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The Volume Thermodynamics of Liquids

Description: From preface: In the following chapters, I have commenced a serious study of the volume thermodynamics of liquids and solids. The work is, as yet, confined to volume, pressure, and temperature. Questions involving entropy and energy are also in active progress, but can not be included in the present bulletin.
Date: 1892
Creator: Barus, Carl
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the Establishment of the Thermodynamic Scale of Temperature by Means of the Constant-Pressure Thermometer

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Standards over two different types of gas thermometry, with its main focus on the constant-pressure thermometer. The thermodynamic scale of temperature is also discussed. This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Date: 1907
Creator: Buckingham, Edgar
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Temperatures in Spark Plugs Having Steel and Brass Shells

Description: From Resume: "Brass has often been assumed superior to steel for spark plug shells because of its greater heat conductivity. The measurements described in this report prove the contrary, showing that the interior of a spark plug having a brass shell is from 50 degrees to 150 degrees c. (90 degrees to 270 degrees f.) hotter than that of a similar steel plug. It is to be concluded that steel is to be preferred to brass for spark plug shells. This report embodies the results of measurements taken of electrodes and a comparison of brass and steel insulators of spark plugs while they were in actual operation."
Date: 1919
Creator: Cragoe, C. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Altitude on Radiator Performance

Description: As an airplane rises to high altitudes the decrease in the density and the temperature of the air have important effects on the performance of the radiator. This report gives the results of a study of the effect of reduced pressure and temperature upon the capacity of airplane radiators. A method is presented by which the performance of a radiator at an altitude may be estimated for a particular speed of the airplane at a particular altitude.
Date: 1920
Creator: James, W. S. & Parsons, S. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat energy of various ignition sparks

Description: From Resume: "This report describes a method developed at the Bureau of Standards for measuring the total energy liberated as heat in a spark gap by an ignition system. Since this heat energy is obtained from the electromagnetic energy stored in the windings of the magneto or coil, it is a measure of the effectiveness of the device as an electric generator." Part 2 gives the results of measurements in absolute units of the total heat supplied to a spark gap by ignition systems of different types operating at various speeds, under conditions substantially equivalent to those in the cylinder of a high-compression aviation engine.
Date: 1920
Creator: Silsbee, F. B.; Loeb, L. B. & Fonseca, E. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Increase in maximum pressures produced by preignition in internal combustion engines

Description: Report discusses the calculations that can be used to show why pressures inside an engine during preignition are higher than average. This information can be used to design a safer engine that is able to contain the increased pressure and heat generated during preignition.
Date: August 1920
Creator: Sparrow, S. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The problem of the turbo-compressor

Description: From Report: "In terminating the study of the adaptation of the engine to the airplane, we will examine the problem of the turbo-compressor, the first realization of which dates from the war; this will form an addition to the indications already given on supercharging at various altitudes. This subject is of great importance for the application of the turbo-compressor worked by the exhaust gases. Assuming that the increase of pressure in the admission manifold is the same in both cases, the pressure in the exhaust manifold would be greater in the case in which the compressor is worked by the exhaust gas and there would result a certain reduction of engine power which we must be able to calculate. On the other hand , if the compressor is controlled by the engine shaft, a certain fraction of the excess power supplied is utilized for the rotation of the compressor. In order to compare the two systems, it is there-fore necessary to determine the value of the reduction of power due to back pressure when the turbine is employed."
Date: August 1920
Creator: Devillers, René
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Notes on the standard atmosphere

Description: From Summary: "This report contains the derivation of a series of relations between temperature, pressure, density, and altitude in a standard atmosphere which assumes a uniform decrease of temperature with altitude. The equations are collected and given with proper constants in both metric and English units for the temperature gradient adopted by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. A table of values of temperature pressure and density at various altitudes in this standard atmosphere is included in the report."
Date: June 1922
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mathematical equations for heat conduction in the fins of air-cooled engines

Description: The problem considered in this report is that of reducing actual geometrical area of fin-cooling surface, which is, of course, not uniform in temperature, to equivalent cooling area at one definite temperature, namely, that prevailing on the cylinder wall at the point of attachment of the fin. This makes it possible to treat all the cooling surface as if it were part of the cylinder wall and 100 per cent effective. The quantities involved in the equations are the geometrical dimensions of the fin, thermal conductivity of the material composing it, and the coefficient of surface heat dissipation between the fin and the air streams.
Date: 1923
Creator: Harper, D. R. & Brown, W. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Speed measurements made by Division "A" of the airplane directorate (Flugzeugmeisterei), Subdivision for flight experiments

Description: The various speeds of an airplane can only be measured in horizontal flight, since there are no means for measuring the angle of ascent or descent. The measurements must be corrected for the density of the air. This is obtained by simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements during flight. Calculation from the mean yearly values in accordance with Everling's suggestion can only be considered an approximation, since the distribution of pressure and temperature in the individual strata at different altitudes undergoes such large variations that the yearly mean gives inaccurate values. Thermographs of the present form are useless for temperature measurements of an airplane. In altitude data, the following are to be distinguished: the height above the earth, the barometric altitude, and the altitude corresponding to the yearly mean air density. Variometers are not suited for the mechanical control of high altitude flight.
Date: July 1923
Creator: Heidelberg, V. & Hölzel, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermodynamic Properties of Oxygen and Nitrogen

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines discussing the thermodynamics of oxygen and nitrogen. Properties of these elements and methods of estimating thermodynamic data are presented. This report includes tables.
Date: 1928
Creator: Millar, Russell W. & Sullivan, John D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iron Oxide Reduction Equilibria: A Critique from the Standpoint of the Phase Rule and Thermodynamics

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over studies conducted on iron oxide reduction. As stated in the scope of bulletin, "this bulletin, therefore, presents the properties of the common oxides of iron, their combinations with each other, and the reduction-equilibrium diagrams by which the investigator passes from one to the next; the end point is not pure iron but the carburized iron of the blast furnace, cast iron" (p. 1-2). This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Date: 1929
Creator: Ralston, Oliver C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Transformation of Heat in an Engine

Description: This report presents a thermodynamic basis for rating heat engines. The production of work by a heat engine rests on the operation of supplying heat, under favorable conditions, to a working fluid and then taking it away.
Date: April 1929
Creator: Neumann, Kurt
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Temperature coefficient of the modulus of rigidity of aircraft instrument diaphragm and spring materials

Description: Experimental data are presented on the variation of the modulus of rigidity in the temperature range -20 to +50 degrees C. of a number of metals which are of possible use for elastic elements for aircraft and other instruments. The methods of the torsional pendulum was used to determine the modulus of rigidity and its temperature coefficient for aluminum, duralumin, monel metal, brass, phosphor bronze, coin silver, nickel silver, three high carbon steels, and three alloy steels. It was observed that tensile stress affected the values of the modulus by amounts of 1 per cent or less.
Date: March 7, 1930
Creator: Brombacher, W. G. & Melton, E. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Endurance and Other Properties at Low Temperatures of Some Alloys for Aircraft Use

Description: "The low temperature endurance properties of materials for aircraft construction are not well known. In order to determine them, apparatus for testing endurance at -40 C has been devised. The endurance properties of monel metal, low-carbon stainless steel, "18 and *, " 3 1/2% Ni steel and chromium-molybdenum steel have been determined at -40 C and at room temperature about +20 C. Tensile, impact and hardness tests of these materials have also been made at various temperatures" (p. 1).
Date: June 1931
Creator: Russell, H. W. & Welcker, W. A., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A method for reducing the temperature of exhaust manifolds

Description: From Summary: "This report describes tests conducted at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory on an "air-inducting" exhaust manifold for aircraft engines. The exhaust gases from each cylinder port are discharged into the throat of an exhaust pipe which has a frontal bellmouth. Cooling air is drawn into the pipe, where it surrounds and mixes with the exhaust gases. Temperatures of the manifold shell and of the exhaust gases were obtained in flight for both a conventional manifold and the air-inducting manifold."
Date: September 1931
Creator: Schey, Oscar W. & Young, Alfred W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat dissipation from a finned cylinder at different fin-plane/air-stream angles

Description: This report gives the results of an experimental determination of the temperature distribution in and the heat dissipation from a cylindrical finned surface for various fin-plane/air-stream angles. A steel cylinder 4.5 inches in diameter having slightly tapered fins of 0.30-inch pitch and 0.6 -inch width was equipped with an electrical heating unit furnishing 13 to 248 B.T.U. per hour per square inch of inside wall area. Air at speeds form 30 to 150 miles per hour was directed at seven different angles from 0 degrees to 90 degrees with respect to the fin planes. The tests show the best angle for cooling at all air speeds to be about 45 degrees. With the same temperature for the two conditions and with an air speed of 76 miles per hour, the heat input to the cylinder can be increased 50 percent at 45 degrees fin-plane/air-stream angle over that at 0 degrees.
Date: August 1932
Creator: Schey, Oscar W. & Biermann, Arnold E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transmission of Heat From a Flat Plate to a Fluid Flowing at a High Velocity

Description: "The writer, starting with the consideration of the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic equations for the turbulent boundary layer of a flat plate when it is necessary to take into account the heat produced by friction, arrives at the conclusion that the transmission of the heat follows the same law that is valid when the frictional heat is negligible, provided the temperature of the fluid is considered to be that which the fluid would reach if arrested adiabatically. It is then shown how the same law holds good for faired bodies, and some applications of the law are made to the problems of flight at very high speeds" (p. 1).
Date: October 1932
Creator: Crocco, Luigi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat transfer from finned metal cylinders in an air stream

Description: This report presents the results of tests made to supply design information for the construction of metal fins for the cooling of heated cylindrical surfaces by an air stream. A method is given for determining fin dimensions for a maximum heat transfer with the expenditure of a given amount of material for a variety of conditions of air flow and metals.
Date: April 26, 1934
Creator: Biermann, Arnold E. & Pinkel, Benjamin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Contributions to the Data on Theoretical Metallurgy: [Part] 4. Metal Carbonates--Correlations ans Applications of Thermodynamic Properties

Description: From Introduction: "This publication proposes to assemble existing thermodynamic data for carbonates and to correlate so far as possible the results of decomposition-pressure determinations with the calorimetrically determined heats of formation and entropy values on the one hand and with solubility and standard electrode-potential data on the other."
Date: 1935
Creator: Kelley, K. K. & Anderson, C. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department