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A Measurement of the muon neutrino charged current quasielastic interaction and a test of Lorentz violation with the MiniBooNE experiment

Description: The Mini-Booster neutrino experiment (MiniBooNE) at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) is designed to search for {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} appearance neutrino oscillations. Muon neutrino charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) interactions ({nu}{sub {mu}} + n {yields} {mu} + p) make up roughly 40% of our data sample, and it is used to constrain the background and cross sections for the oscillation analysis. Using high-statistics MiniBooNE CCQE data, the muon-neutrino CCQE cross section is measured. The nuclear model is tuned precisely using the MiniBooNE data. The measured total cross section is {sigma} = (1.058 {+-} 0.003 (stat) {+-} 0.111 (syst)) x 10{sup -38} cm{sup 2} at the MiniBooNE muon neutrino beam energy (700-800 MeV). {nu}{sub e} appearance candidate data is also used to search for Lorentz violation. Lorentz symmetry is one of the most fundamental symmetries in modern physics. Neutrino oscillations offer a new method to test it. We found that the MiniBooNE result is not well-described using Lorentz violation, however further investigation is required for a more conclusive result.
Date: December 1, 2008
Creator: Katori, Teppei & U., /Indiana
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear reactions with 11C and 14O radioactive ion beams

Description: Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) have been shown to be a useful tool for studying proton-rich nuclides near and beyond the proton dripline and for evaluating nuclear models. To take full advantage of RIBs, Elastic Resonance Scattering in Inverse Kinematics with Thick Targets (ERSIKTT), has proven to be a reliable experimental tool for investigations of proton unbound nuclei. Following several years of effort, Berkeley Experiments with Accelerated Radioactive Species (BEARS), a RIBs capability, has been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. The current BEARS provides two RIBs: a 11C beam of up to 2x108 pps intensity on target and an 14O beam of up to 3x104 pps intensity. While the development of the 11C beam has been relatively easy, a number of challenges had to be overcome to obtain the 14O beam. The excellent 11C beam has been used to investigate several reactions. The first was the 197Au(11C,xn)208-xnAt reaction, which was used to measure excitation functions for the 4n to 8n exit channels. The measured cross sections were generally predicted quite well using the fusion-evaporation code HIVAP. Possible errors in the branching ratios of ?? decays from At isotopes as well as the presence of incomplete fusion reactions probably contribute to specific overpredictions. 15F has been investigated by the p(14O,p)14O reaction with the ERSIKTT technology. Several 14O+p runs have been performed. Excellent energy calibration was obtained using resonances from the p(14N,p)14N reaction in inverse kinematics, and comparing the results to those obtained earlier with normal kinematics. The differences between 14N+p and 14O+p in the stopping power function have been evaluated for better energy calibration. After careful calibration, the energy levels of 15F were fitted with an R-matrix calculation. Spins and parities were assigned to the two observed resonances. This new measurement of the 15F ground state supports the ...
Date: December 9, 2004
Creator: Guo, Fanqing
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Precision Spectroscopy of Lambda-Hypernuclei by (e, e' K{sup +}) reaction and gamma-ray measurement

Description: Hypernuclei, with one nucleon converted into a hyperon and coupled back to the residual nuclear core, provide a new probe to study the hyperon-nucleon interaction and an additional strangeness degree of freedom to test the limit of our conventional nuclear models in solving the many body system. The First Lambda electroproduction experiment E89009(HNSS) at JLAB focusing on the Lambda hypernuclear spectroscopy in p-shell achieved the best resolution( FWHM: 500-600 keV) ever reached in this field. The unnatural parity (spin-flip) states were observed for the first time on the 12 / Lambda B missing mass spectrum. The detailed hypernuclear structure of 9 / Lambda Be produced through (k{sup -}, pi{sup -}) reaction in BNL-AGS, was studied with the hypernuclear gamma-ray spectroscopy by using a large acceptance germanium detector (Hyperball) in experiment E-930.
Date: August 1, 2001
Creator: Zhu, Xiaofeng
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the relative abundance of heavy versus light nuclei in primary cosmic rays using underground muon bundles

Description: We study multiple muon events (muon bundles) recorded underground at a depth of 2090 mwe. To penetrate to this depth, the muons must have energies above 0.8 TeV at the Earth`s surface; the primary cosmic ray nuclei which give rise to the observed muon bundles have energies at incidence upon the upper atmosphere of 10 to 10{sup 5}TeV. The events are detected using the Soudan 2 experiment`s fine grained tracking calorimeter which is surrounded by a 14 m {times}10 m {times} 31 m proportional tube array (the ``active shield``). Muon bundles which have at least one muon traversing the calorimeter, are reconstructed using tracks in the calorimeter together with hit patterns in the proportional tube shield. All ionization pulses are required to be coincident within 3 microseconds. A goal of this study is to investigate the relative nuclear abundances in the primary cosmic radiation around the ``knee`` region (10{sup 3} {minus} 10{sup 4} TeV) of the incident energy spectrum. Four models for the nuclear composition of cosmic rays are considered: The Linsley model, the Constant Mass Composition model (CMC), the Maryland model and the Proton-poor model. A Monte Carlo which incorporates one model at a time is used to simulate events which are then reconstructed using the same computer algorithms that are used for the data. Identical cuts and selections are applied to the data and to the simulated events.
Date: June 8, 1993
Creator: Sundaralingam, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of generalized classical trajectories in nuclear physics

Description: A new semi-classical method, the so-called uniform semiclassical approximation, is described briefly and then applied to two nuclear physics problems. The basic features of this method are that the dynamics of the problem is treated completely classically (that is, one solves classical equations of motion), but the quantum mechanical superposition principle is retained by evaluating a phase along the classical trajectory and adding probability amplitudes for indistinguishable processes rather than probabilities themselves. The first problem considered is the backscattering from a deformed nucleus and the excitation of rotational states in the target at energies up to the Coulomb barrier. The multiple Coulomb excitation calculations are in quantitative agreement with a very different method (the de Boer-Winther code). A nuclear optical potential is also considered and the nuclear-Coulomb interference for heavy ions is studied. The second problem considered is the tunneling through a two-dimensional barrier. This problem (which is supposed to simulate the penetration through a two-dimensional fission barrier) is investigated by a fully quantum-mechanical coupled-channel calculation and by the uniform semiclassical approximation. A quantitative agreement is found. (auth)
Date: September 1, 1975
Creator: Leser, H.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Structure of Heavy Nuclei: A Study of Very Weak Alpha Branching

Description: Very weak alpha branching in heavy elements was studied by a recently developed coincidence technique. This technique makes it possible to measure the energies and intensities of both alpha -particle groups and de-exciting radiation, even when the transition intensities are as low as 10/sup -8/ relative to the most intense alpha group. Twenty alpha -particle emitters from Po/sup 214/ to Fm were examined. 00+ states (beta vibrations) were observed in six even-even nuclei, and analogous states were found in three odd-mass nuclei. They are in general characterized by low alpha-decay hindrance factors and roughly equal de-excitation by electric monopole and quadrupole transitions. However, the deexcitation of these states is in disagreement with vibrational model predictions in certain cases; more important, the de-excitation and other properties of the states exhibit some irregular variations from nucleus to nucleus which are evidence for some particle character in the states. Information was also obtained about some other types of levels. A number of 1- states (octupole vibrations) were observed, and a possible 2- state was observed in U/sup 236/. A state that appears to be analogous to the 1-octupole states of even-even nuclei was observed in U/sup 235/. In Pu/sup 239/, a K = 3/2+STA631! band was identified with reasonable certainty, and numerous particle states were observed in Bk/sup 249/, although it was not possible to classify them. No 22+ states (gamma vibrations) were observed, and it appears that the alpha transitions to these states are rather highly retarded. (92 references). (auth)
Date: September 27, 1963
Creator: Lederer, C. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monte Carlo Calculations on Intranuclear Cascades

Description: The basic assumption of the Serber model in the description of high- energy nuclear reactions is that the interactions of incident particles with complex nuclei can be described in terms of individual particle-particle collisions within the nucleus. Calculations were performed making use of the basic assumption of the Serber model, a more realistic nuclear model, recent cross-section data, and an exact statistical sampling technique. The sampling technique has not been used previously in calculations of this type. Calculations were performed for incident e (as Fe/sup 59 /sup +/, e (as Fe/sup 59 /sup -/, neutrons, and protons on nuclei from lithium to uranium. The energy range of the incident particles varied from about 50 to 350 Mev, i.e., the energy region in which pion production is not likely. Free-particle cross sections were used in determining the collisions within the nucleus, and statistical sampling techniques were used throughout, The problem was coded for the IBM-7090. Extensive comparisons with experiment were made and the results indicate that the calculation can be used to predict most of the cascade data for incident nucleons on complex nuclei, but only the gross features of the data are predictable for incident pions on nuclei. The effects of several nuclear configurations on the results of the calculations were investigated in some of the areas where discrepancies exist between the experimental results and those of the calculation. These configurations consisted of uniform and nonuniform nucleon density distributions in spherically symmetric nuciei of various radii. The results of these investigations indicate that the greatest effect is due to the nuclear dimensions rather than the nucleon density distribution within the nucleus for a given nucleon volume. 77 references. (auth)
Date: May 16, 1963
Creator: Bertini, H. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Angular Distribution of Fission Fragments From the Fast Neutron-Induced Fission of U-234

Description: Submitted to Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville. The fast neutron-induced fission cross section of U/sup 234/ was measured from threshold to 4-Mev neutron energy. A maximum of 1.26 barns was found at 850 kev followed by a minimum of 1.10 barns at 8050 kev. The angular ani-sotropy of the fragment distribution was measured for neutron energies from 400 kev to 4 Mev. Extrema in the ratio sigma /sub f//( sigma /sub f(90 deg ) were found at 500, 850, and 1050 kev; the distribution at 500 kev showing a maximum in the direction normal to the beam (side-wise peaking) while that at 850 kev showed a maximum along the beam direction. The distribution at 8050 kev showed forward peaking but to a lesser extent than for energies immediately higher or lower. The behavior was analyzed according to the theories of Bohr and Wheeler. The dip in cross section between 850 and 1050 kev is consistent with the suggestion of Wheeler that neutron competition in the decay of the compound nucleus enters with increased strength in this area. Vibration-rotational levels in U/sup 234/ beginning at 790 kev are known to exist and inelastic neutron scattering to these levels serves to depress the fission cross section. The changes in fragment angular distribution are shown to be explainable in terms of the theory of Bohr which states that fission occurs through distinct channels composed of a K-band structure analogous to that observed at low excitations in heavy deformed nuclei. More detailed angular distribution measurements were carried out at 850 and 1050 kev. The overall picture is consistent with a K-band structure in U/sup 235/* near the saddle point deformation of K equals 1/2+, 3/2--, 1/2-- in that order, the bands being separated from each other by a few hundred kilovolts. (auth)
Date: August 27, 1962
Creator: Lamphere, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Moderation of Neutrons in Non-Multiplying Infinite Homogeneous Media.

Description: Submitted to Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis. The gas model of neutron thermalization for a general moderator mass was studied by formulating the thermalization process as an integral equation. The relation of the model to the slowing-down theory was investigated. A discussion of the theory of scattering cross sections for neutrons is presented. The Wigner-Wilkins model was considered for moderator atoms of the same mass as the neutron. The analysis was extended to the case of a gaseous moderator with atoms of general mass. (M.C.G.)
Date: January 1, 1962
Creator: Min, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ejection of Large Fragments in High-Energy Nuclear Reactions

Description: Several features of the production of Na/sup 24/ and Mg/sup 28/ fragments produced in the interaction of protons and He ions with Cu, Ag, Au, and U were investigated. Formation cross sections were determined for He ions of different energies between 320 and 880 Mev and for protons of 700 Mev. Thick- target recoil experiments were performed at bombarding energies of 0.7 and 3 Bev for protons, and 880 Mev for He ions. Also given are some recoil measurements of Na/sup 24/ from Al. Analysis of data obtained with target materials heavier than Al showed that for the bombarding energies used, Na/sup 24/ and Mg/sup 28/ are probably produced by the cleavage of the target nucleus into two heavy fragmerts. One of these fragments has a mass approximately equal to the mass Na 4 or Mg/6 and the other contains most of the remaining mass of the target nucleus. However, Na/sup 24/ and Mg/sup 28/ are very probably not slowly evaporated particles nor products of a slow fission process. The experimental information covering fragmentation from photographic emulsion studies and radiochemical studies is discussed. The various mechanisms proposed are considered and a new one suggested. According to this new mechanism Na/sup 24/ Mg/sup 28/ and the more energetic fragments observed in nuclear emulsions are ejected promptiy from the parent nucleus by very complex nucleon-nucleon cascades and by collective effects. (auth)
Date: September 1, 1961
Creator: Crespo, V. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department