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Comparison of Design and Practices for Radiation Safety among Five Synchrotron Radiation Facilities

Description: There are more and more third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities in the world that utilize low emittance electron (or positron) beam circulating in a storage ring to generate synchrotron light for various types of experiments. A storage ring based SR facility consists of an injector, a storage ring, and many SR beamlines. When compared to other types of accelerator facilities, the design and practices for radiation safety of storage ring and SR beamlines are unique to SR facilities. Unlike many other accelerator facilities, the storage ring and beamlines of a SR facility are generally above ground with users and workers occupying the experimental floor frequently. The users are generally non-radiation workers and do not wear dosimeters, though basic facility safety training is required. Thus, the shielding design typically aims for an annual dose limit of 100 mrem over 2000 h without the need for administrative control for radiation hazards. On the other hand, for operational and cost considerations, the concrete ring wall (both lateral and ratchet walls) is often desired to be no more than a few feet thick (with an even thinner roof). Most SR facilities have similar operation modes and beam parameters (both injection and stored) for storage ring and SR beamlines. The facility typically operates almost full year with one-month start-up period, 10-month science program for experiments (with short accelerator physics studies and routine maintenance during the period of science program), and a month-long shutdown period. A typical operational mode for science program consists of long periods of circulating stored beam (which decays with a lifetime in tens of hours), interposed with short injection events (in minutes) to fill the stored current. The stored beam energy ranges from a few hundreds MeV to 10 GeV with a low injection beam power (generally less than 10 watts). The ...
Date: June 29, 2005
Creator: Liu, James C.; Rokni, Sayed H.; Asano, Yoshihiro; Casey, William R. & Donahue, Richard J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation Shielding at High-Energy Electron and Proton Accelerators

Description: The goal of accelerator shielding design is to protect the workers, general public, and the environment against unnecessary prompt radiation from accelerator operations. Additionally, shielding at accelerators may also be used to reduce the unwanted background in experimental detectors, to protect equipment against radiation damage, and to protect workers from potential exposure to the induced radioactivity in the machine components. The shielding design for prompt radiation hazards is the main subject of this chapter.
Date: December 10, 2007
Creator: Rokni, Sayed H.; /SLAC; Cossairt, J.Donald; /Fermilab; Liu, James C. & /SLAC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operational Radiation Protection in Synchrotron Light and Free Electron Laser Facilities

Description: The 3rd generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities are storage ring based facilities with many insertion devices and photon beamlines, and have low injection beam power (< few tens of watts), but extremely high stored beam power ({approx} 1 GW). The 4th generation x-ray free electron laser (FEL) facilities are based on an electron Linac with a long undulator and have high injection beam power (a few kW). Due to its electron and photon beam characteristics and modes of operation, storage ring and photon beamlines have unique safety aspects, which are the main subjects of this paper. The shielding design limits, operational modes, and beam losses are first reviewed. Shielding analysis (source terms and methodologies) and interlocked safety systems for storage ring and photon beamlines (including SR and gas bremsstrahlung) are described. Specific safety issues for storage ring top-off injection operation and FEL facilities are discussed. The operational safety program, e.g., operation authorization, commissioning, training, and radiation measurements, for SR facilities is also presented.
Date: December 11, 2009
Creator: Liu, James C.; Rokni, Sayed H.; /SLAC; Vylet, Vaclav & Lab, /Jefferson
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Top-Off Injection and Higher Currents at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

Description: The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is a 234 m circumference storage ring for 3 GeV electrons with its synchrotron radiation serving currently 13 beamlines with about 27 experimental stations. It operated for long time with 100 mA peak current provided by usually three injections per day. In July 2009, the maximum beam current was raised to 200 mA. Over the period from June 2009 to March 2010, Top-Off operation started at every beamline. Top-Off, i.e., the injection of electrons into the storage ring with injection stoppers open, is necessary for SSRL to reach its design current of 500 mA. In the future, the maximal power of the injection current will also soon be raised from currently 1.5 W to 5 W. The Radiation Protection Department at SLAC worked with SSRL on the specifications for the safety systems for operation with Top-Off injection and higher beam currents.
Date: April 5, 2011
Creator: Bauer, Johannes M.; Liu, James C.; Prinz, Alyssa A. & Rokni, Sayed H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department