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Automated sample-processing and titration system for the determination of uranium

Description: The system comprises a computer-controlled automatic wet chemical analyzer, and a scheme for handling all of the data generating operations associated with the assay of solid or solution samples containing uranium. The analytical measurement technique is based on the Davies-Gray/New Brunswick Laboratory method, and involves controlled-current coulometry with potentiometric end-point detection. To increase the credibility of the analytical results and minimize the probability of processing large numbers of samples incorrectly, the analyzer includes an extensive fault-monitoring network. This guards against (a) off-normal conditions that might result in analytical errors, and (b) unsafe operating conditions. There is provision for analyzing standards along with samples and for automatically comparing the standard results with allowable control limits.
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Harrar, J. E.; Boyle, W. G.; Breshears, J. D.; Pomernacki, C. L.; Brand, H. R.; Kray, A. M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automotive powerplant evaluation

Description: A program to obtain automotive engine performance data for use in estimating vehicle emission and fuel economy in varied service and duty is described. An experimental test procedure for generating fuel consumption and emissions data adequate to characterize an engine over its full operating range was developed for steady-state tests. The development of a test procedure for transient testing is currently under way. The steady-state data will be collected from approximately 23 different engines, including: (1) 16 current production spark-ignition engines; (2) 3 pre-production or prototype advanced design spark-ignition engines; and (3) 4 light-duty diesel engines which are, or could be, used in passenger car applications. To date, steady-state ''engine maps'' were completed on 10 engines. A simplified model used to compare steady-state data with chassis dynamometer data indicates that results thus far can be used to obtain estimates of fuel economy in automobiles.
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Stamper, K. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Barrelet zeros and elastic. pi. /sup +/p partial waves. [1. 2 to 2. 2 GeV, partial-wave amplitudes]

Description: A procedure is proposed for constructing low-order partial-wave amplitudes from a knowledge of Barrelet zeros near the physical region. The method is applied to the zeros already obtained for elastic ..pi../sup +/p scattering data between 1.2 and 2.2 GeV cm energies. The partial waves emerge with errors that are straight-forwardly related to the accuracy of the data and satisfy unitarity without any constraint being imposed. There are significant differences from the partial waves obtained by other methods; this can be partially explained by the fact that no previous partial-wave analysis has been able to solve the discrete ambiguity. The cost of the analysis is much less.
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Chew, D. M. & Urban, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculation of magnetic fields for engineering devices

Description: The methodology of magnet technology and its application to various engineering devices are discussed. Magnet technology has experienced a rigid growth in the past few years as a result of the advances made in superconductivity, numerical methods and computational techniques. Included are discussions on: (1) mathematical models for solving magnetic field problems; (2) the applicability, usefulness, and limitations of computer programs that utilize these models; (3) examples of application in various engineering disciplines; and (4) areas where further contributions are needed.
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Colonias, J. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of four methods for determining aluminum in highly radioactive solutions

Description: Four methods for the accurate determination of aluminum in highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions were developed and the results were compared to determine the strengths and weaknesses of each. The solutions of interest contain aluminum in concentrations of 0.5 to 3.5 M and the hydroxide (OH/sup -/) concentrations were greater than 1.0 M. The normal atomic absorption determination was highly inaccurate for these samples so citrate was used as a complexant to improve the results. A fluoride titration was carried out in an ethanol-water matrix using a fluoride ion-selective electrode. A thermometric titration proved successful in determining both the OH/sup -/ and aluminum concentrations of the samples. Finally, a titrimetric method using a pH electrode to determine OH/sup -/ d aluminum was checked and compared with the other methods. Samples were analyzed using all four methods and the agreement of the results was very good. For all four methods the accuracy was around 100 percent and the precision varied from approximately +-2 percent for the fluoride electrode determination to approximately +-10 percent for the atomic absorption determination. On the basis of the work performed, conclusions were drawn about the strengths and weaknesses of each method and whether or not the method was suitable for routine use in analytical laboratories.
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Hanson, T. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cylindrical and spherical solitons. [Soliton observation in cold single-species plasma]

Description: The recent prediction and observation of cylindrical and spherical ion acoustic solitons in a cold, single species plasma are reviewed. The properties of these higher dimensional solitons are quite different from their planar counterpart since the amplitude increases, the width decreases, and the propagation speed increases as the soliton moves inward. Although the results for two- and three-dimensional solitons are obtained numerically, early time solutions can be found analytically and compared with numerical solutions. An interesting phenomenon, which is an integral part of these higher dimensional solitons, is the presence of a wake. Although the amplitude of this wake is very small, it can carry considerable momentum since it extends over a large spatial region.
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Maxon, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data needs for energy policy assessment

Description: The purpose of the paper is to describe a set of unfulfilled needs for data collection and evaluation for energy policy in the area of energy conservation. Models must be developed that describe the consumption patterns of individuals, households, business firms, and industries. To support such models, detailed high-quality data are needed so that meaningful analyses of present and changing energy consumption patterns can be carried out. In the U.S., such data are generally nonexistent or are not available in a form useful for energy policy models. In recognition of the unavailability of needed data in the U.S., for example, the National Academy of Sciences has undertaken a study, funded by the Federal Energy Administration, to determine data needs and data development regarding energy consumption and demands. The results of this study should provide a framework within which detailed work can proceed. Another area of data collection pertinent to energy conservation considerations is that of materials. The extraction, processing, fabrication, distribution, and usage of materials require a substantial fraction of the energy used each year in most industrialized countries. Improvements in the efficient use of energy in the various processes involved in materials production offer a source of considerable energy savings, as does the substitution of less energy-intensive materials for more energy intensive ones. A framework has been proposed within which materials-related options and tradeoffs can be considered. The approach closely patterns that of the BNL Reference Energy System and is called the Reference Material System. (MCW)
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Goldberg, M D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of strength and grain size on near-threshold fatigue crack growth in ultra-high strength steel

Description: Fatigue tests were performed on ultra-high strength steels to assess (i) the influence of strength at constant grain size, and (ii) the influence of grain size at constant strength, on threshold stress intensity and near-threshold crack propagation rates. The results constitute part of a larger program of research to characterize the microstructural influences on fatigue crack propagation at growth rates less than 10/sup -5/ mm/cycle in an attempt to provide a basis for the design of alloys resistant to low growth rate fatigue failure.
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Ritchie, R. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal studies in northern Nevada

Description: The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and University of California (UCB), under the auspices of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, are conducting field studies at potential geothermal resource areas in north-central Nevada. The goal of the LBL-UCB program is to develop and evaluate techniques for the assessment of the resource potential of liquid-dominated systems. Field studies presently being conducted in northern Nevada incorporate an integrated program of geologic, geophysical, and geochemical surveys leading to heat flow measurements, and eventually to deep (1.5 to 2 km) confirmatory drill holes. Techniques evaluated include geophysical methods to measure contrasts in electrical resistivity and seismic parameters. Geochemical studies have emphasized techniques to disclose the pathways of water from its meteoric origin into and through the hydrothermal systems. Geochemical and radiometric analyses also help to provide a baseline upon which the effects of future geothermal development may be superimposed.
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Wollenberg, H. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford waste encapsulation: strontium and cesium. [SrF/sub 2/ encapsulated in Hastelloy C-276 and CsCl in stainless steel 316L]

Description: The strontium and cesium fractions separated from high radiation level wastes at Hanford are converted to the solid strontium fluoride and cesium chloride salts, doubly encapsulated, and stored underwater in the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). A capsule contains approximately 70,000 Ci of /sup 137/Cs or 70,000 to 140,000 Ci of /sup 90/Sr. Materials for fabrication of process equipment and capsules must withstand a combination of corrosive chemicals, high radiation dosages and frequently, elevated temperatures. The two metals selected for capsules, Hastelloy C-276 for strontium fluoride and 316-L stainless steel for cesium chloride, are adequate for prolonged containment. Additional materials studies are being done both for licensing strontium fluoride as source material and for second generation process equipment.
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Jackson, R. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Has hadronic color been excited in neutrino experiments. [Cross sections]

Description: The effect of the massive ''color'' gluon excitation in charged current ..nu..N and anti..nu..N inclusive scattering is studied. The observed rise in sigma/sub c//sup anti..nu..//sigma/sub c//sup ..nu../ and (y)/sup anti..nu../ can be understood as a transient effect arising from the opening of hadronic ''color'' thresholds. This interpretation of the charged current neutrino phenomena does not call for the introduction of the right-handed current of the type (anti pn')/sub R/.
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Sidhu, D. P.; Mohapatra, R. N. & Pati, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methane growth in tritium gas exposed to stainless steel

Description: Tests were run to determine the methane production in tritium gas exposed to 304 stainless steel. The amount of methane produced was very dependent on the cleaning history of the 304 steel and ranged from about 2 to 39 STP cm/sup 3//m/sup 2/ of exposed steel. Tests were conducted at approximately 18 psia and 22 or 100/sup 0/C.
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Morris, G. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Minicomputer based, controlled materials information system

Description: The LLL, Materials Management Group and Data Processing Services have developed a transaction-oriented, minicomputer system for the management of the Laboratory's controlled materials. The system consists of a multi-vendor hardware system designed for ease of operation, maximum reliability, and quick response and the requirements imposed on the hardware and software systems are discussed.
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Roberts, N.; Jessen, T.; Meadors, O. & Seibel, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multiple sine wave excitation of a hard spring oscillator

Description: The vibration testing of non-linear systems has not received much attention in the literature. Frequently, linear procedures are used in the hope that large differences between the linear and non-linear responses will not occur. This may be valid for certain small ranges of the non-linearity and for a single harmonic component excitation. However, for multi-component periodic inputs, there is very little guidance in the literature for even a qualitative evaluation of the probable response. With multi-component periodic inputs, it has been shown that sub-combination frequencies can occur in cubic non-linear systems. Under these conditions, large responses can develop. The critical nature of the development of the large response has not been discussed. This is the subject of this paper. The qualitative response of a two component sine wave applied to a hard spring oscillator is shown.
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Curreri, J R & Bezler, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical simulation of tornado wind loading on structures

Description: A numerical simulation of a tornado interfacing with a building was undertaken in order to compare the pressures due to a rotational unsteady wind with that due to steady straight winds currently used in design of nuclear facilities. The numerical simulations were performed on a two-dimensional compressible hydrodynamics code. Calculated pressure profiles for a typical building are then subjected to a tornado wind field and the results are compared with current quasisteady design calculations. The analysis indicates that current design practices are conservative.
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Maiden, D. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimizing kaon production

Description: Kaon production data is examined with the view toward producing high quality beams in the future. Emphasis is placed upon the low momentum region, below 1 GeV/c, where the behavior of the kaon momentum spectrum is shown to be dominated by strongly momentum dependent kinematic factors. No complete experimental survey of production cross sections at different incident proton energies exists from a single apparatus. Information on relative production yields for different proton energies is important in the choice of parameters for an accelerator constructed primarily as a source of kaons. Data from different accelerators do exist and have been compiled. The key element in understanding how to present the data from different laboratories in a consistent way is an analysis of the effects of target material, target size, and production angle. This analysis not only enables a unification of the data but also indicates simple, useful and powerful principles about optimizing target efficiency. A summary is presented of existing kaon production facilities in the United States. These are all at proton accelerators. The possibility of using electron accelerators as kaon sources is examined. It is found that secondary beam fluxes can be obtained at electron linacs which are comparable to those obtained at proton synchrotrons.
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Berley, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of a seminar on the potential for LMFBR boiling detection by acoustic/neutronic monitoring, Argonne, Illinois, April 8--9, 1976

Description: A seminar involving ten technical presentations by principal investigators was held to assess the current scope of ERDA-sponsored programs to determine the feasibility of sodium-boiling detection in LMFBRs and to establish areas in need of additional research and development. The consensus was that (1) feasibility of boiling detection by acoustic, neutronic, and acoustic/neutronic monitors has been demonstrated in U.S. and European programs; (2) additional research and development is needed in areas of reactor noise, cavitation, and the effects of noncondensible gases on sound source levels and transmission; (3) the role of acoustic/neutronic monitors from the standpoint of reactor surveillance rather than reactor safety is a viable approach to be adapted; and, in particular (4) a need exists for an operational LMFBR demonstration system. Each paper has been separately abstracted and indexed. (DG)
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Carey, W. M. & Albrecht, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactor scram experience for shutdown system reliability analysis. [BWR; PWR]

Description: Scram experience in a number of operating light water reactors has been reviewed. The date and reactor power of each scram was compiled from monthly operating reports and personal communications with the operating plant personnel. The average scram frequency from ''significant'' power (defined as P/sub trip//P/sub max greater than/ approximately 20 percent) was determined as a function of operating life. This relationship was then used to estimate the total number of reactor trips from above approximately 20 percent of full power expected to occur during the life of a nuclear power plant. The shape of the scram frequency vs. operating life curve resembles a typical reliability bathtub curve (failure rate vs. time), but without a rising ''wearout'' phase due to the lack of operating data near the end of plant design life. For this case the failures are represented by ''bugs'' in the plant system design, construction, and operation which lead to scram. The number of scrams would appear to level out at an average of around three per year; the standard deviations from the mean value indicate an uncertainty of about 50 percent. The total number of scrams from significant power that could be expected in a plant designed for a 40-year life would be about 130 if no wearout phase develops near the end of life.
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Edison, G. E.; Pugliese, S. L. & Sacramo, R. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regional transport model of atmospheric sulfates

Description: A regional transport model of atmospheric sulfates was developed. This quasi-Lagrangian three-dimensional grid numerical model uses a detailed SO/sub 2/ emission inventory of major anthropogenic sources in the eastern U.S. region and observed meteorological data during an episode as inputs. The model accounts for advective transport and turbulent diffusion of the pollutants. The chemical transformation of SO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and the deposition of the species at the earth's surface are assumed to be linear processes at specified constant rates. The numerical model can predict the daily average concentrations of SO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ at all receptor locations in the grid region during the episode. Because of the spatial resolution of the grid, this model is particularly suited to investigate the effect of tall stacks in reducing the ambient concentration levels of sulfur pollutants. The formulations and assumptions of the regional sulfate transport model are presented. The model inputs and results are discussed. Isopleths of predicted SO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ concentrations are compared with the observed ground level values.
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Rao, K.S.; Thomson, I. & Egan, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seismic effects on modularized spent fuel storage facilities. [Earthquake resistance]

Description: Large pools are being considered to provide additional storage capacity for spent fuel from nuclear power plants. Because of the large size, modularization of the pool into cells would enhance operational safety and convenience in terms of isolating trouble spots and performing localized clean-up. However, the effects of modularization on earthquake resistance were not clear. An investigation of these effects was made and the results are presented. The findings indicate that modularization may or may not be advantageous in terms of structural loads, depending on the pool configuration and installation. 5 fig.
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Dong, R. G. & Tokarz, F. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Soil-structure interaction in nuclear power plants: a comparison of methods. [Calculation of soil-structure interactions for nuclear power plant site selection]

Description: We performed an extensive parametric survey to analyze the differences between two methods of calculating soil-structure interaction. One method involves discretizing the soil-structure system and solving for the complete response with the LUSH computer code. The other method solves for the lumped mass structural response with Whitman soil springs. Twelve soil-structure interaction problems are solved by each of these methods. Representative results are presented and discussed. The debate within the nuclear industry in the United States over the relative merits of various methods of calculating soil-structure interaction has intensified over the last three years. The debate is largely the result of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's position generally favoring the finite element approach. Certain sectors of the industry claim that this ruling is without technical basis, that it requires unnecessary expense, and that it inhibits the judgment of the analyst. We have addressed each of these points through lumped mass and finite element calculations on a set of twelve soil-structure interaction problems. The results of these calculations indicate some of the consequences of the choice of method.
Date: June 1976
Creator: Wight, Lawrence H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department