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Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal

Description: Environmental control technologies applicable to the coal-to-electricity process are evaluated in an ongoing project at Argonne National Laboratory. Part of the evaluation involves technology comparisons from a total system point of view. This report describes a highly versatile procedure developed for making those comparisons. The core of the procedure is a simulation mechanism of interconnected modules, each corresponding to a portion of the system stretching from raw coal to power plant emissions. By specifying input and output parameters in a consistent manner, it is possible to combine the modules in a variety of ways to investigate any system of interest. Examples of such parameters are given. New technologies can be added by modifying modules or adding new ones as needed. Interactions between an analyst and the mechanism are also discussed as they relate to determination of the most significant output factors. Specification of data at different levels of sophistication is described. As an illustration of the procedure, an example comparison is formulated and carried out in some detail.
Date: June 1, 1977
Creator: Livengood, C D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford environment as related to radioactive waste burial grounds and transuranium waste storage facilities

Description: A detailed characterization of the existing environment at Hanford was provided by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) in the Final Environmental Statement, Waste Management Operations, Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington, December 1975. Abbreviated discussions from that document are presented together with current data, as they pertain to radioactive waste burial grounds and interim transuranic (TRU) waste storage facilities. The discussions and data are presented in sections on geology, hydrology, ecology, and natural phenomena. (JRD)
Date: June 1, 1977
Creator: Brown, D.J. & Isaacson, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Management of social and economic impacts associated with the construction of large-scale projects: experiences from the Western coal development communities

Description: The construction and operation of large-scale energy or resource development projects are accompanied by environmental, social, and economic changes or impacts. Impact assessment is the key tool used to determine which impact areas will most severely affect the community and will thus need to be managed. Impact management, only recently recognized as part of the assessment process, includes public and private actions to ameliorate impacts. The use of available impact management strategies can affect the outcome or change in the social and economic environment in a community. Therefore, an inventory of available strategies and the capabilities of local governments to use such strategies should be an integral part of any social and economic impact assessment. This provides a link between impact assessment and management. This report provides an introductory analysis to some of the more complex issues raised by social and economic impact management, with experiences cited from Western coal-development communities. Following an introduction, the paper is divided into sections corresponding to the major social and economic impacts experienced by rural communities surrounding an energy development. Each section contains a brief introductory description of the types of problems typically associated with the impact sector, and a discussion of management strategies either proposed or implemented for the impact. The management strategies are presented in tabular form, indicating the level of government responsible for implementation. 10 tables, 72 references. (MCW)
Date: June 1, 1977
Creator: Greene, M.R. & Curry, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Resource, technology, and environment at the geysers

Description: A general review, description, and history of geothermal development at the Geysers is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on environmental impacts of development of the area. The discussion is presented under the following chapter titles: introduction; energy, enthalpy and the First Law; vapor-producing geothermal reservoirs--review and models; geothermal; entropy and the Second Law; power plants--basics; H/sub 2/S emissions; hydrogen sulfide--possible health effects and odor; other emissions; power plant hydrogen sulfide abatement; hot water based geothermal development; phytotoxicity of geothermal emissions; appendices; and bibliography. (JGB)
Date: June 1, 1977
Creator: Weres, O.; Tsao, K. & Wood, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State legislatures and energy policy in the Northeast: energy facility siting and legislative action

Description: At the Federal level, a vast array of bureaucratic and legislative institutions are presently immersed in various explorations of energy policy and its national ramifications. Almost each of the 50 states has Energy offices. One element of the institutional/political equation, however, often is missed in studies of energy policy: the state legislature. This institution may well be vitally important to formulation of broad policies, and certainly is critical to successful implementation of certain aspects of those policies--especially when new enabling legislation, new tax incentives, or new regulatory powers are required. The study covers three main aspects of energy-policy formulation and action by state legislatures: legislative structure; enactment of energy-facility-siting laws; and passage (or defeat) of significant energy legislation of a more general nature. Emphasis is placed on energy-facility-siting statutes and approaches for two reasons. First, energy facilities have a great impact on land use, environmental quality, and economic growth. Second, siting of these facilities raises inherent conflicts in the attempt to achieve balance between potentially contradictory objectives. The states of New Jersey and Maryland were examined in considerable depth as examples in this study. (MCW)
Date: June 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supplement to safety analysis report for the 325 Radiochemistry Building

Description: The Waste Preparation Task (Task 6) of the Commercial Nuclear Waste Vitrification Project (CNWVP) includes the design, installation and operation of small scale (1 MTU LWR fuel/month) equipment to prepare high-level liquid waste (HLLW) from commercial LWR spent fuel. The HLLW will be used in Task 5, the radioactive demonstration of waste vitrification. The operational aspects of this task include the procurement of irradiated LWR fuel; the processing operations to prepare HLLW; and other necessary operations associated with the disposition of the uranium waste and other fuel residues, including the plutonium associated with the fuel. The processing operations in the 325-A Building will require handling in excess of 45 percent of a Minimum Critical Mass (MCM), use of an organic solvent to extract uranium and plutonium away from the fission products, and ion exchange resin for plutonium purification. An analysis of the environmental consequences and probability of conceivable accidental conditions that may result from this operation indicates no undue consequences to the environment. The calculated maximum environmental consequences of postulated accidents would be low radiotoxic doses of 0.3 rem whole body 50-yr dose commitment to a maximum individual and 20 man-rem whole body 50-yr dose commitment to the surrounding population. The individual radiological exposures are much below the permissible exposure guidance levels in 10CFR100 of 25 rem whole body and 300 rem thyroid doses for nuclear reactor accidents of very low probability of occurrence. The calculated relative dose risk to individuals from accidental conditions (1.6 x 10/sup -6/ rem/yr) is very low compared to regulatory guidance for routine releases from nuclear reactors (5.0 x 10/sup -3/ rem/yr). Therefore, the design and operational plans for the CNWVP are judged not to represent an undue environmental risk from accidental conditions.
Date: June 24, 1977
Creator: Bryan, G.H. & Wittenbrock, N.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multiflash feed-and-bleed coupling for the evaporation and crystallization industry. Technical report, April 1-June 30, 1977

Description: The technical and economic feasibility of using low temperature geothermal brine in place of steam from conventional sources for industrial multi-effect evaporation and crystallization was studied. Work on the following is described: candidate industry evaluation, including process flow diagrams, heat and material balances; conceptual engineering, and a visit to Leslie Salt plant. The economic analysis includes economic groundrules established, capital and operating costs derived, and a cost comparison of geothermal vs. fossil fuel plants. Other topics covered are: the analysis of fuel savings by use of geothermal resources; the analysis of environmental impact of geothermal vs. fossil fueled plants; and a comparison of feed-and-bleed process with other geothermal heat utilization processes. (MHR)
Date: June 30, 1977
Creator: Basuino, D.J.; Doyle, P.T. & May, S.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect on air and water emissions of energy conservation in industry

Description: Environmental emissions for five large energy-consuming industries plus others are estimated for four US energy system scenarios for 1985 and 2000. Emissions are estimated by specifying fuel mixes to steam boilers and direct heat, combustion efficiencies, shifts in the relative shares of alternative industrial processes use of industrial cogenerators, and penetration of pollution-control technologies. Analyses show that emissions do not vary significantly among scenarios principally because of increased coal use and the reduced penetration rate of advanced pollution-control technologies in the low-energy-demand scenarios. Within scenarios, emissions from the chemical and iron and steel subsectors dominate all aggregate estimates. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide process emission coefficients for the chemical subsector must be improved.
Date: July 1, 1977
Creator: Raskin, P D & Rosen, R A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental impact assessment Geopressure Subprogram

Description: This environmental impact assessment (EIA) addresses the expected programmatic activities of the Geopressure Subprogram of the Division of Geothermal Energy. The goal of the Geopressure Subprogram is to stimulate development of geopressured resources as an economic, reliable, operationally safe, and environmentally acceptable energy source. The subprogram includes activities in the areas of engineering research and development; resource exploration, assessment, and development; resource utilization including pilot and demonstration facilities; and environmental research and control technology development. It should be recognized that most of the subprogram activities extend over several years and are in their early stages of implementation at this time. The zones of potential geopressure development are in the region located along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coasts extending up to 200 miles (300 km) inland. Geopressured zones are sedimentary basins where water is trapped at high pressures within or below thick, nearly impermeable shale sequences. The confined water supports most or all of the weight of the overburden. This inhibits sediment compaction and causes formation pore pressure to exceed hydrostatic pressure. in sedimentary basins that are underlain by thin oceanic crust, upward thermal conduction from the mantle heats geopressured fluids and sediments to abnormally high temperatures, often in excess of 260 C (500 F).
Date: July 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Grid-Connected Integrated Community Energy System: Final Report, Volume 2

Description: A preliminary feasibility analysis of a grid-connected ICES in the City of Independence, Missouri, is presented. It is found that the ICES concept can be made feasible in Independence by employing a 20-MW coal-fired boiler and turbine and using waste heat to provide the energy for heating and cooling commercial facilities with over 3 million square feet of floor space. When fully loaded thermally, the ICES results in favorable fuel utilization and energy conservation in comparison to conventional energy systems. The City of Independence is experienced with all of the institutional factors that may impact the ICES Demonstration Project.
Date: July 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Workshop on transport modeling for nuclear waste repositories

Description: The Transport Modeling task includes developing methods to describe the transport and impact of radiocontaminants accidentally released from waste repositories; demonstrating the use of these methods; and making the methods and techniques available to the repository managers for application at specific sites. The workshop on Transfer Modeling for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program was held at the Battelle Seattle Research Center on 25 and 26 July 1977. The objectives of the workshop were to: 1) discuss needs and criteria for the models, 2) obtain critiques of proposed model systems from experts in the field, and 3) obtain ideas for making models more useful to the safety assessment program. The proceedings of the workshop were presented.
Date: July 1, 1977
Creator: Raymond, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental impact assessment: chemical explosive fracturing project, Petroleum Technology Corporation/Sutton County, Texas

Description: The Nevada Operations Office of the Energy Research and Development Adminstration (ERDA) has contracted with Petroleum Technology Corporation (PTC) to perform a gas stimulation program by chemical explosive fracturing (CEF) in the Canyon sands of the Val Verde - Kerr Basin of Sutton County, Texas. This lenticular tight sand deposit, underlying much of southwestern Texas, contains large volumes of natural gas. To date this formation has yielded only marginal amounts of gas because of its low porosity and permeability. The semi-arid environment of the Aldwell/Sawyer field is characterized by dry arroyos and xeric vegetation. Population is sparse and sheep ranching is the primary occupation. Because of the existence of previously drilled oil and gas wells, road and pipeline construction will be minimal. Impacts from this two well project are expected to be minimal and be confined to temporary surface disruption and increased erosion at the well site.
Date: July 14, 1977
Creator: Tonnessen, K.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bioethical perspective on acceptable-risk criteria for nuclear-waste management

Description: Wisely managing the profound human and environmental risks of nuclear wastes requires complex moral and ethical judgments. Whereas traditional ethics is limited to interpersonal relations, a new system of ethics--bioethics--concerns man's relation with nature. Environmentalists claim that technology has upset the balance of nature, that nature is sacred and has inviolable rights, and that man must therefore regulate his behavior to conform to earth's limited carrying capacity. They also say that Judeo-Christian monotheism and anthropocentrism have sanctioned the exploitation of nature in the West, whereas Eastern religions teach adaptation to nature. Evidence suggests, however, that the balance of nature is neither absolute nor precarious, but is continually changing. Moreover, technology has brought more good than harm to man, and man's needs should supersede nature's. Other evidence indicates that the earth's resources may be neither limited nor nearly exhausted. Persuasive arguments also demonstrate that man's relation with nature is not traceable to religious assumptions. In assessing the risks/benefits of nuclear-waste management, we should avoid risks that jeopardize the rights of future generations without imposing excessive sacrifices on the present generation.
Date: July 15, 1977
Creator: Maxey, M.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal and energy: a southern perspective. Regional characterization report for the National Coal Utilization Assessment

Description: This publication is the first of several reports to be produced for the National Coal Utilization Assessment, a program sponsored by the Assistant Administrator for Environment and Safety through the Division of Technology Overview of ERDA. The purpose of the report is to present the state and regional perspective on energy-related issues, especially those concerning coal production and utilization for 12 southern states. This report compiles information on the present status of: (1) state government infrastructure that deals with energy problems; (2) the balance between energy consumption and energy production; (3) the distribution of proved reserves of various mineral energy resources; (4) the major characteristics of the population; (5) the important features of the environment; and (6) the major constraints to increased coal production and utilization as perceived by the states and regional agencies. Many energy-related characteristics described vary significantly from state to state within the region. Regional and national generalizations obscure these important local variations. The report provides the state and regional perspective on energy issues so that these issues may be considered objectively and incorporated into the National Coal Utilization Assessment. This Assessment is designed to provide useful outputs for national, regional, and local energy planners.
Date: August 1, 1977
Creator: Boercker, F. D.; Davis, R. M.; Goff, F. G.; Olson, J. S. & Parzyck, D. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distribution and abundance of submerged aquatic macrophytes in a reactor cooling reservoir

Description: Measurements of ash-free dry weight were used to characterize the effects of a heated effluent on submerged macrophytes in a reactor cooling reservoir. The species which were most abundant during the summers of 1974 and 1975 were Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Eleocharis acicularis (L.) R. and S. Examination of the vertical distribution of the shoot biomass of Myriophyllum revealed that plants in heated areas grew closer to the water surface than plants in unheated areas. The biomass of the second most abundant species, Eleocharis acicularis, was less at 0.5 m depths in heated areas (more than 5C/sup 0/ warmer than unheated areas) than at equal depths in unheated areas. Species diversity was greater at heated locations because of a greater equitability (i.e., evenness of distribution of biomass) among species.
Date: August 1, 1977
Creator: Grace, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal industry position paper: EPA regulatory options and research and development information needs

Description: The environmental impact of geothermal energy development may be less intense or widespread than that of some other energy sources; however, it is the first example of a number of emerging energy technologies that must be dealt with by EPA. EPA may consider a spectrum of options ranging from a posutre of business as usual to one of immediate setting of standards, as favored by ERDA. The paper discusses the regulatory approaches and the potential problems that geothermal energy may present in the areas of air quality, water quality, and other impacts. It is recommended that a coordinated program of research be drawn up, comprised of specific research projects, the types of geothermal resource to which they apply, and the date by which the information is required.
Date: August 1, 1977
Creator: D'Alessio, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Program PRESTO: preparation of reference energy systems through time

Description: PRESTO is an interactive computer program to provide a convenient framework for energy accounts to specify quantitatively the flows in the U.S. energy system over time, and to permit manipulation of their values while maintaining internal consistency. Then, once a scenario is defined, several of its attributes and implications are calculated (costs, total resource use, and environmental effects). It is based on the Reference Energy System methodology, a diagrammatic description of energy flows, but with the explicit incorporation of the time dimension. 2 figures, 5 tables.
Date: August 1, 1977
Creator: Beardsworth, E & Goldstein, G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety analysis report for the /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuel form facility

Description: The Plutonium Fuel Form (PuFF) Facility has been constructed at the Savannah River Plant to manufacture 30 to 60 kg/yr of /sup 238/Pu fuel forms for space power applications. This facility is located in the existing Building 235-F near the geographical center of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) site. Pilot production is scheduled to begin in July 1977, with full-scale production in April 1978. The process line of the facility consists of nine separate, interconnected shielded cells; five shielded wing cabinets or glove boxes; three hoods; and contained auxiliary equipment. These process enclosures will be, for the most part, under an atmosphere of recirculating inert gas. The products of the facility will be dense fuel forms manufactured from PuO/sub 2/ powder with a nominal isotopic composition of 80% /sup 238/Pu-20% /sup 239/Pu. This powder, made from calcined oxalate, has been produced safely at a rate of about 20 kg /sup 238/Pu/yr in the H-Area B-Line in Building 221-H for approximately ten years. This report describes design objectives, nature of operations, potential hazards and limiting factors, facility response to postulated accidents and failures, and environmental effects. The results of the analyses described in this report indicate that the facility has the capacity to prevent or sufficiently reduce accidents that represent potential risks to health and safety. The safety analysis in conjunction with process requirements provides the bases for Technical Standards for operation. The analysis also documents the degree of conformance of the facility design with the General Design Criteria - Plutonium Facilities and the Environmental Statement.
Date: August 1, 1977
Creator: Angerman, C.L.; Bickford, D.F.; Gould, T.H. Jr. & Smith, P.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternate fuel cycle technologies. Quarterly report, April--June 1977

Description: This quarterly report describes studies to provide information needed to close the back end of the commercial light-water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle. These efforts are directed primarily at reprocessing and recycle of uranium and plutonium from spent LWR fuel. Research is reported in the following categories: environmental studies, fuel receipt, head-end processes, purex process, waste management, safeguards (dose rate for extraction streams), and general support.
Date: September 1, 1977
Creator: none,
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biological services program, fiscal year 1976

Description: Continuing activities are reported on studies seeking to solve ecological problems associated with energy development, other types of land and water developments, and activities of a supporting nature. Specific projects include: coal; power plants; ecological systems and inventory; information transfer; coastal ecosystems and outer Continental Shelf development; and geothermal, oil shale and minerals. (PCS)
Date: September 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distributed Energy Systems in California's Future: A Preliminary Report Volume 2

Description: The construction and use of energy technologies produce environmental and social consequences that are neither desired nor, for the most part, incorporated in the economic costs charged for the energy supplied. Although it is now essentially universally recognized that these 'externalities' or (broadly defined) 'social costs' must somehow be taken into account in the processes by which society chooses among alternative energy options, it is less widely appreciated that these costs - not resource limits or narrow economics - actually define the energy dilemma in the long term. It is important to try to make clear at the outset why this is so. The energy problem resides fundamentally in the fact that the relation between energy and well-being is two-sided. The application of energy as a productive input to the economy, yielding desired goods and services, contributes to well-being; the environmental and social costs of getting and using energy subtract from it. At some level of energy use, and for a given mix of technologies of energy supply, further increases in energy supply will produce incremental social and environmental costs greater than the incremental economic benefits - that is, growth begins to do more harm than good (Holdren, 1977; Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems, 1977). This level can be said to define a rational 'limit to growth', as distinct from a strictly physical one. That such a level, beyond which energy growth no longer pays, exists in principle for any mix of technologies of supply and end-use is easily shown from basic economics and physical science; predicting its magnitude exactly is much harder, the more so because social costs even less quantifiable than environmental ones may dominate. Lovins (1976, 1977) evidently believes that the United States is already near or beyond the point, given the 'hard' energy technologies ...
Date: September 1, 1977
Creator: Balderston, F.; Blatman, P.; Bradshaw, T.; Brown, P.; Carroll, O.; Christensen, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distributed technologies in California's energy future: A preliminary report. Volume 2

Description: The chapters in Volume 2 of Distributed Energy Systems in California's Future are: Environmental Impacts of Alternative Energy Technologies for California; Land Use Configurations and the Utilization of Distributive Energy Technology; Land Use Implications of a Dispersed Energy Path; Belief, Behavior, and Technologies as Driving Forces in Transitional Stages--The People Problem in Dispersed Energy Futures; Development of an Energy Attitude Survey; Interventions to Influence Firms Toward the Adoption of ''Soft'' Energy Technology; The Entry of Small Firms into Distributed Technology Energy Industries; Short-Term Matching of Supply and Demand in Electrical Systems with Renewable Sources; Vulnerability of Renewable Energy Systems; and District Heating for California.
Date: September 1, 1977
Creator: Christensen, M.; Craig, P.; McGuire, C.B. & Simmons, M. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distributed technologies in California's energy future. Volume I

Description: This interim report contains eight of the eighteen chapters included in the complete report. In Chapter I, pertinent data, facts, and observations are made following an initial summary. Chapter II is an introduction, citing especially the writings of Amory Lovins. The criteria used in defining distributed systems, suggested by Lovins, are that the technologies be renewable, environmentally benign, local, subject to graceful failure, foolproof, flexible, comprehensible, and matched in energy quality. The following chapters are: The Energy Predicament; The California Setting; Energy Resources for California's Future; Alternative Energy Futures for California; Issues and Problems; and Directions for Future Work. Six appendices deal with residential heating loads and air conditioning, allocations, co-generation, population projections, and the California wind energy resource. (MCW)
Date: September 1, 1977
Creator: Christensen, M.; Craig, P.; McGuire, C.B. & Simmons, M. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department