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Dioxygen: What Makes This Triplet Diradical Kinetically Persistent?

Description: This article examines experimental heats of formation and enthalpies obtained from G4 calculations to find that the resonance stabilization of the two unpaired electrons in triplet O₂, relative to the unpaired electrons in two hydroxyl radicals, amounts to 100 kcal/mol.
Date: April 26, 2017
Creator: Borden, Weston T.; Hoffmann, Roald; Stuyver, Thijs & Chen, Bo
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Design of New Monodentate Ligands for Regioselectivity and Enantioselectivity Tuning in Late Transition Metal Catalysis

Description: The ability of gold(I) to activate many types of unsaturated bonds toward nucleophilic attack was not widely recognized until the early 2000s. One major challenge in gold catalysis is the control over regioselectivity when there are two or more possible products as a result of complicated mechanistic pathways. It is well know that the choice of ligand can have dramatic effects on which pathway is being followed but very rarely are the reasons for this selectivity understood. The synthesis of new acyclic diaminocarbenes was developed and a study of the ligand effects on the regioselectivity of a gold-catalyzed domino enyne cyclization hydroarylation reaction and a Nazarov cyclization was undertaken. New chiral acyclic diaminocarbenes were also developed and tested along side new C3-symmetric phosphite ligands in an asymmetric intramolecular hydroamination of allenes. Structure activity correlations were developed for the potential use in further rational ligand design. The synthesis of 6a,7-dihydro-5-amino-dibenzo[c,g]chromene derivatives via a gold-catalyzed domino reaction of alkynylbenzaldehydes in the presence of secondary amines was developed. These were sent to be screened for biological activity.
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Date: May 2016
Creator: Ruch, Aaron Anthony
Partner: UNT Libraries

Negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy of P₂N₃⁻: electron affinity and electronic structures of P₂N₃˙

Description: This article reports a negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES) and ab initio study of the recently synthesized planar aromatic inorganic ion P₂N₃⁻, to investigate the electronic structures of P₂N₃⁻ and its neutral P₂N₃˙ radical.
Date: April 5, 2016
Creator: Hou, Gao-Lei; Chen, Bo; Transue, Wesley J.; Hrovat, David A.; Cummins, Christopher C.; Borden, Weston T. et al.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Application of the Correlation Consistent Composite Approach to Biological Systems and Noncovalent Interactions

Description: Advances in computing capabilities have facilitated the application of quantum mechanical methods to increasingly larger and more complex chemical systems, including weakly interacting and biologically relevant species. One such ab initio-based composite methodology, the correlation consistent composite approach (ccCA), has been shown to be reliable for the prediction of enthalpies of formation and reaction energies of main group species in the gas phase to within 1 kcal mol-1, on average, of well-established experiment, without dependence on experimental parameterization or empirical corrections. In this collection of work, ccCA has been utilized to determine the proton affinities of deoxyribonucleosides within an ONIOM framework (ONIOM-ccCA) and to predict accurate enthalpies of formation for organophosphorus compounds. Despite the complexity of these systems, ccCA is shown to result in enthalpies of formation to within ~2 kcal mol-1 of experiment and predict reliable reaction energies for systems with little to no experimental data. New applications for the ccCA method have also been introduced, expanding the utility of ccCA to solvated systems and complexes with significant noncovalent interactions. By incorporating the SMD solvation model into the ccCA formulation, the Solv-ccCA method is able to predict the pKa values of nitrogen systems to within 0.7 pKa unit (less than 1.0 kcal mol-1), overall. A hydrogen bonding constant has also been developed for use with weakly interacting dimers and small cluster compounds, resulting in ccCA interaction energies for water clusters and dimers of the S66 set to within 1.0 kcal mol-1 of well-established theoretical values.
Date: May 2015
Creator: Riojas, Amanda G.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Pathways for C—H Activation and Functionalization by Group 9 Metals

Description: As fossil fuel resources become more and more scarce, attention has been turned to alternative sources of fuels and energy. One promising prospect is the conversion of methane (natural gas) to methanol, which requires an initial activation of a C-H bond and subsequent formation of a C-O bond. The most well studied methodologies for both C-H activation and C-O bond formation involve oxidation of the metal center. Metal complexes with facile access to oxidation states separated by four charge units, required for two subsequent oxidations, are rare. Non-oxidative methods to perform C-H bond activation or C-O bond formation must be pursued in order for methane to methanol to become a viable strategy. In this dissertation studies on redox and non-redox methods for both C-H activation and C-O bond formation are discussed. In the early chapters C-O bond formation in the form of reductive functionalization is modeled. Polypyridine ligated rhodium complexes were studied computationally to determine the properties that would promote reductive functionalization. These principles were then tested by designing an experimental complex that could form C-O bonds. This complex was then shown to also work in acidic media, a critical aspect for product stabilization. In the later chapters, non-oxidative C-H activation is discussed with Ir complexes. Both sigma bond metathesis and concerted metalation deprotonation were investigated. For the former, the mechanism for an experimentally known complex was elucidated and for the latter the controlling factors for a proposed catalyst were explored.
Date: May 2015
Creator: Pahls, Dale R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Transition Metal Mediated C-o Bond Cleavage: From Co2 Activation to Lignin Degradation

Description: CO2 activation and conversion mediated by transition metal (TM) catalysts were investigated. Homogeneous catalysis of the reverse water gas shift reaction CO2+H2→H2O+CO was studied as a means to reduce CO2. β-diketiminato metal models L'MI ( L' =C3N2H5-; M = first-row TMs) were considered as potential catalysts. The thermodynamics of prototypical reaction pathways were simulated using B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ. Results show that middle series metal complexes result in more thermodynamically favorable properties; therefore, more detailed thermodynamic and kinetic studies were carried out for Mn, Fe, and Co complexes. On the other hand, heterogeneous catalysis of the reduction of CO2 to CO was carried out on Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu surfaces, using the PBE functional. Reaction barriers were calculated using the climbing image nudged elastic band method. Late 3d and 4d transition metal ion (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Ag) mediated activation of dimethyl ether was studied to investigate the intrinsic catalytic properties of metals for C-O bond cleavage. A set of density functional theory (DFT) methods (BLYP, B3LYP, M06, M06-L, B97-1, B97-D, TPSS, and PBE) with aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets was calibrated with CCSD(T)/CBS calculations on reaction energies and barriers.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Liu, Cong
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Multi-reference Correlation Consistent Composite Approach: A New Vista In Quantitative Prediction Of Thermochemical And Spectroscopic Properties

Description: The multi-reference correlation consistent composite approach (MR-ccCA) was designed to reproduce the accuracy of more computationally intensive ab initio quantum mechanical methods like MR-ACPF-DK/aug-cc-pCV?Z-DK, albeit at a significantly reduced cost. In this dissertation, the development and applications of the MR-ccCA method and a variant of its single reference equivalent (the relativistic pseudopotential ccCA method) are reported. MR-ccCA is shown to predict the energetic properties of reactive intermediates, excited states species and transition states to within chemical accuracy (i.e. ±1.0 kcal mol 1) of reliable experimental values. The accuracy and versatility of MR-ccCA are also demonstrated in the prediction of the thermochemical and spectroscopic properties (such as atomization energies, enthalpies of formation and adiabatic transition energies of spin-forbidden excited states) of a series of silicon-containing compounds. The thermodynamic and kinetic feasibilities of the oxidative addition of an archetypal arylglycerol ?-aryl ether (?-O-4 linkage) substructure of lignin to Ni, Cu, Pd and Pt transition metal atoms using the efficient relativistic pseudopotential correlation consistent composite approach within an ONIOM framework (rp-ccCA-ONIOM), a multi-level multi-layer QM/QM method formulated to enhance the quantitative predictions of the chemical properties of heavy element-containing systems larger than hitherto attainable, are also reported.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Oyedepo, Gbenga A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Modeling Transition Metal Chemistry for Catalytic Functionalization of Molecules

Description: The diversity of transition metal complexes allows for a wide range of chemical processes to be mediated by the metal, from catalysis to surface chemistry. Investigations into the structure and electronic configuration of transition metal complexes allow for tuning of desired species by modifications to the ligands and/or metals to achieve more efficient thermodynamics and kinetics for the process of interest. Transition metals, often used in catalysts for a number of important processes, require detailed descriptions of intermediates, transition states and products to fully characterize a reaction mechanism(s) in order to design more active and efficient catalysts. Computational investigations into inorganic catalysts are explored with the aim of understanding the activity of each species and how modifications of supporting ligands, co-ligands and metals vary the interaction along the reaction pathway. Reported results give important insight into the development of the most active complexes in addition to determining the least active complexes to aid experimental development. This report first investigates the mechanisms of two unique transfer reactions: 1) formation of low coordinate nickel-nitrene ((P~P)Ni=NR; P~P = 1,2-bis(dihydrophosphino)-ethane or 1,2-bis(difluoromethylphosphino)-ethane) complexes as catalysts for nitrogen atom transfer and 2) oxidation of a triphosphorus niobium complex, [(η2-P3SnPh3)Nb(OMe)3], for the transfer of the phosphorus synthon, Ph3SnP3. These reactions have utility in the synthesis of nitrogen and phosphorus containing molecules, respectively, and the results presented provide mechanistic insight into the synthesis of the organometallic intermediates. Additionally, a computational approach towards rational catalyst design was performed on the ruthenium based hydroarylation catalyst TpRu(CO)(Ph) [Tp = hydrido-tris(pyrazolyl)borate]. Targeted modifications at the Tp, metal and co-ligand (CO) sites were studied in order to tune the electronics and sterics of the catalyst. Modifications, through computational methods, provided a more cost- and time-efficient way to study the impact of modifications, which provided direct input into attractive synthetic targets. The research ...
Date: August 2011
Creator: Morello, Glenn
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Synergy Between Qualitative Theory, Quantitative Calculations, and Direct Experiments in Understanding, Calculating, and Measuring the Energy Differences Between the Lowest Singlet and Triplet States of Organic Diradicals

Description: Article discussing the synergy between qualitative theory, quantitative calculations, and direct experiments in understanding, calculating, and measuring the energy differences between the lowest singlet and triplet states of organic diradicals.
Date: April 18, 2012
Creator: Lineberger, W. Carl & Borden, Weston T.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Experimental and Computational Studies of the Isomerization Reactions of Bidentate Phosphine Ligands in Triosmium Clusters: Kinetics of the Rearrangements from Bridged to Chelated Isomers and X-ray Structures of the Clusters Os3 (CO)10 (dppbz), 1,1-Os3 (CO)10 (dppbzF4), HOs3 (CO)9 [μ -1,2-PhP (C6H4-ɳ1) C6H4PPh2], and HOs3 (CO)9- [μ-1,2-PhP (C6H4-ɳ 1) C6F4PPh2]

Description: Article on experimental and computational studies of the isomerization reactions of bidentate phosphine ligands in triosmium clusters.
Date: February 22, 2011
Creator: Zhang, Xue; Kandala, Srikanth; Yang, Li; Watson, William H.; Wang, Xiaoping; Hrovat, David A. et al.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Examination and Development of the Correlation Consistent Composite Approach

Description: The primary focus of this dissertation is the advancement of the correlation consistent composite approach (ccCA) methodology from its original formulation to the current implementation. Although for large main group test sets which contained both first- (Li-Ne) and second-row (Na-Ar) species ccCA produced chemical accuracy (generally estimated as a deviation of ~1 kcal mol-1 from reliable experiment), the second-row species were smaller in molecular size in comparison to their corresponding first-row species. Previous theoretical work has shown that the accuracy for theoretical calculations involving second-row species (specifically sulfur-containing species) are more basis set dependent than first-row species. Therefore, an analysis of the accuracy of ccCA for sulfur-containing species is warranted. The ccCA methodology is used to evaluate both enthalpies of formation and bond dissociation energies of sulfur-containing species as well as examine isomerization energies for three sets of sulfur-containing isomers. During the testing of ccCA for sulfur-containing species two observations were made which led to further investigations. First, there is no agreement between different theoretical methodologies on the lowest energetic isomer between SNO and NSO. In fact, G3 and G3B3 which differ only by the geometry of the single-point calculations do not agree on the lowest isomer. For this reason, larger, more complete theoretical treatments of SNO and NSO are investigated. Second, for open-shell sulfur-containing systems the accuracy of the ccCA methodology begins to degrade when spin-contamination becomes non-negligible. Therefore, we investigate the accuracy of the ccCA methodology when spin-contamination is removed from the wavefunction. Finally, the ccCA methodology is utilized in a multilayer ONIOM approach as the high level of theory in conjunction with density functional theory as the low level for the C-H bond dissociation energies of anthracene and fluorene analogues.
Date: December 2010
Creator: Williams, T. Gavin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Synthetic, Mechanistic, and Structural Studies of Polynuclear Metal Clusters and Hydrazido-Substituted Tantalum(V) Compounds

Description: A combined experimental and computational study on the reversible ortho-metalation exhibited by the triosmium cluster Os3(CO)10(dppm) (dppm = 1,1-bis(diphenylphosphino)methane is reported. The conversion of nonacarbonyl cluster HOs3(CO)9[-PhP(C6H4)CH2PPh2] to Os3(CO)10(dppm) is independent of added CO and exhibits a significant inverse equilibrium isotope effect (EIE). Reductive coupling of the C-H bond in HOs3(CO)9[-PhP(C6H4)CH2PPh2] leads to the formation of agostic C-H and two distinct aryl-π species prior to the rate-limiting formation of the unsaturated cluster Os3(CO)9(dppm). Heating the unsaturated dimer H2Re2(CO)8 with Cp*Rh(CO)2 (Cp* = 1,2,3,4,5-pentamethylcyclopentadiene) at elevated temperature affords the new trimetallic clusters H2RhRe2Cp*(CO)9 and HRh2ReCp*2(CO)6, and the spiked-triangular cluster HRhRe3Cp*(CO)14. H2Re2(CO)8 reacts with Cp*2Rh2(CO)2 under identical conditions to furnish H2RhRe2Cp*(CO)9 and HRh2ReCp*2(CO)6 as the principal products, in addition to the tetrahedral cluster H2Rh2Re2Cp*2(CO)8. H2RhRe2Cp*(CO)9 undergoes facile fragmentation in the presence of halogenated solvents and the thiols RSH (where R = H, C6H4Me-p) to afford the structurally characterized products Cp*Rh(-Cl)3Re(CO)3, S2Rh3Cp*(CO)4, Cp*Rh(-Cl)(-SC6H4Me-p)2Re(CO)3, and Cp*Rh(-SC6H4Me-p)3Re(CO)3. The new hydrazido-substituted compounds TaCl(NMe2)3[N(TMS)NMe2] (TMS = tetramethylsilyl) and Ta(NMe2)4[N(TMS)NMe2] have been synthesized and their structures established by X-ray crystallography. The latter product represents the first structurally characterized octahedral tantalum(V) complex containing a single hydrazido(I) ligand in an all-nitrogen coordinated environment about the metal center. The fluxional properties of the amido and hydrazido ligands in these new compounds have been established by VT 1H NMR spectroscopy (VT = variable temperature). Preliminary data using Ta(NMe2)4[N(TMS)NMe2] as an ALD (ALD = atomic layer deposition) precursor for the preparation of tantalum nitride and tantalum oxide thin films are presented.
Date: December 2010
Creator: Huang, Shih-huang
Partner: UNT Libraries

Experimental Evidence for Heavy-Atom Tunneling in the Ring-Opening of Cyclopropylcarbinyl Radical from Intramolecular 12C/13C Kinetic Isotope Effects

Description: Article on experimental evidence for heavy-atom tunneling in the ring-opening of cyclopropylcarbinyl radical from intramolecular 12C/13C kinetic isotope effects.
Date: August 19, 2010
Creator: Gonzalez-James, Ollie M.; Zhang, Xue; Datta, Ayan; Hrovat, David A.; Singleton, Daniel A. & Borden, Weston T.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Nanoparticles Engineered to Bind Serum Albumin: Microwave Assisted Synthesis, Characterization, and Functionalization of Fluorescently-Labeled, Acrylate-Based, Polymer Nanoparticles

Description: The potential use of polymeric, functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) as drug delivery vectors was explored. Covalent conjugation of albumin to the surface of NPs via maleimide chemistry proved problematic. However, microwave assisted synthesis of NPs was not only time efficient, but enabled the exploration of size control by changing the following parameters: temperature, microwave power, reaction time, initiator concentration, and percentage of monomer used. About 1.5 g of fluorescently-labeled, carboxylic acid-functionalized NPs (100 nm diameter) were synthesized for a total cost of less than $1. Future work will address further functionalization of the NPs for the coupling of albumin (or other targeted proteins), and tests for in vivo biodistribution.
Date: August 2010
Creator: Hinojosa, Barbara R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Computational Study of Small Molecule Activation via Low-Coordinate Late First-Row Transition Metal Complexes

Description: Methane and dinitrogen are abundant precursors to numerous valuable chemicals such as methanol and ammonia, respectively. However, given the robustness of these substrates, catalytically circumventing the high temperatures and pressures required for such transformations has been a challenging task for chemists. In this work, computational studies of various transition metal catalysts for methane C-H activation and N2 activation have been carried out. For methane C-H activation, catalysts of the form LnM=E are studied, where Ln is the supporting ligand (dihydrophosphinoethane or β-diketiminate), E the activating ligand (O, NCH3, NCF3) at which C-H activation takes place, and M the late transition metal (Fe,Co,Ni,Cu). A hydrogen atom abstraction (HAA) / radical rebound (RR) mechanism is assumed for methane functionalization (CH4 à CH3EH). Since the best energetics are found for (β-diket)Ni=O and (β-diket)Cu=O catalysts, with or without CF3 substituents around the supporting ligand periphery, complete methane-to-methanol cycles were studied for such systems, for which N2O was used as oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reagent. Both monometallic and bimetallic OAT pathways are addressed. Monometallic Fe-N2 complexes of various supporting ligands (LnFe-N2) are studied at the beginning of the N2 activation chapter, where the effect of ligand on N2 activation in end-on vs. side-on N2 isomers is discussed. For (β-diket)Fe-N2 complexes, the additional influence of diketiminate donor atom (N(H) vs. S) is briefly addressed. The remainder of the chapter expands upon the treatment of β-diketiminate complexes. First, the activation and relative stabilities of side-bound and end-bound N2 isomers in monometallic ((β-diket)M-N2) and bimetallic ((β-diket)M-N2-M(β-diket)) first row transition metal complexes are addressed. Second, the thermodynamics of H/H+/H- addition to (β-diket)Fe-bound N2, followed by subsequent H additions up to release of ammonia, is discussed, for which two mechanisms (distal and alternating) are considered. Finally, the chapter concludes with partial distal and alternating mechanisms for H addition to N2 ...
Date: May 2010
Creator: Pierpont, Aaron
Partner: UNT Libraries

Cyclooctatetraenes Tetrakis-Annelated with α-Dithio- or α-Diselenocarbonyl Groups: Diradicals Predicted To Have Ground States with 10 π Electrons in the Eight-Membered Ring and Two-Center, Three-Electron, σ Bonds between Two Pairs of Chalcogen Atoms

Description: Article on cyclooctatetraenes tetrakis-annelated with α-dithio- or α-diselenocarbonyl groups.
Date: February 12, 2010
Creator: Zhou, Xin; Hrovat, David A. & Borden, Weston T.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences