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The Theory of the Pitot and Venturi Tubes, Part 2

Description: Report discussing several aspects of pitot and venturi tubes, including the energy equation for steady adiabatic flow, introduction of mean speed into the energy equation, isentropic flow of an ideal gas, the theory of the pitot tube, and the theory of the venturi meter.
Date: 1989
Creator: Buckingham, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flow and Drag Formulas for Simple Quadrics

Description: The pressure distribution and resistance found by theory and experiment for simple quadrics fixed in an infinite uniform stream of practically incompressible fluid are calculated. The experimental values pertain to air and some liquids, especially water; the theoretical refer sometimes to perfect, again to viscid fluids. Formulas for the velocity at all points of the flow field are given. Pressure and pressure drag are discussed for a sphere, a round cylinder, the elliptic cylinder, the prolate and oblate spheroid, and the circular disk. The velocity and pressure in an oblique flow are examined.
Date: December 1979
Creator: Zahm, A. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flow and Force Equations for a Body Revolving in a Fluid

Description: A general method for finding the steady flow velocity relative to a body in plane curvilinear motion, whence the pressure is found by Bernoulli's energy principle is described. Integration of the pressure supplies basic formulas for the zonal forces and moments on the revolving body. The application of the steady flow method for calculating the velocity and pressure at all points of the flow inside and outside an ellipsoid and some of its limiting forms is presented and graphs those quantities for the latter forms.
Date: December 1979
Creator: Zahm, A. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

General Theory of Aerodynamic Instability and the Mechanism of Flutter

Description: The aerodynamic forces on an oscillating airfoil or airfoil-aileron combination of three independent degrees of freedom were determined. The problem resolves itself into the solution of certain definite integrals, which were identified as Bessel functions of the first and second kind, and of zero and first order. The theory, based on potential flow and the Kutta condition, is fundamentally equivalent to the conventional wing section theory relating to the steady case. The air forces being known, the mechanism of aerodynamic instability was analyzed. An exact solution, involving potential flow and the adoption of the Kutta condition, was derived. The solution is of a simple form and is expressed by means of an auxiliary parameter k. The flutter velocity, treated as the unknown quantity, was determined as a function of a certain ratio of the frequencies in the separate degrees of freedom for any magnitudes and combinations of the airfoil-aileron parameters.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Theodorsen, Theodore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Inertia Coefficients of an Airship in a Frictionless Fluid

Description: The apparent inertia of an airship hull is examined. The exact solution of the aerodynamical problem is studied for hulls of various shapes with special attention given to the case of an ellipsoidal hull. So that the results for the ellipsoidal hull may be readily adapted to other cases, they are expressed in terms of the area and perimeter of the largest cross section perpendicular to the direction of motion by means of a formula involving a coefficient kappa which varies only slowly when the shape of the hull is changed, being 0.637 for a circular or elliptic disk, 0.5 for a sphere, and about 0.25 for a spheroid of fineness ratio. The case of rotation of an airship hull is investigated and a coefficient is defined with the same advantages as the corresponding coefficient for rectilinear motion.
Date: December 1979
Creator: Bateman, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Minimum Induced Drag of Aerofoils

Description: Equations are derived to demonstrate which distribution of lifting elements result in a minimum amount of aerodynamic drag. The lifting elements were arranged (1) in one line, (2) parallel lying in a transverse plane, and (3) in any direction in a transverse plane. It was shown that the distribution of lift which causes the least drag is reduced to the solution of the problem for systems of airfoils which are situated in a plane perpendicular to the direction of flight.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Munk, M. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Aerodynamic Forces on Airship Hulls

Description: The new method for making computations in connection with the study of rigid airships, which was used in the investigation of Navy's ZR-1 by the special subcommittee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics appointed for this purpose is presented. The general theory of the air forces on airship hulls of the type mentioned is described and an attempt was made to develop the results from the very fundamentals of mechanics.
Date: 1979?~
Creator: Munk, M. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applications of Modern Hydrodynamics to Aeronautics. Part 1: Fundamental Concepts and the Most Important Theorems. Part 2: Applications

Description: A discussion of the principles of hydrodynamics of nonviscous fluids in the case of motion of solid bodies in a fluid is presented. Formulae are derived to demonstrate the transition from the fluid surface to a corresponding 'control surface'. The external forces are compounded of the fluid pressures on the control surface and the forces which are exercised on the fluid by any solid bodies which may be inside of the control surfaces. Illustrations of these formulae as applied to the acquisition of transformations from a known simple flow to new types of flow for other boundaries are given. Theoretical and experimental investigations of models of airship bodies are presented.
Date: 1979?~
Creator: Prandtl, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boron and zirconium from crucible refractories in a complex heat-resistant alloy

Description: In a laboratory study of the factors involved in the influence of induction vacuum melting on 55ni-20cr-15co-4mo-3ti-3al heat resistant alloy, it was found that the major factor was the type of ceramic used as the crucible. The study concluded that trace amounts of boron or zirconium derived from reaction of the melt with the crucible refactories improved creep-rupture properties at 1,600 degrees F. Boron was most effective and, in addition, markedly improved hot-workability.
Date: August 5, 1958
Creator: Decker, R. F.; Rowe, John P. & Freeman, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characteristics of the Langley 8-Foot Transonic Tunnel With Slotted Test Section

Description: "A large wind tunnel, approximately 8 feet in diameter, has been converted to transonic operation by means of slots in the boundary extending in the direction of flow. The usefulness of such a slotted wind tunnel, already known with respect to the reduction of the subsonic blockage interference and the production of continuously variable supersonic flows, has been augmented by devising a slot shape with which a supersonic test region with excellent flow quality could be produced. Experimental locations of detached shock waves ahead of axially symmetric bodies at low supersonic speeds in the slotted test section agreed satisfactorily with predictions obtained by use of existing approximate methods" (p. 1297).
Date: July 3, 1958
Creator: Wright, Ray H.; Ritchie, Virgil S. & Pearson, Albin O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of free-space oscillating pressures near propellers at flight Mach numbers to 0.72

Description: "In the course of a short flight program initiated to check the theory of Garrick and Watkins (NACA rep. 1198), a series of measurements at three stations were made of the oscillating pressures near a tapered-blade plan-form propeller and rectangular-blade plan form propeller at flight Mach numbers up to 0.72. In contradiction to the results for the propeller studied in NACA rep. 1198, the oscillating pressures in the plane ahead of the propeller were found to be higher than those immediately behind the propeller. Factors such as variation in torque and thrust distribution, since the blades of the present investigation were operating above their design forward speed, may account for this contradiction" (p. 999).
Date: July 1, 1958
Creator: Kurbjun, Max C. & Vogeley, Arthur W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Area-Suction Boundary-Layer Control as Applied to the Trailing-Edge Flaps of a 35 Degree Swept-Wing Airplane

Description: "A wind-tunnel investigation was made to determine the effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of a 35 degree swept-wing airplane of applying area-suction boundary-layer control to the trailing-edge flaps. Flight tests of a similar airplane were then conducted to determine the effect of boundary-layer control in the handling qualities and operation of the airplane, particularly during landing. The wind-tunnel and flight tests indicated that area suction applied to the trailing-edge flaps produced significant increases in flap lift increment" (p. 1).
Date: May 6, 1958
Creator: Cook, Woodrow L.; Anderson, Seth B. & Cooper, George E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Blowing-type boundary-layer control as applied to the trailing-edge flaps of a 35 degree swept-wing airplane

Description: A wind-tunnel investigation was made to determine the effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of a 35 degree swept-wing airplane of applying blowing-type boundary-layer control to the trailing-edge flaps. Flight tests of a similar airplane were then conducted to determine the effects of boundary-layer control on the handling qualities and operation of the airplane, particularly during landing and take-off. The wind-tunnel and flight tests indicated that blowing over the flaps produced large increases in flap lift increment, and significant increases in maximum lift. The use of blowing permitted reductions in the landing approach speeds of as much as 12 knots.
Date: April 30, 1958
Creator: Kelly, Mark W.; Anderson, Seth B. & Innis, Robert C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Systematic two-dimensional cascade tests of NACA 65-series compressor blades at low speeds

Description: The performance of NACA 65-series compressor blade section in cascade has been investigated systematically in a low-speed cascade tunnel. Porous test-section side walls and for high-pressure-rise conditions, porous flexible end walls were employed to establish conditions closely simulating two-dimensional flow. Blade sections of design lift coefficients from 0 to 2.7 were tested over the usable angle-of-attack range for various combinations of inlet-flow angle. A sufficient number of combinations were tested to permit interpolation and extrapolation of the data to all conditions within the usual range of application. The results of this investigation indicate a continuous variation of blade-section performance as the major cascade parameters, blade camber, inlet angle, and solidity were varied over the test range. Summary curves of the results have been prepared to enable compressor designers to select the proper blade camber and angle of attack when the compressor velocity diagram and desired solidity have been determined.
Date: January 31, 1958
Creator: Emery, James C.; Herrig, L. Joseph; Erwin, John R. & Felix, A. Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A correlation of results of flight investigation with results of an analytical study of effects of wing flexibility on wing strains due to gusts

Description: An analytical study of the effects of wing flexibility on wing strains due to gusts has been made for four spanwise stations of a four-engine bomber airplane, and the results have been correlated with results of a previous flight investigation.
Date: 1958
Creator: Shufflebarger, C. C.; Payne, Chester B. & Cahen, George L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Elliptic Cones Alone and with Wings at Supersonic Speed

Description: To help fill the gap in the knowledge of aerodynamics of shapes intermediate between bodies of revolution and flat triangular wings, force and moment characteristics for elliptic cones have been experimentally determined for Mach numbers of 1.97 and 2.94. Elliptic cones having cross-sectional axis ratios from 1 through 6 and with lengths and base areas equal to circular cones of fineness ratios 3.67 and 5 have been studied for angles of bank of 0 degree and 90 degrees. Elliptic and circular cones in combination with triangular wings of aspect ratios 1 and 1.5 also have been considered. The angle-of-attack range was from 0 degree to about 16 degrees, and the Reynolds number was 8 x 10(6), based on model length. In addition to the forces and moments at angle of attack, pressure distributions for elliptic cones at zero angle of attack have been determined. The results of this investigation indicate that there are distinct aerodynamic advantages to the use of elliptic cones.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Jorgensen, Leland H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Growth of Disturbances in a Flame-Generated Shear Region

Description: Results are presented of an experimental and theoretical investigation of the growth of transverse velocity disturbances in the shear region caused by a flame in a duct. In the theoretical stability analysis, a flow field arising from a flame in a duct was analyzed. The flow was neutrally stable to symmetric disturbances and unstable to antisymmetric ones. In the experimental part of the program disturbances of various frequencies were imposed on a flame stabilized in a duct, and the effects were measured by shadow photography and photomultiplier-probe surveys.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Blackshear, Perry L., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A low-speed experimental investigation of the effect of a sandpaper type of roughness on boundary-layer transition

Description: Report describing the effects of an area of roughness on the velocity and turbulence measurements of an airfoil. It details the effects of the size, location, and height of the roughness on the Reynolds number. From Summary: "An investigation was made in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel to determine the effect of size and location of a sandpaper type of roughness on the Reynolds number for transition."
Date: 1958
Creator: Horton, Elmer A. & von Doenhoff, Albert E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NACA research on slurry fuels

Description: An extensive program was conducted to investigate the use of concentrated slurries of boron and magnesium in liquid hydrocarbon as fuels for afterburners and ramjet engines. Analytical calculations indicated that magnesium fuel would give greater thrust and that boron fuel would give greater range than are obtainable from jet hydrocarbon fuel alone. It was hoped that the use of these solid elements in slurry form would permit the improvement to be obtained without requiring unconventional fuel systems or combustors. Small ramjet vehicles fueled with magnesium slurry were flown successfully, but the test flights indicated that further improvement of combustors and fuel systems was needed.
Date: 1958
Creator: Pinns, M. L.; Olson, W. T.; Barnett, H. C. & Breitwieser, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Origin and Prevention of Crash Fires in Turbojet Aircraft

Description: The tendency for the jet engine rotor to continue to rotate after crash presents the probability that crash-spilled combustibles suspended in the air or puddled on the ground at the engine inlet may be sucked into the engine. Studies with jet engines operating on a test stand and full-scale crashes of turbojet-powered airplanes showed that combustibles drawn into the engine in this way ignite explosively within the engine. Experiment showed that the gas flow through the engine is too rapid to permit the ignition of ingested combustibles on the hot metal in contact with the main gas stream. Ignition will occur on those hot surfaces not in the main gas stream. The portion of the engine airflow is diverted for cooling and ventilation to these zones where the gas moves slowly enough for ignition to occur.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Pinkel, I. Irvin; Weiss, Solomon; Preston, G. Merritt & Pesman, Gerard J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Similarity Rules for Second-Order Subsonic and Supersonic Flow

Description: The similarity rules for linearized compressible flow theory (Gothert's rule and its supersonic counterpart) are extended to second order. It is shown that any second-order subsonic flow can be related to "nearly incompressible" flow past the same body, which can be calculated by the Janzen-Rayleigh method.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Van Dyke, Milton D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thin airfoil theory based on approximate solution of the transonic flow equation

Description: A method is presented for the approximate solution of the nonlinear equations of transonic flow theory. Solutions are found for two-dimensional flows at a Mach number of 1 and for purely subsonic and purely supersonic flows. Results are obtained in closed analytic form for a large and significant class of nonlifting airfoils. At a Mach number of 1 general expressions are given for the pressure distribution on an airfoil of specified geometry and for the shape of an airfoil having a prescribed pressure distribution. Extensive comparisons are made with available data, particularly for a Mach number of 1, and with existing solutions.
Date: 1958
Creator: Spreiter, John R. & Alksne, Alberta Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drag Minimization for Wings and Bodies in Supersonic Flow

Description: "The minimization of inviscid fluid drag is studied for aerodynamic shapes satisfying the conditions of linearized theory, and subject to imposed constraints on lift, pitching moment, base area, or volume. The problem is transformed to one of determining two-dimensional potential flows satisfying either Laplace's or Poisson's equations with boundary values fixed by the imposed conditions. A general method for determining integral relations between perturbation velocity components is developed. This analysis is not restricted in application to optimum cases; it may be used for any supersonic wing problem" (p. 1213).
Date: November 29, 1957
Creator: Heaslet, Max A. & Fuller, Franklyn B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department