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The Theory of the Pitot and Venturi Tubes, Part 2

Description: Report discussing several aspects of pitot and venturi tubes, including the energy equation for steady adiabatic flow, introduction of mean speed into the energy equation, isentropic flow of an ideal gas, the theory of the pitot tube, and the theory of the venturi meter.
Date: 1989?
Creator: Buckingham, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flow and Drag Formulas for Simple Quadrics

Description: The pressure distribution and resistance found by theory and experiment for simple quadrics fixed in an infinite uniform stream of practically incompressible fluid are calculated. The experimental values pertain to air and some liquids, especially water; the theoretical refer sometimes to perfect, again to viscid fluids. Formulas for the velocity at all points of the flow field are given. Pressure and pressure drag are discussed for a sphere, a round cylinder, the elliptic cylinder, the prolate and oblate spheroid, and the circular disk. The velocity and pressure in an oblique flow are examined.
Date: December 1979
Creator: Zahm, A. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flow and Force Equations for a Body Revolving in a Fluid

Description: A general method for finding the steady flow velocity relative to a body in plane curvilinear motion, whence the pressure is found by Bernoulli's energy principle is described. Integration of the pressure supplies basic formulas for the zonal forces and moments on the revolving body. The application of the steady flow method for calculating the velocity and pressure at all points of the flow inside and outside an ellipsoid and some of its limiting forms is presented and graphs those quantities for the latter forms.
Date: December 1979
Creator: Zahm, A. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Minimum Induced Drag of Aerofoils

Description: Equations are derived to demonstrate which distribution of lifting elements result in a minimum amount of aerodynamic drag. The lifting elements were arranged (1) in one line, (2) parallel lying in a transverse plane, and (3) in any direction in a transverse plane. It was shown that the distribution of lift which causes the least drag is reduced to the solution of the problem for systems of airfoils which are situated in a plane perpendicular to the direction of flight.
Date: 1979-12?
Creator: Munk, Max M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Aerodynamic Forces on Airship Hulls

Description: The new method for making computations in connection with the study of rigid airships, which was used in the investigation of Navy's ZR-1 by the special subcommittee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics appointed for this purpose is presented. The general theory of the air forces on airship hulls of the type mentioned is described and an attempt was made to develop the results from the very fundamentals of mechanics.
Date: 1979?~
Creator: Munk, Max M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applications of Modern Hydrodynamics to Aeronautics Part 1: Fundamental Concepts and the Most Important Theorems. Part 2: Applications

Description: A discussion of the principles of hydrodynamics of nonviscous fluids in the case of motion of solid bodies in a fluid is presented. Formulae are derived to demonstrate the transition from the fluid surface to a corresponding 'control surface'. The external forces are compounded of the fluid pressures on the control surface and the forces which are exercised on the fluid by any solid bodies which may be inside of the control surfaces.
Date: 1979?~
Creator: Prandtl, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boron and zirconium from crucible refractories in a complex heat-resistant alloy

Description: In a laboratory study of the factors involved in the influence of induction vacuum melting on 55ni-20cr-15co-4mo-3ti-3al heat resistant alloy, it was found that the major factor was the type of ceramic used as the crucible. The study concluded that trace amounts of boron or zirconium derived from reaction of the melt with the crucible refactories improved creep-rupture properties at 1,600 degrees F. Boron was most effective and, in addition, markedly improved hot-workability.
Date: August 5, 1958
Creator: Decker, R. F.; Rowe, John P. & Freeman, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characteristics of the Langley 8-Foot Transonic Tunnel With Slotted Test Section

Description: "A large wind tunnel, approximately 8 feet in diameter, has been converted to transonic operation by means of slots in the boundary extending in the direction of flow. The usefulness of such a slotted wind tunnel, already known with respect to the reduction of the subsonic blockage interference and the production of continuously variable supersonic flows, has been augmented by devising a slot shape with which a supersonic test region with excellent flow quality could be produced. Experimental locations of detached shock waves ahead of axially symmetric bodies at low supersonic speeds in the slotted test section agreed satisfactorily with predictions obtained by use of existing approximate methods" (p. 1297).
Date: July 3, 1958
Creator: Wright, Ray H.; Ritchie, Virgil S. & Pearson, Albin O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of free-space oscillating pressures near propellers at flight Mach numbers to 0.72

Description: "In the course of a short flight program initiated to check the theory of Garrick and Watkins (NACA rep. 1198), a series of measurements at three stations were made of the oscillating pressures near a tapered-blade plan-form propeller and rectangular-blade plan form propeller at flight Mach numbers up to 0.72. In contradiction to the results for the propeller studied in NACA rep. 1198, the oscillating pressures in the plane ahead of the propeller were found to be higher than those immediately behind the propeller. Factors such as variation in torque and thrust distribution, since the blades of the present investigation were operating above their design forward speed, may account for this contradiction" (p. 999).
Date: July 1, 1958
Creator: Kurbjun, Max C. & Vogeley, Arthur W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Area-Suction Boundary-Layer Control as Applied to the Trailing-Edge Flaps of a 35 Degree Swept-Wing Airplane

Description: "A wind-tunnel investigation was made to determine the effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of a 35 degree swept-wing airplane of applying area-suction boundary-layer control to the trailing-edge flaps. Flight tests of a similar airplane were then conducted to determine the effect of boundary-layer control in the handling qualities and operation of the airplane, particularly during landing. The wind-tunnel and flight tests indicated that area suction applied to the trailing-edge flaps produced significant increases in flap lift increment" (p. 1).
Date: May 6, 1958
Creator: Cook, Woodrow L.; Anderson, Seth B. & Cooper, George E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Blowing-type boundary-layer control as applied to the trailing-edge flaps of a 35 degree swept-wing airplane

Description: A wind-tunnel investigation was made to determine the effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of a 35 degree swept-wing airplane of applying blowing-type boundary-layer control to the trailing-edge flaps. Flight tests of a similar airplane were then conducted to determine the effects of boundary-layer control on the handling qualities and operation of the airplane, particularly during landing and take-off. The wind-tunnel and flight tests indicated that blowing over the flaps produced large increases in flap lift increment, and significant increases in maximum lift. The use of blowing permitted reductions in the landing approach speeds of as much as 12 knots.
Date: April 30, 1958
Creator: Kelly, Mark W.; Anderson, Seth B. & Innis, Robert C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Systematic two-dimensional cascade tests of NACA 65-series compressor blades at low speeds

Description: The performance of NACA 65-series compressor blade section in cascade has been investigated systematically in a low-speed cascade tunnel. Porous test-section side walls and for high-pressure-rise conditions, porous flexible end walls were employed to establish conditions closely simulating two-dimensional flow. Blade sections of design lift coefficients from 0 to 2.7 were tested over the usable angle-of-attack range for various combinations of inlet-flow angle. A sufficient number of combinations were tested to permit interpolation and extrapolation of the data to all conditions within the usual range of application. The results of this investigation indicate a continuous variation of blade-section performance as the major cascade parameters, blade camber, inlet angle, and solidity were varied over the test range. Summary curves of the results have been prepared to enable compressor designers to select the proper blade camber and angle of attack when the compressor velocity diagram and desired solidity have been determined.
Date: January 31, 1958
Creator: Emery, James C.; Herrig, L. Joseph; Erwin, John R. & Felix, A. Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Correlation of Results of Flight Investigation With Results of an Analytical Study of Effects of Wing Flexibility on Wing Strains Due to Gusts

Description: An analytical study of the effects of wing flexibility on wing strains due to gusts has been made for four spanwise stations of a four-engine bomber airplane, and the results have been correlated with results of a previous flight investigation.
Date: 1958
Creator: Shufflebarger, C. C.; Payne, Chester B. & Cahen, George L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Low-Speed Experimental Investigation of the Effect of a Sandpaper Type of Roughness on Boundary-Layer Transition

Description: Report describing the effects of an area of roughness on the velocity and turbulence measurements of an airfoil. It details the effects of the size, location, and height of the roughness on the Reynolds number. From Summary: "An investigation was made in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel to determine the effect of size and location of a sandpaper type of roughness on the Reynolds number for transition."
Date: 1958
Creator: Horton, Elmer A. & von Doenhoff, Albert E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NACA Research on Slurry Fuels

Description: "An extensive program was conducted to investigate the use of concentrated slurries of boron and magnesium in liquid hydrocarbon as fuels for afterburners and ramjet engines. Analytical calculations indicated that magnesium fuel would give greater thrust and that boron fuel would give greater range than are obtainable from jet hydrocarbon fuel alone. It was hoped that the use of these solid elements in slurry form would permit the improvement to be obtained without requiring unconventional fuel systems or combustors" (p. 1273).
Date: 1958
Creator: Pinns, M. L.; Olson, W. T.; Barnett, H. C. & Breitwieser, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thin airfoil theory based on approximate solution of the transonic flow equation

Description: A method is presented for the approximate solution of the nonlinear equations of transonic flow theory. Solutions are found for two-dimensional flows at a Mach number of 1 and for purely subsonic and purely supersonic flows. Results are obtained in closed analytic form for a large and significant class of nonlifting airfoils. At a Mach number of 1 general expressions are given for the pressure distribution on an airfoil of specified geometry and for the shape of an airfoil having a prescribed pressure distribution. Extensive comparisons are made with available data, particularly for a Mach number of 1, and with existing solutions.
Date: 1958
Creator: Spreiter, John R. & Alksne, Alberta Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drag Minimization for Wings and Bodies in Supersonic Flow

Description: "The minimization of inviscid fluid drag is studied for aerodynamic shapes satisfying the conditions of linearized theory, and subject to imposed constraints on lift, pitching moment, base area, or volume. The problem is transformed to one of determining two-dimensional potential flows satisfying either Laplace's or Poisson's equations with boundary values fixed by the imposed conditions. A general method for determining integral relations between perturbation velocity components is developed. This analysis is not restricted in application to optimum cases; it may be used for any supersonic wing problem" (p. 1213).
Date: November 29, 1957
Creator: Heaslet, Max A. & Fuller, Franklyn B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of fuel variables on carbon formation in turbojet-engine combustors

Description: Report presents the results of an investigation of the effects of fuel properties and of a number of fuel additives on combustion-chamber carbon deposition and exhaust-gas smoke formation in a single tubular turbojet-engine combustor. Limited tests were conducted with a number of the fuels in several full-scale turbojet engines to verify single-combustor data.
Date: October 23, 1957
Creator: Jonash, Edmund R.; Wear, Jerrold D. & Cook, William P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of a nonlinear control system

Description: A discontinuous variation of coefficients of the differential equation describing the linear control system before nonlinear elements are added is studied in detail. The nonlinear feedback is applied to a second-order system. Simulation techniques are used to study performance of the nonlinear control system and to compare it with the linear system for a wide variety of inputs. A detailed quantitative study of the influence of relay delays and of a transport delay is presented.
Date: October 18, 1957
Creator: Fl├╝gge-Lotz, I.; Taylor, C. F. & Lindberg, H. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Growth of Disturbances in a Flame-Generated Shear Region

Description: Results are presented of an experimental and theoretical investigation of the growth of transverse velocity disturbances in the shear region caused by a flame in a duct. In the theoretical stability analysis, a flow field arising from a flame in a duct was analyzed. The flow was neutrally stable to symmetric disturbances and unstable to antisymmetric ones. In the experimental part of the program disturbances of various frequencies were imposed on a flame stabilized in a duct, and the effects were measured by shadow photography and photomultiplier-probe surveys.
Date: October 14, 1957
Creator: Blackshear, Perry L., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relation of Turbojet and Ramjet Combustion Efficiency to Second-Order Reaction Kinetics and Fundamental Flame Speed

Description: Theoretical studies of the turbojet and ramjet combustion process are summarized and the resulting equations are applied to experimental data obtained from various combustor tests. The theoretical treatment assumes that one step in the over-all chain of processes which constitute jet-engine combustion is sufficiently slow to be the rate-controlling step that determines combustion efficiency.
Date: August 5, 1957
Creator: Childs, J. Howard; Reynolds, Thaine W. & Graves, Charles C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Elliptic Cones Alone and with Wings at Supersonic Speed

Description: "To help fill the gap in the knowledge of aerodynamics of shapes intermediate between bodies of revolution and flat triangular wings, force and moment characteristics for elliptic cones have been experimentally determined for Mach numbers of 1.97 and 2.94. Elliptic cones having cross-sectional axis ratios from 1 through 6 and with lengths and base areas equal to circular cones of fineness ratios 3.67 and 5 have been studied for angles of bank of 0 degree and 90 degrees. Elliptic and circular cones in combination with triangular wings of aspect ratios 1 and 1.5 also have been considered" (p. 975).
Date: July 17, 1957
Creator: Jorgensen, Leland H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Mechanism of Thermal-Gradient Mass Transfer in the Sodium Hydroxide-Nickel System

Description: "Thermal-gradient mass transfer" was investigated in the molten sodium hydroxide-nickel system. Possible mechanisms (physical, electrochemical, and chemical) are discussed in terms of experimental and theoretical evidence. Experimental details are included in appendixes.
Date: June 20, 1957
Creator: May, Charles E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Method of Computing the Transient Temperature of Thick Walls From Arbitrary Variation of Adiabatic-Wall Temperature and Heat-Transfer Coefficient

Description: "A method of calculating the temperature of thick walls has been developed in which the time series and the response to a unit triangle variation of surface temperature concepts are used, together with essentially standard formulas for transient temperature and heat flow into thick walls. The method can be used without knowledge of the mathematical tools of its development. The method is particularly suitable for determining the wall temperature in one-dimensional thermal problems in aeronautics where there is a continuous variation of the heat-transfer coefficient and adiabatic-wall temperature" (p. 877).
Date: June 18, 1957
Creator: Hill, P. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department