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1990 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

Description: This volume contains author prepared short resumes of the presentations at the 1990 Fuel Cell Seminar held November 25-28, 1990 in Phoenix, Arizona. Contained herein are 134 short descriptions organized into topic areas entitled An Environmental Overview, Transportation Applications, Technology Advancements for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, Technology Advancements for Solid Fuel Cells, Component Technologies and Systems Analysis, Stationary Power Applications, Marine and Space Applications, Technology Advancements for Acid Type Fuel Cells, and Technology Advancement for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.
Date: December 31, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1990 Washington State directory of biomass energy facilities

Description: This second edition is an update of biomass energy production and use in Washington State for 1989. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of known biomass users within the state and some basic information about their facilities. The data can be helpful to persons or organizations considering the use of biomass fuels. The directory is divided into three sections of biomass facilities with each section containing a map of locations and a data summary table. In addition, a conversion table, a glossary and an index are provided in the back of the directory. The first section deals with biogas production from wastewater treatment plants. The second section provides information on the wood combustion facilities in the state. This section is subdivided into two categories. The first is for facilities connected with the forest products industries. The second category include other facilities using wood for energy. The third section is composed of three different types of biomass facilities -- ethanol, municipal solid waste, and solid fuel processing. Biomass facilities included in this directory produce over 64 trillion Btu (British thermal units) per year. Wood combustion facilities account for 91 percent of the total. Biogas and ethanol facilities each produce close to 800 billion Btu per year, MSW facilities produce 1845 billion BTU, and solid fuel processing facilities produce 2321 billion Btu per year. To put these numbers in perspective, Washington`s industrial section uses 200 trillion Btu of fuels per year. Therefore, biomass fuels used and/or produced by facilities listed in this directory account for nearly 32 percent of the state`s total industrial fuel demand. This is a sizable contribution to the state`s energy needs.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Deshaye, J. A. & Kerstetter, J. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1990 Waste Tank Inspection Program

Description: Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Tank conditions are evaluated by inspection using periscopes, still photography, and video systems for visual imagery. Inspections made in 1990 are the subject of this report.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: McNatt, F. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A 2D electrostatic PIC code for the Mark III Hypercube

Description: We have implemented a 2D electrostastic plasma particle in cell (PIC) simulation code on the Caltech/JPL Mark IIIfp Hypercube. The code simulates plasma effects by evolving in time the trajectories of thousands to millions of charged particles subject to their self-consistent fields. Each particle`s position and velocity is advanced in time using a leap frog method for integrating Newton`s equations of motion in electric and magnetic fields. The electric field due to these moving charged particles is calculated on a spatial grid at each time by solving Poisson`s equation in Fourier space. These two tasks represent the largest part of the computation. To obtain efficient operation on a distributed memory parallel computer, we are using the General Concurrent PIC (GCPIC) algorithm previously developed for a 1D parallel PIC code.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Ferraro, R. D.; Liewer, P. C. & Decyk, V. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2DPUF: A sequential gaussian puff model

Description: This report documents the Environmental Transport Section`s (ETS) two-dimensional, sequential gaussian puff transport and dispersion model for emergency response. The sequential puff scheme is described, and the dispersion equations are presented. The advantages of this model over the ETS`s PUFF/PLUME model are discussed. Options are calculating a two-dimensional wind field, interpolation procedures, and the wind field grid are described. The various grid systems for puff transport calculations and dose estimates are also described. A flow diagram for the modules comprising the 2DPUF code and a description of each module is presented.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Addis, R. P. & O`Steen, B. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Access and Use of Information Resources in Assessing Health Risks From Chemical Exposure: Proceedings

Description: Health risk assessment is based on access to comprehensive information about potentially hazardous agents in question. Relevant information is scattered throughout the literature, and often is not readily accessible. To be useful in assessment efforts, emerging scientific findings, risk assess parameters, and associated data must be compiled and evaluated systemically. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are among the federal agencies heavily involved in this effort. This symposium was a direct response by EPA and ORNL to the expressed needs of individuals involved in assessing risks from chemical exposure. In an effort to examine the state of the risk assessment process, the availability of toxicological information, and the future development and transfer of this information, the symposium provided an excellent cadre of speakers and participants from state and federal agencies, academia and research laboratories to address these topics. This stimulating and productive gathering discussed concerns associated with (1) environmental contamination by chemicals; (2) laws regulating chemicals; (3) information needs and resources; (4) applications; (5) challenges and priorities; and (6)future issues. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.
Date: December 31, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[ACEEE summer study on energy efficiency in buildings]. Final technical report

Description: The ACEEE Summer Study is a biennial conference that aims to bring together the foremost researchers, practitioners and policy makers involved in research on energy efficiency in buildings. The 1990 Summer Study had the objective to facilitate the exchange of research and implementation results and encourage the advancement of knowledge in the field of energy efficiency in buildings. The research papers presented at the conference published and distributed. Two hundred seventy two papers were presented. These individual papers, published in ten volumes, have been processed separately for the Energy Data Base.
Date: December 31, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[The activation and decomposition of alkanes on group VIII transition metal surfaces: Dynamics, kinetics and spectroscopy]. Progress report

Description: Significant progress has been achieved in a number of areas with the support of this Department of Energy grant which began on July 1, 1989. We have quantified experimentally the kinetics of the initial (low-coverage) alkane activation reaction, i.e., alkane {yields} alkyl + hydrogen adatom, for the following systems: (1) C{sub 2}H{sub 6} on Ir(110)-(1{times}2), and (2) CH{sub 4}, CD{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6} and C{sub 2}D{sub 6} on Pt(110)-(1{times}2). In addition, we have employed dynamic Monte Carlo simulations to study two important aspects of surface reactivity, namely, reactant segregation during a steady-state surface reaction, and the compensation effect in a transient surface reaction. Experimentally determined values of the initial adsorption probability of ethane on Ir(110)(1{times}2) were employed to probe the dynamics of the interaction. Experimentally determined values of the initial trapping probability {zeta}{sub 0} of ethane into a physically adsorbed state at T{sub s} = 77 K as a function of E{sub i} and {Theta}{sub i} and experimentally determined values of the initial probability of dissociative chemisorption P{sub r} as a function of E{sub i}, {Theta}{sub i} and T{sub s} were obtained.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Weinberg, W. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Activity composition relationships in silicate melts. Final report

Description: Equipment progress include furnace construction and electron microprobe installation. The following studies are underway: phase equilibria along basalt-rhyolite mixing line (olivine crystallization from natural silicic andensites, distribution of Fe and Mg between olivine and liquid, dist. of Ca and Na between plagioclase and liquid), enthalpy-composition relations in magmas (bulk heat capacity of alkali basalt), density model for magma ascent and contamination, thermobarometry in igneous systems (olivine/plagioclase phenocryst growth in Quat. basalt), high-pressure phase equilibria of alkali basalt, basalt-quartz mixing experiments, phase equilibria of East African basalts, and granitic minerals in mafic magma. (DLC)
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Glazner, A. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced combustion system for industrial boilers. Phase 2, Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1990

Description: (1) A ZrO{sub 2} oxygen sensor was calibrated successfully over the concentration range from 0 to 21 percent O{sub 2} at temperatures from ambient to 400{degrees}F. This inexpensive automotive sensor provides 8 signal which will be used to monitor and automatically control combustion conditions to maintain consistently high combustion efficiency combined with low NO{sub x} emissions; (2) An improved burner was designed and fabricated with an initial ``stage`` which functions as a coal-eductor/coal-air mixer. Now coal can be transported in dense phase to the burner without pressurizing the coal-storage hopper which had approximately a four-hour capacity. This permits refilling the hopper during periods of continuous operation of the boiler as required for commercial use; (3) The improved burner produced the highest boiler efficiency to date. Carbon burnout improved to 98.9 Percent, compared to about 97 percent during Phase I testing for the same Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal with 2.7% ash. We expect to exceed 99% Combustion efficiency with all of the test coals during more optimized future testing; and (4) Although the new burner proved to be very efficient, emissions of NO{sub x} were higher than those observed during Phase I testing. The new-burner design was modified. Capability for deep air-staging was added to the new burner to promote low-NO{sub x} operation.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Wagoner, C. L.; Foote, J. P.; Millard, W. P.; Attig, R. C. & Schulz, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced combustion system for industrial boilers. Phase 2, Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1990

Description: During Phase I of the project, a coal injector was designed, fabricated, and tested. It is a direct replacement for the oil gun in the original equipment of a 200 hp CleaverBmoks fire-tube boiler. The system was tested at coal-firing rates in the range of 2 to 6 million Btu`s per hour, firing Upper Elkhorn No. 3 (eastern bituminous, ``UE3``) coal supplied by Energy International, Incorporated. For these tests, propane was used to preheat the boiler before initiation of coal firing. The propane flow was turned off after coal combustion was established. No combustion air preheat was used. During these tests, boiler efficiency was typically about 85 to 86 percent, while carbon conversion efficiency was approximately 94 percent. Concentrations of CO were less than 150 ppm. The NO{sub x} emissions were less than 0.6 pounds per million Btu`s. Following a series of laser-illuminated cold-flow-visualization tests, a new burner was also designed, fabricated, and tested during Phase 1. The arrangement is shown in Figure 1.2. It is a two-stage, swirl burner which fits in the space previously occupied by the original Cleaver-Brooks burner, and uses the existing section of refractory. Air flow can be regulated independently into each of the two stages. Additionally, the angle is adjustable for individual swirl blades. Upper Elkhorn No. 3 ultra fine coal was used as the standard fuel for most UTSI-burner tests. Firing rates were in the range of 2 to 6 million Btu`s per hour. Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coals were tested with three levels of ash. These were approximately 1.4%, 2.7%, and 4.8% ash, on an as-fired basis. The 2.7%-ash UE3 coal was used for most tests because it exhibited a good balance between ash content and ash-fusion characteristics.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Wagoner, C. L.; Foote, J. P.; Millard, W. P.; Attig, R. C. & Schulz, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced combustion system for industrial boilers. Phase 2, Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1990

Description: Initial work in Phase II concentrated on: (a) adapting a commercially available automotive oxygen sensor for use in the boiler control system; (b) developing a more commercially oriented dense-phase coal transport system; (c) designing, fabricating and testing an improved burner for better combustion efficiency; and (d) adding deep-air-staging capabilities to the new burner to decrease NO{sub x} emissions.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Wagoner, C. L.; Foote, J. P.; Millard, W. P.; Attig, R. C. & Schulz, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced combustion system for industrial boilers. Phase 2, Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1990

Description: This During this quarter, work continued on development/improvement of the low-NO{sub x} coal combustor for the boiler system. Reburning tests were conducted in the external, water-cooled test duct with a length of 15 feet using ultra fine coal with propane to reduce the NO{sub x} levels to as low as 0.295 lb-NO{sub x}/MBtu. Work also continued on design/construction of the new coal-feed system that will be used for the 100-hour demonstration test with the on-line refillable coal hopper operating in air at atmospheric pressure. Coal will be loaded into the hopper from bulk bags. Initial testing of the UTSI boiler control and automation system was successful. Normally-pulverized coal with approximately 70% passing a number 200 sieve was burned in the external test duct. Initial flame-visualization tests were successful, and the burner was able to handle coal without being micronized to the ultra fine level. Refractory was poured for a new combustor second-stage assembly. Subsequently, the combustor was installed inside the 200 hp fire-tube boiler.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Wagoner, C. L.; Foote, J. P.; Millard, W. P.; Attig, R. C. & Schulz, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced radioactive waste-glass melters

Description: During pilot scale operations of the Scale Glass Melter for the US Department of Energy a team of engineers and scientists was formed to assess the need for continued melter design development to support the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and prioritize future efforts. Recently this has taken on new importance because of selection of the DWPF Melter design as the reference for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), and increased interest at the West Valley Demonstration Project on melter life and replacement. Results of the study are summarized, and goals produced by the study are compared to the results of current programs at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL).
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Bickford, D. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell development. Quarterly technical progress report No. 23, January, February, March, 1990

Description: Fabrication of repeat parts for the small area short stack is nearing completion and assembly activities are being initiated. Electrolyte reservoir plates (ERPs) were completed and processed into integral separator plates, and acid fill of parts was initiated. Fabrication of electrodes was also completed, including catalyzation and applications of seals and matrices.
Date: December 31, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The advantages of a salt/bentonite backfill for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal rooms

Description: This paper concludes that a 70/30 wt % salt/bentonite mixture is preferable to pure crushed salt as backfill for disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, near Carlsbad, NM, is designed to be the first mined geologic repository for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by DOE defense programs since 1970. The repository is located about 655 m below the land surface in an extensive bedded salt formation. This report examines the performance of two backfill materials with regard to various selection criteria, such as the need for low permeability after closure, chemical stability, strength, ease of emplacement, and sorption potential for brine and radionuclides. Both salt and salt/bentonite are expected to consolidate to a state of permeability {le} 10{sup {minus}18} m{sup 2} that is adequate for satisfying regulations for nuclear repositories. The results of finite-element calculations that were used to arrive at this conclusion will be described. The real advantage of the salt/bentonite. backfill depends, therefore, on bentonite`s potential for sorbing brine and radionuclides. Estimates of the impact of these properties on backfill performance are presented.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Butcher, B. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. Phase 1

Description: Hawaii has abundant natural energy resources, especially biomass, that could be used to produce alternative fuels for ground transportation and electricity. This report summarizes activities performed during 1988 to June 1991 in the first phase of the Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. The Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program was funded initially by the Energy Division of the State of Hawaii`s Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism, and then by the US Department of Energy. This program was intended to support the transition to an altemative transportation fuel, methanol, by demonstrating the use of methanol fuel and methanol-fueled vehicles, and solving the problems associated with that fuel. Specific objectives include surveying renewable energy resources and ground transportation in Hawaii; installing a model methanol fueling station; demonstrating a methanol-fueled fleet of (spark-ignition engine) vehicles; evaluating modification strategies for methanol-fueled diesel engines and fuel additives; and investigating the transition to methanol fueling. All major objectives of Phase I were met (survey of local renewable resources and ground transportation, installation of methanol refueling station, fleet demonstration, diesel engine modification and additive evaluation, and dissemination of information on alternative fueling), and some specific problems (e.g., relating to methanol fuel contamination during handling and refueling) were identified and solved. Several key issues emerging from Phase I (e.g., methanol corrosion, flame luminosity, and methanol-transition technoeconomics) were recommended as topics for follow-on research in subsequent phases of this program.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Kinoshita, C. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alkali/TX{sub 2} catalysts for CO/H{sub 2} conversion to C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} alcohols. Technical progress report, December 1989--February 1990

Description: The objective of this research is to investigate and develop novel catalysts for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas into C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} alcohols by a highly selective process. Therefore, the variations of catalyst activity and selectivity for the synthesis of alcohols from H{sub 2}/CO {le}1 synthesis gas for a series of A/TX{sub 2} compounds, where A is a surface alkali dopant, T is a transition metal, and X is a S, Se, or Te, will be determined. The alkali component A, which is essential for C-O and C-C bond forming reactions leading to alcohols, will be highly dispersed on the TX{sub 2} surfaces by using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and chemical complexation/anchoring (CCA) methods. The target alcohol space time yields are of the order of 1 kg of alcohol product per kg of catalyst per hour and the target selectivity is > 90% to alcohols. Among the A/TX{sub 2} compounds initially investigated, preference will be given to A = Cs, T = Group VB element (V, Nb, Ta), and X = S or Se. So delimited A/TX{sub 2} catalysts possess the strongest base (Cs), and the CCA preparation method using crown ethers is expected not only to disperse the alkali ions atomically but also to enhance the basicity of their counterions, thus further increasing the specific rates of the base-catalyzed C-O and C-C bond forming reactions.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Klier, K.; Herman, R. G.; Richards, M. & Bastian, R. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altered phenotypes in plants transformed with chimeric tobacco peroxidase genes

Description: Peroxidases have been implicated in a variety of secondary metabolic reactions including lignification, cross-linking of cell wall polysaccharides, oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid, regulation of cell elongation, wound-healing, phenol oxidation, and pathogen defense. However, due to the many different isoenzymes and even more potential substrates, it has proven difficult to verify actual physiological roles for peroxidase. We are studying the molecular biology of the tobacco peroxidase genes, and have utilized genetic engineering techniques to produce transgenic plants which differ only in their expression of an individual peroxidase isoenzyme. Many of the in planta functions for any individual isoenzyme may be predicted through the morphological and physiological analysis of transformed plants.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Lagrimini, L. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ammonia-treated phosphate glasses useful for sealing to metals

Description: A method of improving surface-dependent properties of phosphate glass such as durability and wear resistance without significantly affecting its thermal expansion coefficient is provided which comprises annealing the glass in a dry ammonia atmosphere at temperatures approximating the transition temperature of the glass. The ammonia annealing treatment of the present invention is carried out for a time sufficient to allow incorporation of a thin layer of nitrogen into the surface of the phosphate glass, and the treatment improves the durability of the glass without the reduction in the thermal expansion coefficient that has restricted the effectiveness of prior ammonia treatments. The improved phosphate glass resulting from this method is superior in wear resistance, yet maintains suitable thermal expansion properties so that it may be used effectively in a variety of applications requiring hermetic glass-metal seals.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Brow, R. K. & Day, D. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An analysis of heating and cooling conservation features in commercial buildings

Description: One purpose of this study is to estimate the relationship in commercial buildings between conservation investments, fuel prices, building occupancy and building characteristics for new buildings and for existing buildings. The database is a nationwide survey of energy in commercial buildings conducted by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in 1906. Some simple cross-tabulations indicate that conservation measures vary with building size, building age, and fuel used for building heating. Regression estimates of a conservation model indicate that the number of conservation model indicate that the number of conservation features installed during construction is a positive function of the price of the heating fuel at the time of construction. Subsequent additions of conservation features are positively correlated with increases in heating fuel prices. Given the EIA projection of relatively stable future energy prices, the number of retrofits may not increase significantly. Also, energy efficiency in new buildings may not continue to increase relative to current new buildings. If fuel prices affect consumption via initial conservation investments, current fuel prices, marginal or average, are not the appropriate specification. The fuel price regression results indicate that conservation investments in new buildings are responsive to market signals. Retrofits are less responsive to market signals. The number of conservation features in a building is not statistically related to the type of occupancy (owner versus renter), which implies that conservation strategies are not impeded by the renting or leasing of buildings.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Sutherland, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department