomnia. Additionally, the cognitive measures used varied widely and certain measures may not be sensitive enough to detect the degree of cognitive deficit that may be present for individuals with insomnia. This indicates a need for the standardization of methods used when assessing both insomnia and cognitive performance to elucidate these relationships.
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Date: May 2019
Creator: Pinkston, Sophie Wardle
Partner: UNT Libraries

Modeling Marijuana Use Willingness and Problems as a Function of Social Rejection and Social Anxiety

Description: Marijuana is the second most commonly used substance in the US. A growing literature suggests that socially anxious individuals use marijuana to manage their symptoms in social situations, which may explain why they are also more likely to experience problems. Unfortunately, the majority of the literature is based on research conducted with adult samples or the co-occurrence of diagnoses in adolescent samples. The proposed study sought to test the link between social anxiety (SA) and proxies for ‘real-time' marijuana use behaviors (i.e., use willingness) as well as use-related problems among adolescents. Participants were 69 adolescents (15-17; 55% female) recruited from the community reporting any lifetime marijuana use. Participants were randomly assigned to a novel social rejection or neutral laboratory task and completed measures of SA, marijuana use frequency, and related problems. Consistent with adult findings, main effects of SA and experimental condition on marijuana use willingness were expected to be qualified by an interaction in which the greatest marijuana use willingness would occur among high SA youth post-rejection (H1), SA would be positively related to marijuana use problems (H2), and among adolescents in the rejection condition, marijuana use willingness would be positively correlated with use problems (H3). Only H2 was supported, highlighting areas of convergence and divergence in the role of SA and social stress on marijuana outcomes. These data stand to improve the scientific knowledge on the relative roles of SA and social stress on marijuana use within an understudied, high-risk population and help inform future intervention efforts.
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Date: May 2019
Creator: Cloutier, Renee
Partner: UNT Libraries

Contribution of Psychopathic Traits in the Prediction of Generalized Prejudice in Males

Description: Very few studies have investigated how psychopathic traits might contribute to our understanding of prejudicial attitudes. Moreover, previous studies involve a number of limitations which cloud interpretation of their findings. The current study examined the relationship between prejudice and a number of its predictors (e.g., social dominance orientation (SDO) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA)), while also including psychopathic traits and an innovative new measure of empathy using an online sample. A path analytic framework was employed to comprehensively model relations among psychopathic traits, SDO, RWA, and affective empathy domains in the prediction of generalized prejudice. Overall, there was support for certain psychopathic traits being modest predictors of racial prejudice, although more proximal measures were much stronger predictors. The results revealed a number of novel relationships that may help in further understanding the links between psychopathic propensities, empathy, and social-cognitive variables predictive of racial prejudice.
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Date: December 2018
Creator: Mark, Daniel
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Cross-Cultural Study of Adult Attachment, Social Self-Efficacy, Familismo, and Psychological Wellbeing

Description: Although Latinos are the largest minority group in the country, research examining how different psychological and cultural variables affect Latino individuals' wellbeing is disproportionately developed and cross-cultural comparison studies are particularly scarce. To address these issues, this dissertation research examined cross-cultural adult attachment-social self-efficacy-psychosocial wellbeing conceptual mediational model while investigating the moderator effects of country membership and familismo on the proposed mediational model using a cross-cultural sample of Mexican and Mexican-American university students. A total of 595 participants, including 360 Mexican students from Mexico and 235 Mexican-American students from the United States completed the research questionnaires. Results indicated that social self-efficacy was a significant mediator for the effects of insecure attachment on life satisfaction and conflict resolution in both cultural groups and for the links between attachment insecurity and depressive symptoms in the Mexican-American group. Additionally, moderated mediation analyses showed that country membership was a significant moderator for the links between attachment avoidance and social self-efficacy when life satisfaction, conflict resolution style, and depressive symptoms were the dependent variables, as well as for the direct link between attachment anxiety and physical health symptoms. Familismo was also found to be a significant moderator for the direct effects of attachment anxiety on physical health symptoms and life satisfaction in both groups. Findings are discussed from the attachment and cross-cultural perspectives. Counseling implications, limitations, and future research directions are offered.
Date: August 2018
Creator: Zamudio Leal, Gabriel Mario
Partner: UNT Libraries

Cultural Influence on Attachment and Psychopathic Traits

Description: Individuals evidencing psychopathic personality traits have been shown to have problematic attachment to others. Moreover, research suggests that culture affects attachment style as well as the expression of various psychopathic traits using the four-factor model of psychopathy. However, the majority of this research has included only white college students, which is a limiting factor. The current study assessed the relations among attachment representations and psychopathic features across two independent samples (one adult & one adolescent) from different world regions (adults only), ethnicity (adolescents only), and gender. Using similar assessments of attachment and psychopathic traits for both samples, dismissing attachment was related to aspects of psychopathic traits in nearly all cultures and ethnicities sampled. In the world sample, secure attachment was found to positively relate to impulsive and parasitic lifestyle traits in all regions. Culture and gender were found to moderate several relations between specific attachment styles and psychopathic features. Overall, the patterns of data indicated that many of the differences found between groups may be rooted in individualistic versus collectivistic values, and were consistent with previous research assessing these constructs across diverse samples.
Date: August 2018
Creator: Lasslett, Heather Elicia
Partner: UNT Libraries

Differential Associations between Psychopathy Factors and Shooter Bias in the Police Officer's Dilemma

Description: The current study assessed abnormal attention in 71 undergraduate men, approximately half of which displayed elevated psychopathic traits, as they attended to cues on the Police Officer's Dilemma. In the computerized task, participants are instructed to shoot men holding guns and not shoot men holding neutral objects. However, research has shown that irrelevant racial cues in the task can influence participants to shoot unarmed Black men more frequently than unarmed White men; a phenomenon termed shooter bias. Contrary to expectations, individuals with elevated psychopathic traits tended to erroneously shoot unarmed Black men more frequently compared to those with low psychopathy scores. Additional analyses indicated that the interpersonal and lifestyle facets were associated with more interference in determining unarmed Black men as not threatening relative to unarmed White men and the affective domain was associated with faster responses to shooting armed Black men relative to armed White men. Additionally, prejudicial attitudes (i.e., social dominance orientation) moderated the relationship between the affective psychopathic traits and shooting armed Black men by increasing the number of armed Black men identified as threatening relative to armed White targets. These findings are discussed in the context of the relationship between psychopathic traits and prejudicial attitudes and recent refinements to etiological theories of psychopathy.
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Date: August 2018
Creator: Roy, Sandeep
Partner: UNT Libraries

Eating Disorder Diagnosis and the Female Athlete: From College Sport to Retirement

Description: Female athletes have been established as a high-risk group for disordered eating due to the high prevalence rates of clinical (i.e., 1.9% to 19.9%) and subclinical eating disorders (i.e., 7.1% to 49.2%). To date, only a few studies have examined the long-term stability of eating disorders in collegiate female athletes, a design that will allow examination of change in prevalence rates over time. Additionally, researchers have attempted to identify psychosocial risk factors in the development of disordered eating, but short time frames (e.g., competitive season, one year) during which data was collected have limited their findings. The current study investigated the progression in prevalence of eating disorder classification (i.e., eating disordered [ED], subclinical ED, asymptomatic), pathogenic weight control behaviors (e.g., laxative use, vomiting), and the predictive ability of psychosocial risk factors (e.g., body dissatisfaction, negative affect) from the time in which female athletes were active collegiate competitors (Time 1) to a time six years later, in which the women were retired (Time 2). By Time 2, the women were categorized as asymptomatic (69.9%), subclinical ED (26.9%), and clinical ED (3.1%). The prevalence of those who were disordered (i.e., either subclinical or clinical ED) increased from 22.8% (Time 1) to 30.1% (Time 2). The athletes, both as active competitors and retired, reported using exercise and dieting/fasting as the most frequent forms of weight control, but to a much lesser degree when retired. The full model explained 14.9% to 21.1% of the variance in disordered eating categories, and correctly classified 73.6% of the athletes in the sample. Dietary intent and sadness significantly predicted their being classified in the disordered eating group. Early intervention efforts that address eating, body image concerns, proper nutrition, and how to eat healthfully when athletes are competing are important and may help to alleviate future distress. Additional clinical ...
Date: August 2018
Creator: Thompson, Alexandra Jo
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effectiveness of the PAI in Identifying Minimized Substance Use and Predicting Poor Treatment Outcomes in an Offender Population

Description: The accurate evaluation of substance use is a critical component of forensic assessment due to the well-established link between drug use sentencing issues and risk of recidivism. Due to limited resources and chronic time constraints, practitioners typically rely only on self-report measures to assess substance use (SU) patterns. As these measures directly inquire about SU patterns, they remain vulnerable to response distortion. This can lead to ineffective treatment recommendations made to the Court and misuse of resources. The present study investigated the utility of the PAI and SASSI-3 in identifying SU patterns in offenders mandated to a long-term treatment facility. As a second major component, offenders were examined post-release to identify predictors for poor treatment outcomes. Results found the direct questioning approach best identified SU patterns in the present sample. In addition, while statistically significant differences in treatment outcomes were not observed between offenders who endorsed a more severe course of their SU problem versus those who endorsed a much less problematic pattern of use, they were trending in the expected direction. Specifically, offenders who used "hard" drugs regularly (e.g., cocaine, heroin), had more negative consequences directly related to their use (e.g., more arrests, prior treatment), and had a more complex clinical presentation (e.g., endorsing more personality pathology) did have worse outcomes by follow up. Methodological and statistical limitations are discussed in depth, and future directions to improve on this study and clarify these relationships are emphasized.
Date: August 2018
Creator: Henry, Sarah
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Examination of the Language of Psychopaths: Differences in Prosodic Channels of Communication in Psychopathic and Non-Psychopathic Offenders

Description: Natural speech contains a wealth of information relevant to understanding cognitive and affective psychological processes, which are reflected in both prosodic and semantic channels of communication. While differences in semantic channels have been demonstrated among psychopathic versus non-psychopathic individuals, research on the role of prosody in psychopathy is scant. The Computerized Assessment of Natural Speech protocol provides adetailed assessment of macroscopic-level prosody variables related to underlying psychological processes that have been linked to psychopathological conditions. Psychopathy is a condition that involves a number of disruptions in cognitive and affective processes, which theoretically can be tied to various aspects of speech. The present study provides a novel contribution by examining natural speech output in an offender sample in the context of a clinical interview (Psychopathy Checklist – Revised). More specifically, the present study examined variance in prosody across segments of the PCL-R interview designed to elicit both positively and negatively valenced emotional content, across high and low levels of subjective arousal, in psychopathic (n = 49) and non-psychopathic (n = 44) male offenders who were similar in terms of age, education, race/ethnicity, and IQ. Three-factor mixed MANOVAs (Group x Valence x Arousal) were conducted to evaluate differences in prosodic speech displayed by the offenders. Results indicated significant interactions between psychopathic and non-psychopathic offenders across valence and arousal conditions in terms of percentage of silence, average pause length, longest pause length, average within-utterance variation in subjectively defined pitch and articulation variables, and average rate of change in articulation across speech sample. Implications and future directions for research are discussed.
Date: August 2018
Creator: Walsh, Hannah C
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Exploratory Mixed Method Study of Gender and Sexual Minority Health in Dallas: A Needs Assessment

Description: Gender and sexual minorities (GSM) experience considerably worse health outcomes than heterosexual and cisgender people, yet no comprehensive understanding of GSM health exists due to a dearth of research. GSM leaders in Dallas expressed need for a community needs assessment of GSM health. In response to this call, the Center for Psychosocial Health Research conducted a needs assessment of gender and sexual minority health in Dallas (35 interviews, 6 focus groups). Competency was one area highlighted and shared across existing research. Thus, the current study explored how competency impacts gender and sexual minorities' experience of health care in Dallas. We utilized a consensual qualitative research approach to analyze competency-related contents. The meaning and implications of emerging core ideas were explored. These findings were also used to develop a survey instrument.
Date: August 2018
Creator: Bonds, Stacy
Partner: UNT Libraries

Family and Cultural Influences on Latino Career Development and Academic Success

Description: There is an extensive amount of research on academic success and career development, but most of the literature has focused on the process of White participants. While some of the studies have examined samples from ethnic minority populations, the majority of studies use these populations as comparison groups, studying between-group differences as opposed to within-group differences. The literature is especially lacking in the area Latino academic success and career development. The current study examined how family and culture, specifically socioeconomic status, acculturation, and the quality of the parent-emerging adult relationship, influence the academic success and career development of Latino emerging adults. Eighty-three Latino undergraduate students ages 18 – 24 were recruited for participation in this study. Results indicated that valuing the role of work (career salience) significantly predicted the maturity and positivity of attitudes toward work (career maturity) in Latino emerging adults. Additionally, while family demographic and cultural variables did not seem to have a significant impact on academic success and career development, first-generation college student status, career salience, and conflict in the parent-emerging adult relationship lent some insight into the variation of levels of career maturity in a Latino sample. Furthermore, first-generation student status also impacted the relationship between career maturity and GPA.
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Date: August 2018
Creator: Rodriguez, Kristina
Partner: UNT Libraries

Health Disparities among Sexual Minorities: Trends of Health Care and Prevalence of Disease in LGB Individuals

Description: The primary focus of the current study was to identify health disparities between sexual minority subgroups by examining differences of health indicators in lesbians, gay men, and bisexual individuals, and compare these to their heterosexual counterparts. Data was drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and variables examined in sexual minorities were related to health care access and utilization, risky health behaviors, and overall disease prevalence and outcomes. Findings suggest there are still some current health disparities in terms of insurance coverage, access to medical care, substance use, and prevalence of certain health conditions. However, a trend analysis conducted to examine three NHANES panels, suggests a mild improvement in some of these areas. Further findings, discussion, limitations of the study, current implications, and future directions are addressed.
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Date: August 2018
Creator: Villarreal, Cesar
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Humility and Attachment Style in Adult Romantic Relationships

Description: The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between adult attachment style, humility, and relationship satisfaction in college student couples. Attachment style--given its significant role in predicting how individuals feel, think, and behave in relationships--was expected to be an important predictor of humility, although this possibility has rarely been studied empirically. The current study found that: (a) attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance were significant, negative predictors of total humility, (b) attachment anxiety (but not attachment avoidance) was a significant, negative predictor of both intrapersonal and interpersonal humility, (c) a romantic partner's attachment avoidance (but not attachment anxiety) was a significant, negative predictor of a target person's relationship satisfaction, and (d) a romantic partner's perceived level of humility was a significant, positive predictor of a target person's relationship satisfaction.
Date: August 2018
Creator: Farrell, Jennifer Ellen
Partner: UNT Libraries

Impact of Yoga on Mental Well-Being

Description: The present study sought to more rigourously explore outcomes of psychological well-being immediately following a psychotherapeutic yoga class. Specifically, the study hypothesized improvements in state anxiety and subjective well-being as well as an observable relationship between state and trait mindfulness following a yoga intervention, all while controlling for differences between yoga instructors, prior yoga experience, and participant endorsements of psychological symptoms. Previous yoga experience was not found to be a significant factor in any of the tested hypotheses. Findings revealed that psychotherapeutic yoga decreased anxiety and increased subjective well-being, even after controlling for therapist variability, prior yoga experience, and client diagnosis. Results also indicate differential impacts on decreased anxiety and increased subjective well-being by class instructor. This is the first study to examine outcomes of an ongoing yoga based-practices in the naturalistic setting of an outpatient counseling center while rigorously controlling for confounding factors (e.g. therapist variability). Methodological and statistical limitations are discussed in depth, and future directions to improve on this study and clarify the present findings are emphasized.
Date: August 2018
Creator: Gerber, Monica
Partner: UNT Libraries

Interpersonal Functioning and Experiential Avoidance: Considering New Measurements and Their Implications

Description: Interpersonal functioning can be conceptualized as being comprised of social skills, connectedness, social cognition, and intimacy. A concept that is related to an examination of interpersonal functioning is experiential avoidance (EA), which can be defined as an unwillingness to experience or remain in contact with unpleasant private events through attempts to avoid or escape from these experience. An examination of EA and interpersonal functioning has not previously taken place. This study thus sought to fill that gap in the literature. The availability of a behavioral-oriented measure of interpersonal functioning aided in this investigation. The relationship of EA and interpersonal functioning to depression and anxiety were also examined, in order to evaluate their relative contributions to psychopathology. Overall, it was found that EA and interpersonal functioning were significantly related. However, the dimensions of EA varied in strength with respect to their relationships with interpersonal functioning. Further, it was found that interpersonal functioning predicted unique variance in both depression and anxiety, and partially mediated the relationship between EA and both anxiety and depression. These results might guide the development of treatment programs and add support to the use of treatments with trans-diagnostic targets.
Date: August 2018
Creator: Steinberg, Daniel
Partner: UNT Libraries

Keep Calm and Play On: The Effects of Grit, Mindfulness, and Goal Orientation on Sport Anxiety and Performance

Description: Achievement motivation theory suggests there are two primary approaches to achievement tasks: to appear competent or to develop a skill. These two different approaches to performance yield different affective and behavioral responses. Athletes holding a performance goal orientation tend to respond to challenges with behaviors exemplifying learned helplessness and increased anxiety. Athletes holding a mastery goal orientation tend to respond to challenges with greater effort and experience less sport-related anxiety. Individual athlete factors, such as grit, mindfulness, and achievement orientation may influence how athletes experience their environment and their levels of sport anxiety, and may interact with athletes' achievement motives to influence performance. I used hierarchical multiple regressions to test the main effects of feedback and mindfulness, and feedback and goal orientation, to determine if either mindfulness or goal orientation moderated the effects of feedback on performance. I also used simple regression to determine the relative predictive strength of mindfulness, grit, and goal orientation on athletes' experience of sport anxiety. Mindfulness, but not goal orientation, was a significant moderator of the feedback-shooting performance relationship, but particularly for athletes low in mindfulness; mastery-goal orientation, independently of feedback, was also a significant predictor of task performance. Mindfulness also emerged as the strongest predictor of reduced sport anxiety. These results suggest that, for athletes low in mindfulness, mastery-involving feedback may be especially helpful. Further, mindfulness may also reduce athlete's sport-related concentration disruption, worry, and somatic anxiety.
Date: August 2018
Creator: Auerbach, Alex
Partner: UNT Libraries

Marital Satisfaction and Parental Mental Health in Associations with Secure-Base Provision to School-Age Children

Description: The current study examines interrelations among family factors in a sample of married couples with children in middle childhood. Specifically, this study tested the associations between parents' mental health, marital satisfaction, and provision of a secure base through emotional sensitivity to the child. We further explored bidirectional and moderation effects between spouses. Participants included 86 heterosexual couples residing in the North Texas community. Using the actor-partner interdependence model, multilevel modeling results indicated that both spouse's mental health symptomology and relationship satisfaction are linked to parent's self-perceived ability to provide a secure base; several gender effects were also found. Additionally, actor relationship satisfaction significantly moderated the association between actor mental health symptomology and secure-base provision. In the context of low actor satisfaction, as the actor's mental health symptomology increases, secure-base provision also increases; however, in the context of high actor satisfaction, as actor's mental health symptomology increases, secure-base provision decreases. Additionally, partner relationship satisfaction significantly moderated the association between partner mental health symptomology and actor secure-base provision. In the context of low partner satisfaction, as partner mental health symptomology increases, actor secure-base provision increases; however, in the context of high partner satisfaction, as partner mental health symptomology increases, actor secure-base provision decreases. Spill-over, compensatory, and cross-over hypotheses, strengths, limitations, implications, and future directions are discussed.
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Date: August 2018
Creator: Oosterhouse, Kendra
Partner: UNT Libraries

Meaning in Life and Psychological Wellness among Latino Immigrants: Role of Attachment, Belongingness, and Hope

Description: Guided by attachment theory and principles of positive psychology, a conceptual model was developed depicting the direct and indirect effects of attachment insecurity, state hope, belongingness, and meaning in life on wellness indicators (i.e., life satisfaction, physical health, and depression) of first generation Latino immigrants in the U.S. Specifically, the present study proposed that the effects of attachment insecurity on Latino immigrants' wellness would be mediated by two tiers of factors. The first tier consisted of state hope (i.e., general state hope, spiritual state hope, mastery state hope) and sense of belonging (i.e., general belongingness; connectedness with mainstream/ethnic community), which represented individual-level and relational factors, respectively, salient in Latino culture. Greater attachment insecurity was hypothesized to contribute to a compromised MIL and poorer wellness by decreasing state hope and sense of belongingness. A total of 352 first-generation Latino immigrants from Texas participated in this study. The exploratory factor analysis on the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale revealed a two-factor factor structure that is different from the two factors of adult attachment typically found with American samples (i.e., anxiety and avoidance). The emerged two factors represent anxious-distancing attachment and comfort-seeking attachment. Results from structural equation modeling analysis showed adequate model fit with the data. The final model indicated that the effects of comfort-seeking attachment on wellness were fully mediated by two layers of mediators (belongingness and state hope as the first layer and meaning in life as the second layer). In addition, the effect of anxious-distancing attachment on wellness was fully mediated by belongingness and meaning in life but not through state hope. Bootstrap methods were used to assess the significance magnitude of these indirect effects. Comfort-seeking attachment explained 13% of the variance in state hope and both attachment variables explained 36% of the variance in sense of belongingness. Anxious-distancing attachment, ...
Date: August 2018
Creator: Shelton, Andrew Jonathan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Mental Illness Stigma, Parent-Child Communication, and Help-Seeking of Young American Adults with Immigrant Parents

Description: This study examined a mediational model of mental illness stigma, parent-child communication about mental health concerns, and help seeking attitudes/behaviors among young adults with at least one immigrant parent while considering the possible moderating effect of acculturation gap. The primary goal of this study was to examine whether the acculturation gap changed the relation between mental illness stigma and communication about personal mental health concerns with immigrant parents, which in turn could become a significant predictor of their help-seeking attitudes, as well as a barrier to seeking professional mental health services. Findings provided support to the direct and indirect effects of mental illness stigma through communication about mental health concerns on attitudes about help-seeking. The acculturation gap hypothesized to be a possible moderator for the stigma-communication about mental health concerns relationship among young adult ABCI was found to be significant for ABCI with a low mainstream culture acculturation gap. Discussion on the findings, limitations of the study, future research directions, and counseling implications are addressed.
Date: August 2018
Creator: Bismar, Danna
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Nature of Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

Description: Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), with as many as 70% of patients with MS affected. Individuals with MS who experience cognitive deficits are less likely to be employed, and may have more difficulty performing independent activities of daily living. Most commonly, deficits are observed in processing speed, complex attention, and memory. Because lesion location varies widely among individuals, no clear pattern of cognitive dysfunction in MS has emerged. However, a number of risk and protective factors may influence the likelihood of individuals to develop and/or express dysfunction, though the contribution of each to specific domains of cognition has not been fully explored. Recently, support for the cognitive reserve hypothesis (i.e., enriching life experiences protect against cognitive decline despite disease burden) has emerged in the MS literature. The current study investigated the contributions of cognitive reserve to learning and memory functioning in MS and the interaction of cognitive reserve variables and risk factors known to impact cognitive functioning in individuals with MS. Finding revealed cognitive reserve protects against decline in the domains of processing speed and complex attention. Furthermore, indirect protective effects of cognitive reserve through these domains were observed for verbal learning and memory. Finally, in line with previous literature, cognitive dysfunction predicted employment status of the current sample. Clinical implications and future directions for intervention efforts are discussed.
Date: August 2018
Creator: Carlew, Anne R
Partner: UNT Libraries

Pathways to Prolonged Grief and Posttraumatic Growth: Examining the Roles of Attachment, Identity Distress, and Shattered Assumptions

Description: The sudden or violent death of a loved one (e.g., suicide, homicide, accident, etc.) poses unique challenges for the bereaved. Research has found such losses to be associated with higher levels of chronic psychological distress, now termed Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder in the DSM-5 and Prolonged Grief Disorder in the forthcoming ICD-11. The present study, developed through the lens of Multidimensional Grief Theory (MGT; Kaplow et al., 2013), explored underlying mechanisms and risk and protective factors for both prolonged grief and posttraumatic growth. With a mixed college and community sample of 374 traumatically bereaved adults, results of a path analysis suggest that insecure attachment strategies play a significant role in prolonged grief symptoms through the mediators of identity distress and shattered assumptions. Faced with the traumatic loss of a loved one, the ability and desire to effectively access relationships facilitating intentional processing that promotes cognitive reorganization is predicated on the bereaved's internal working model of attachment. Specifically, attachment anxiety in relation to close others and God, and attachment avoidance in relation to close others, were indirectly associated with prolonged grief. However, attachment avoidance in relation to God was negatively associated with both prolonged grief and posttraumatic growth, and there was no evidence for mediation. One explanation for this could be that individuals endorsing divine attachment avoidance are less likely to make negative religious attributions about the death, which have been associated with chronic psychological distress, but are also less likely to be able to utilize the sacred as a context for growth. By considering traumatically bereaved individuals' internal working model of attachment, level of identity distress, and potentially shattered assumptions, our model accounted for each of MGT's three domains of distress thought to impact post-lost adjustment. That these domains were both inter-related and associated with differential outcomes speaks to the ...
Date: August 2018
Creator: Captari, Laura E
Partner: UNT Libraries