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"Dear Colleague" Letters in the House of Representatives: Past Practices and Issues for Congress

Description: This report report provides a comparative analysis of how the use of the e-"Dear Colleague" system in the House of Representatives has changed between the 111th Congress (2009-2010) and the 113th Congress (2013-2014). This report provides an overview of the data and methodology used to evaluate "Dear Colleague" letter usage, discusses the characteristics and purpose of "Dear Colleague" letters, and discusses questions for Congress and observations on the use of "Dear Colleague" letters as a form of internal communications.
Date: February 22, 2017
Creator: Straus, Jacob R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Speakers of the House: Elections, 1913-2017

Description: This report provides data on elections of the Speaker in each Congress since 1913, when the House first reached its present size of 435 Members. During that period (63rd through 115th Congresses), a Speaker was elected five times with the votes of less than a majority of the full membership.
Date: January 4, 2017
Creator: Beth, Richard S. & Heitshusen, Valerie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Retrospective of House Rules Changes Since the 110th Congress

Description: This report analyzes rules changes made on only the opening day of the 110th, 111th, 112th, 113th, and 114th Congresses, with references in footnotes to other selected legislation and actions during these Congresses that also affected House rules. One of the majority party's prerogatives is writing House rules and using its numbers to effect the chamber's rules on the day a new House convenes. Because all Members of the House stand for election every two years, the Members-elect constitute a new House that must adopt rules at the convening of each Congress.
Date: June 7, 2016
Creator: Koempel, Michael L. & Schneider, Judy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Budget Reconciliation Process: Timing of Committee Responses to Reconciliation Directives

Description: This report examines the timing of certain stages of the budget reconciliation process and the extent to which the submission due date included in a reconciliation instruction is a predictor for the timing of committee response. Specifically, it provides information on the dates by which committees have been directed to respond to reconciliation directives and the timing of House and Senate committees in responding to such directives in the past 14 Congresses (101st-114th Congresses).
Date: January 19, 2016
Creator: Lynch, Megan S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Venezuela: Background and U.S. Relations

Description: This report discusses current Congressional issues in relation to Venezuela, including background on the political situation and recent developments, the economic conditions, relevant U.S. policies, and the legislative initiatives in the 111th and 112th Congresses.
Date: April 1, 2015
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lame Duck Sessions of Congress, 1935-2012 (74th-112th Congresses)

Description: This report discusses how lame duck sessions occur, and the background of the lame duck sessions between 1940 and 2012. A "lame duck" session of Congress occurs whenever one Congress meets after its successor is elected, but before the term of the current Congress ends.
Date: September 19, 2014
Creator: Beth, Richard S. & Tollestrup, Jessica
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Presidential Appointments to Full-Time Positions in Executive Departments During the 111th Congress, 2009-2010

Description: This report explains the process for filling positions to which the President makes appointments with the advice and consent of the Senate (also referred to as PAS positions). It also identifies, for the 111th Congress, all nominations to full-time positions requiring Senate confirmation in the 15 executive departments.
Date: July 15, 2014
Creator: Carey, Maeve P. & Greene, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Presidential Appointments to Full-Time Positions in Independent and Other Agencies During the 111th Congress

Description: This report explains the process for filling positions to which the President makes appointments with the advice and consent of the Senate (also referred to as PAS positions). It also identifies, for the 111th Congress, all nominations to full-time positions requiring Senate confirmation in 40 organizations in the executive branch (27 independent agencies, 6 agencies in the Executive Office of the President (EOP), and 7 multilateral organizations) and 4 agencies in the legislative branch. It excludes appointments to executive departments and to regulatory and other boards and commissions, which are covered in other reports.
Date: January 22, 2013
Creator: Carey, Maeve P.; Greene, Michael W. & Bearden, Maureen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nominations to U.S. Circuit and District Courts by President Obama During the 111th and 112th Congresses

Description: Recent Senate debates in the 112th Congress over judicial nominations have focused on issues such as the relative degree of success of President Barack Obama's nominees in gaining Senate confirmation (compared with other recent Presidents) as well as the effect of delayed judicial appointments on judicial vacancy levels. The following report addresses these issues, and others, by providing a statistical overview of President Obama's nominees to U.S. circuit court of appeals and U.S. district court judgeships, current through May 31, 2012.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: McMillion, Barry J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biomass: Comparison of Definitions in Legislation Through the 111th Congress

Description: The use of biomass as an energy feedstock is emerging as a potentially viable alternative to address U.S. energy security concerns, foreign oil dependence, rural economic development, and diminishing sources of conventional energy. Biomass (organic matter that can be converted into energy) may include food crops, crops for energy, crop residues, wood waste and byproducts, and animal manure. Most legislation involving biomass has focused on encouraging the production of liquid fuels from corn. For over 30 years, the term biomass has been a part of legislation enacted by Congress for various programs, indicating some interest by the general public and policymakers in expanding its use. To aid understanding of why U.S. consumers, utility groups, refinery managers, and others have not fully adopted biomass as an energy resource, this report investigates the characterization of biomass in legislation.
Date: March 7, 2012
Creator: Bracmort, Kelsi & Gorte, Ross W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lame Duck Sessions of Congress, 1935-2010 (74th-111th Congresses)

Description: This report discusses how lame duck sessions occur, and the background of the lame duck sessions between 1940 and 2010. A “lame duck” session of Congress occurs whenever one Congress meets after its successor is elected, but before the term of the current Congress ends.
Date: August 30, 2011
Creator: Beth, Richard S. & Tollestrup, Jessica
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Expedited Rescission Bills in the 111th and 112th Congresses: Comparisons and Issues

Description: Expedited rescission bills focus on procedural changes in Congress and typically contain a detailed schedule to ensure immediate introduction of a measure to approve the President's rescission request, prompt reporting by committee or automatic discharge, special limits on floor amendments and debate, and so on. Under expedited rescission, congressional approval is still necessary to rescind the funding, but the fast-track procedures may help to encourage an up-or down vote on the President's proposal.
Date: May 3, 2011
Creator: McMurtry, Virginia A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Crime Control Issues in the 111th Congress

Description: This report aggregates various issues surrounding federal crime control into five broad themes: violent crime control, combating fraud and theft, drug control, sentencing reform, and state and local justice assistance. Within these themes, the report examines more specific issues that confronted the 111th Congress. Issues discussed under the umbrella of violent crime control include hate crimes, gangs, and gun control. Issues related to the federal government's efforts to combat fraud and theft include identity theft and organized retail crime.
Date: January 25, 2011
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immigration Legislation and Issues in the 111th Congress

Description: This report synthesizes the multi-tiered debate over immigration reform into key elements: legal immigration; legalization; immigration control; refugees, asylees, and humanitarian migrants; and alien rights, benefits, and responsibilities. It delineates the issues for the 111th Congress on permanent residence, temporary admissions, border security, worksite enforcement, employment eligibility verification, document fraud, criminal aliens, and the grounds for inadmissibility.
Date: January 18, 2011
Creator: Bruno, Andorra; Ester, Karma; Lee, Margaret Mikyung; Siskin, Alison & Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department