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Toxicity of tritium. [Chronic, low-dose exposure of mice and monkeys]

Description: Among radionuclides of importance in atomic energy, /sup 3/H has relatively low toxicity. The main health and environmental worry is the possibility that significant biological effects may follow from protracted exposure to low concentrations in water. To examine this possible hazard and measure toxicity at low tritium concentrations, chronic exposure studies were done on mice and monkeys. During vulnerable developmental periods animals were exposed to /sup 3/HOH, and mice were exposed also to /sup 60/Co gamma irradiation and energy-related chemical agents. The biological endpoint measured was the irreversible loss of female germ cells. Effects from tritium were observed at surprisingly low concentrations where /sup 3/H was found more damaging than previously thought. Comparisons between tritium and gamma radiation showed the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) to be greater than 1 and to reach approximately 3 at very low exposures. For perspective, other comparisons were made: between radiation and chemical agents, which revealed parallels in action on germ cells, and between pre- and postnatal exposure, which warn of possible special hazard to the fetus from both classes of energy-related byproducts.
Date: March 2, 1979
Creator: Dobson, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of small mammal populations inhabiting the environs of a low-level radioactive waste pond.

Description: This study was designed to determine the kinds of small mammals living adjacent to 216-U-10 Pond, the radiation exposures these mice received, and the level and type of radionuclides assimilated while living next to this pond and the 216-Z-19 Ditch. Four species of mice were trapped including the Great Basin pocket mouse, deer mouse, house mouse, and the western harvest mouse. Animals were collected throughout the study and composite tissue samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Also, an analysis for /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 241/Am was performed. The most abundant gamma emitter was /sup 137/Cs with the highest levels occurring at three trapping locations: one near the 216-Z-19 Ditch and two locations adjacent to the pond. House mice captured near the 216-Z-19 Ditch showed the highest levels with one gastrointestinal (GI) tract sample having 1600 pCi /sup 137/Cs/g dry weight. Four tissue types from resident mice were analyzed for Pu and Am concentrations. The tissues analyzed were fur-skin, liver, lung, and muscle-bone. The highest concentration detected was 2.03 pCi /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu/g dry weight in a fur-skin sample from house mice captured on the meadow transect near the pond. Results from radiochemical analyses of mouse tissues showed that pocket mice have the lowest concentrations of radionuclides. Another part of this study involved dosimeters implanted in resident mice to determine gamma exposure. Analyses revealed that mice living in the meadow transect adjacent to the pond receive the highest exposure. Again, house mice had the highest, with an average 54.9 R/yr. Dosimeters were placed in the soil along the trapping transects to measure gamma and thermal neutron exposure rates. The top decimeter of soil had the highest exposure rate with a mean of 75 R/yr in the meadow. Neutron dose in the soil was also highest near ...
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Gano, K.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Behavior of technetium and iodine in a Hanford sand and associated subsoil: influence of soil aging on uptake by cheatgrass and tumbleweed

Description: The comparative availability to plants of /sup 99/TcO/sub 4//sup -/ and /sup 125/I/sup -/ in amended Rupert soil and associated subsoil was determined for soils aged after amendment for periods of 1, 10, 30, and 100 days prior to planting. Concentration ratios for cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) grown on Rupert soil a subsoil amended with /sup 99/TcO/sub 4//sup -/ ranged from 185 to 91 and 466 to 309, respectively; values for tumbleweed (Salsola Kali) ranged from 148 to 82 and 881 to 173 when grown on Rupert soil and subsoil, respectively. Concentration ratios for both cheatgrass and tumbleweed grown on Rupert soil amended with /sup 125/I/sup -/ ranged from 0.95 to 0.25; values for cheatgrass and tumbleweed grown on subsoil ranged from 3.5 to 1.3 and 13 to 5.8, respectively. Analyses of concentration ratios, shoot concentrations, and percentage of spike absorbed indicate a reduction in plant availability of both /sup 99/Tc and /sup 125/I over the 100-day soil-aging period. This may result from immobilization of /sup 99/TcO/sub 4//sup -/ and anion exchange reactions for /sup 125/I/sup -/.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Cataldo, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative availability of cesium and strontium for plant absorption from amended Rupert surface soil and associated subsoil: influence of growth conditions.

Description: Studies were undertaken to determine the plant availability of /sup 134/Cs and /sup 85/Sr amended to Rupert surface soil and an associated subsoil. Concentration ratios for cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and tumbleweed (Salsola kali) grown on /sup 134/Cs amended Rupert soil were 0.15 and 0.28, respectively; values for amended subsoils were 0.074 and 0.13, respectively. Rupert surface soil and subsoil amended with /sup 85/Sr gave concentration ratios of 15 and 7, respectively, for both tumbleweed and cheatgrass. While pot size (1 vs 4 kg) had a market effect on concentration ratios, values for greenhouses and growth chamber grown plants were generally similar. Aging of both Rupert surface soil and subsoils for 1 to 30 days prior to planting had a pronounced effect on the availability of /sup 134/Cs for uptake by plants, but no effect on /sup 85/Sr uptake.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Cataldo, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy dependence of V/sub tau/ in the (p,n) reaction 10 to 30 MeV

Description: Because of the relative insensitivity of the (p,n) analog reaction to details of the nuclear wave functions, a simple description is given for the studied reaction /sup 92/Mo(p,n) at 26 MeV in which a proton is created and a neutron destroyed in the 1/sub g9/2/ orbit. The differential and angle-integrated analog cross sections and the effective potential for IF range are plotted. 27 references. (JFP)
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Poppe, C.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report for 1978

Description: The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne National Laboratory for 1978 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, Argonne effluent water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and foodstuffs; for a variety of chemical constituents in air, surface water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and measurements were made at the site boundary and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. Some on-site measurements wee made to aid in the interpretation of the boundary and off-site data. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Golchert, N W; Duffy, T L & Sedlet, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear waste management quarterly progress report, October--December 1978

Description: The status of the following studies is given: decontamination and densification of chop-leach cladding residues; monitoring methods for particulate and gaseous effluents from waste solidification processes; TRU waste immobilization; krypton sodidification; carbon-14 and iodine-129 fixation; waste management system; waste management safety; waste isolation safety assessment; well-logging instrumentation development for shallow land burial; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; detection and characterization of mobile organic complexes of fission products; and electropolishing for surface decontamination of metals. (LK)
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Platt, A.M. & Powell, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Properties of multistep amplitudes in charge-exchange reactions. [Differential cross sections, analogs]

Description: A historical review is given on what is known about inelastic multistep processes in analog charge-exchange transitions at lower energies in the few tens of MeV, particularly the possibility of measuring directly with the (p,n) reaction the isovector deformation parameter. Then the expected energy dependence of multistep relative to one-step processes is shown, and an attempt is made to explain the behavior. The proton reactions on /sup 92/ /sup 100/Mo showing the analog ratio and the differential cross sections at 26 MeV and a listing of the energy dependence of the analog and analog cross sections and the two-step mechanism for analog excitation are presented. 16 references. (JFP)
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Madsen, V.A. & Brown, V.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sequim Marine Research Laboratory routine environmental measurements during CY-1978. [Monitoring for laboratory-related radioactivity and pollutants in environment]

Description: Environmental data collected during 1978 in the vicinity of the Marine Research Laboratory show continued compliance with all applicable state and federal regulations and furthermore show no detectable change from conditions that existed in previous years. Samples collected for radiological analysis included soil, drinking water, bay water, clams, and seaweed. Radiation dose rates at 1 meter aboveground were also measured.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Houston, J.R. & Blumer, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beneficial uses of nuclear fission wastes

Description: Sandia is investigating the use of /sup 137/Cs from radioactive waste to reduce the pathogen levels of municipal sewage sludges so that they can be used in agriculture, either as fertilizer or as feed supplement. The Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids (SIDSS) is a pilot plant for treating 16 tons per day to a dose of 500 krad, using 1 MCi of /sup 137/Cs. A larger (25 ton/day) demonstration plant is also planned. A cost/benefit study of this application was made. Use of /sup 99/Tc for marine bifouling and corrosion inhibition is also being investigated. (DLC)
Date: March 31, 1978
Creator: Sivinski, H.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical approaches to and interpretations of data on time, rate, and cause of death of mice exposed to external gamma irradiation

Description: Young adult male and female mice of inbred strains, A, BALB/c, C57BL/6, and C57L, and B6CF/sub 1/ and F/sub 2/ hybrids were exposed to daily duration-of-life external /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. irradiation. Age at death was recorded, and most decedents were necropsied to ascertain occurrence of major types of tumors. Age- and cause-specific mortality or incidence rates were derived, and their regressions on age were fitted with polynomial equations by least-squares procedures. Age-specific and age-adjusted integrated lifetime risk in excess of the control population was expressed as the mortality ratio (irradiated/control). Linear and nonlinear functions and widely different life expectancies can be accommodated by this technique. These basic actuarial statistics provide a means for comparative analysis of dose-response functions, sex and genetic variables, relative vs. absolute risk, protraction or dose-rate factors, and major contributing causes of excess risk. They also provide a basis for extrapolation to man. As examples, life shortening in days per rad (4 days/100 rads accumulated) is generally independent of sex, genotype, and daily dose rate. The integrated average lifetime risk of death related to all tumors (0.025%/rad) is largely independent of sex, genotype and dose-rates <12 rads/day, despite the fact that tumor incidence varies by a factor of 2 to 3 among genotypes. At low exposure rates, tumor-related mortality accounts for 80% of the excess risk, and life shortening is a function only of accumulated dose, independent of dose rate below 12 rads/day. The radiobiological effectiveness for low daily exposure levels is less than that for single exposures by a factor of 5 to 10. Life shortening following low daily exposure rates is induced at the rate of .03 to .06 days/R for the mouse, which extrapolates to about 1 to 2 days/R for man.
Date: March 13, 1978
Creator: Grahn, D.; Sacher, G.A.; Lea, R.A.; Fry, R.J.M. & Rust, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiographic inspections at the Calipatria Geothermal Test Site

Description: A report is given of radiographic inspections to estimate the extent of corrosion and scale buildup at the Geothermal Test Site in Calipatria, California. Radiation exposure techniques using /sup 60/Co and /sup 192/Ir isotopes were developed. Radiography safety procedures were established. Five radiographic evaluations were made of the Geothermal Test Site from May 1976 to February 1977. Estimations of scale buildup from radiographs of operating plant pipes, valves, and tanks correlated closely with our actual scale measurements from used plant sections.
Date: March 8, 1978
Creator: Durbin, P.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monte Carlo simulation of turbulent atmospheric transport and comparisons with experimental data. [/sup 41/Ar continuously emitted from BNL reactor to atmosphere]

Description: In a previous paper Peterson presented measurements on the /sup 41/Ar emitted continuously into the atmosphere from a reactor at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Here, calculated results obtained with the Monte Carlo atmospheric transport model of Watson and Barr are presented and compared with the experimental data. The measured quantities with which comparisons are made are: the position north of Brookhaven where the maximum /sup 41/Ar concentration occurred for specific values of x (east of Brookhaven) and t, time; the standard deviation, sigma/sub y/, of the /sup 41/Ar concentration about the position of maximum concentration for specific values of x and t; and a quantity that is proportional to the maximum /sup 41/Ar concentration for specific values of x and t. The calculated results are in moderately good agreement with the experimental data at most distances (less than or equal to 300 km) and most times for which data are available.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Alsmiller, F. S.; Alsmiller, Jr., R. G.; Bertini, H. W. & Begovich, C. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Realistic nuclear shell theory and the doubly-magic /sup 132/Sn region. [Hamiltonians, review]

Description: Realistic nuclear shell theory, the union of the nuclear shell model with realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials through Brueckner theory, is outlined. A brief historical review of some key developments from 1962 to 1977 is presented. This includes recent applications which indicate that careful calculation of realistic Hamiltonians through low orders will provide descriptions of nuclear behavior which achieve reasonable accord with experiment. Currently available theoretical Hamiltonians are described and results for nuclei from oxygen to lead are discussed. It is argued that experimental results in the /sup 132/Sn region would be especially valuable for testing the next generation of realistic nuclear shell theory Hamiltonians.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Vary, J. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent results from studies of non-gaseous fission products with TRISTAN II

Description: A new in-beam target ion-source combination has been installed at the TRISTAN isotope separator facility. Mass separated beams of nongaseous fission products are now available for study. Studies of levels in even-even Cd and Sn nuclei populated through the decay of Ag and In fission products are described, and an evaluation of possibilities for future research is made.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Hill, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cleanup of radioactive mud spill U20aa postshot drilling site NTS

Description: Radioactive decontamination of a large rugged terrain on the NTS (Area 20) was undertaken during the Summer of 1976. Several decontamination methods were used and their effectiveness, as measured by the fraction of radioactivity remaining (FR), ranged from 10/sup -1/ to 10/sup -3/, depending upon the method used and type of terrain. Front end loading was most efficient in large relatively flat areas of fine grain, compact dirt with an FR of about 10/sup -2/. Shoveling and bagging achieved FRs of 10/sup -2/ in locations of fine grain, compact dirt. However, if dirt was coarse grain or gravel-like, the contaminated mud/water had seeped to considerable depths, making shoveling impractical. Flushing with water was the method chosen for rocky surfaces and was the primary method of decontamination in Area 4. FRs down to 10/sup -3/ were achieved on smooth surfaces and about 10/sup -1/ in cracks. Vacuuming was very effective in flat areas with fine grain compact dirt achieving FRs down to 10/sup -3/, but was a very slow process compared to front end loading. Approximately 900 man days were expended on this cleanup, and 2584 yd/sup 3/ of contaminated dirt were removed. A similar amount of clean dirt was transported from about two miles away to cover the crater burial site, mud sump, and areas containing residual radiation above 1 mrem/h contact. Total quantity of residual radioactivity present 6 months following the spill and after decontamination was estimated as 900 millicuries of 106 Ru/Rh and 0.034 millicuries /sup 103/Ru. No person was exposed to doses of radiation (external or internal) above the maximum allowable limits listed in ERDAM 0524. Estimates based upon hand dose measurements indicate that no individual should have received more than 584 mrem to hands.
Date: March 1, 1977
Creator: Straume, T.; Kellner, C. R. & Oswald, K. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser isotope separation by selective excited state photochemistry. Annual progress report, March 31, 1976--February 28, 1977

Description: Experimental results are presented providing insight into the mechanisms of photochemical separation of Cd isotopes by selective excitation of ICl in the presence of halogenated olefins. The types of scrambling reactions that can be expected in isotope separation by scavenging are discussed along with strategies for minimizing such reactions. The experimental results are summarized and the reaction mechanisms are represented by graphic equations. (JRD)
Date: March 1, 1977
Creator: Zare, R. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pacific Northwest Laboratory monthly report on the strontium heat source development program, Division of Nuclear Research and Applications for February 1977. [WESF /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ capsules]

Description: At Hanford, strontium is separated from the high-level waste, converted to the fluoride, and doubly encapsulated in small, high-integrity containers for subsequent long-term storage. The fluoride conversion, encapsulation and storage take place in the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facilities (WESF). The encapsulated strontium fluoride represents an economical source of /sup 90/Sr if the WESF capsule can be licensed for heat source applications under anticipated use conditions. The objectives of this program are to obtain the data needed to license /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ heat sources and specifically the WESF /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ capsules. Research progress is reported on; (1) chemical and physical properties of /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/; (2) /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ compatibility studies; and (3) capsule qualification and licensing.
Date: March 1, 1977
Creator: Fullam, H. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary evaluation of the gaseous effluent sampling system of the 296-P-3 portable exhauster, BY-Tank Farm

Description: This evaluation of the 296-P-3 stack sampling system is part of a larger study, sponsored by ARHCO and conducted by Battelle-Northwest, of effluent airborne particulate sampling systems in ARHCO facilities. The 296-P-3 stack is similar to many portable exhauster units deployed in the tank farms. The objectives of this study are: Evaluate the compliance of the particulate sampling system with ARHCO's Interim Criteria for such systems by using sampling theory; make recommendations for corrective action which will lead to a particulate sampling system in compliance with the Interim Criteria; and the conclusions and recommendations are to be generally applicable to sampling systems of the same type as at the 296-P-3 stack. This study is considered preliminary because no experiments have been conducted to verify the sampling system's performance. The following report includes a brief summary, a detailed description and evaluation of the sampling system, conclusions and recommendations for corrective action. The appendices contain a copy of the Interim Criteria, the ARHCO Emergency Procedure regarding radioactive gaseous discharges from this facility and calculations.
Date: March 1, 1977
Creator: Glissmeyer, J.A. & Schwendiman, L.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical Division quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1976

Description: The first in a series of quarterly progress reports on ERDA budgeted activities subcontracted to Allied Chemical Corporation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is presented. The work is performed by the Technical Division and is divided into three subjects. Fuel cycle research and development includes fluidized-bed calcination and post treatment of commercial nuclear fuel process waste; the storage of fission product noble gas; the catalyzed reaction between NO/sub x/ and NH/sub 3/; the adsorption and storage of /sup 129/I; evaporation of radioactive wastes; the removal of actinides from commercial high-level waste; reprocessing and waste treatment of HTGR fuel; and studies on natural fission reactors. Special materials production covers long-term management of ICPP high-level waste; ICPP fuel process improvements; advanced graphite fuels reprocessing; buried pipeline transfer systems; and ICPP waste management assistance. Other projects supporting energy development include geothermal energy development; inplant source term measurements; burnup methods for FBR fuels; nuclear materials security; absolute thermal fission yield measurements; analytical support to LWBR program; research on analytical methods; and environmental iodine species behavior.
Date: March 1, 1977
Creator: Slansky, C. M. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integro-differential equation analysis and radioisotope imaging systems. Research proposal. [Testing of radioisotope imaging system in phantoms]

Description: Design modifications of a five-probe focusing collimator coincidence radioisotope scanning system are described. Clinical applications of the system were tested in phantoms using radioisotopes with short biological half-lives, including /sup 75/Se, /sup 192/Ir, /sup 43/K, /sup 130/I, and /sup 82/Br. Data processing methods are also described. (CH)
Date: March 9, 1976
Creator: Hart, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department