346 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation

Description: The purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE)-supported corn fiber conversion project, “Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation” is to develop and demonstrate an integrated, economical process for the separation of corn fiber into its principal components to produce higher value-added fuel (ethanol and biodiesel), nutraceuticals (phytosterols), chemicals (polyols), and animal feed (corn fiber molasses). This project has successfully demonstrated the corn fiber conversion process on the pilot scale, and ensured that the process will integrate well into existing ADM corn wet-mills. This process involves hydrolyzing the corn fiber to solubilize 50% of the corn fiber as oligosaccharides and soluble protein. The solubilized fiber is removed and the remaining fiber residue is solvent extracted to remove the corn fiber oil, which contains valuable phytosterols. The extracted oil is refined to separate the phytosterols and the remaining oil is converted to biodiesel. The de-oiled fiber is enzymatically hydrolyzed and remixed with the soluble oligosaccharides in a fermentation vessel where it is fermented by a recombinant yeast, which is capable of fermenting the glucose and xylose to produce ethanol. The fermentation broth is distilled to remove the ethanol. The stillage is centrifuged to separate the yeast cell mass from the soluble components. The yeast cell mass is sold as a high-protein yeast cream and the remaining sugars in the stillage can be purified to produce a feedstock for catalytic conversion of the sugars to polyols (mainly ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) if desirable. The remaining materials from the purification step and any materials remaining after catalytic conversion are concentrated and sold as a corn fiber molasses. Additional high-value products are being investigated for the use of the corn fiber as a dietary fiber sources.
Date: September 28, 2007
Creator: Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle; Orth, Rick & Zacher, Alan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of alfalfa leaf meal for dairy cows. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

Description: A series of laboratory tests and two feeding experiments were conducted to determine the quality and evaluate the feeding value of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) for dairy cows. An experiment was also conducted to enhance the protein value of ALM for ruminants. The fiber content of 6 different samples obtained from the processing plant from November 1996 to August 1997 were variable, ranging from 28.8 to 44.5% of DM for NDF, and from 16.0 to 28.6% of DM for ADF. Ash content ranged from 10.1 to 13.8% of the DM. The protein content of ALM was fairly constant and ranged from 21.8 to 23.6% of DM. Amino acids comprise at least 70% of the total CP in ALM, but essential amino acids comprise only about 35% of the total CP. The amino acid profile of ALM is similar to that of alfalfa hay, but markedly different from that of soybean meal. Overall, ALM produced to date is similar in nutrient content to prime alfalfa hay. In one of the feeding trials, ALM pellets were used to replace part of the hay in diets for early lactation cows. The results indicate that ALM pellets can make up as much as 16% of the diet DM in replacement of an equivalent amount of high quality chopped alfalfa hay without adverse effects on production or rumen health. In an other study, ALM replaced soybean meal to supply up to 3 3 % of the total CP in the diet without any detrimental effect on production. However, in each study, dry matter intake was reduced when ALM was included in the diet at or above 15 to 16% of the DM. Although this reduction in feed intake did not influence milk production over the short duration of these studies, it is not known what ...
Date: October 30, 1997
Creator: Akayezu, J.M.; Jorgensen, M.A.; Linn, J.G. & Jung, H.J.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Feeding of Farm Animals

Description: Report discussing the general principles of the feeding of farm animals based on experiments and investigations as well as the observations of successful animal feeders. The discussion includes suggested rations for various animals and purposes.
Date: 1897
Creator: Allen, E. W. (Edward W.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Feeding of Farm Animals

Description: Report discussing the general principles of the feeding of farm animals based on experiments and investigations as well as the observations of successful animal feeders. The discussion includes suggested rations for various animals and purposes.
Date: 1895
Creator: Allen, E. W. (Edward W.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

How Live Stock Is Handled in the Bluegrass Region of Kentucky

Description: "The object of this bulletin is to show how livestock is handled and fits into the farm organization in the bluegrass region of Kentucky. The average successful farm of any long-established type will have various kinds of livestock distributed in about the proportion that owners or operators in general believe will pay best. Thus, a gradual process of selection is going on constantly in all agricultural regions, and it should be to the farmer's interest to know the best practice in his community and to have explained the economic advantages that have been secured by such practice. In this bulletin an effort has been made to bring out the fundamental practices that make for success with livestock in central Kentucky as determined by the practices of the more successful livestock farmers of that region." -- p. 3
Date: 1917
Creator: Arnold, J. H. (Jacob Hiram), 1864-1921
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Update of distillers grains displacement ratios for corn ethanol life-cycle analysis.

Description: Production of corn-based ethanol (either by wet milling or by dry milling) yields the following coproducts: distillers grains with solubles (DGS), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn oil. Of these coproducts, all except corn oil can replace conventional animal feeds, such as corn, soybean meal, and urea. Displacement ratios of corn-ethanol coproducts including DGS, CGM, and CGF were last updated in 1998 at a workshop at Argonne National Laboratory on the basis of input from a group of experts on animal feeds, including Prof. Klopfenstein (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Prof. Berger (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Mr. Madson (Rapheal Katzen International Associates, Inc.), and Prof. Trenkle (Iowa State University) (Wang 1999). Table 1 presents current dry milling coproduct displacement ratios being used in the GREET model. The current effort focuses on updating displacement ratios of dry milling corn-ethanol coproducts used in the animal feed industry. Because of the increased availability and use of these coproducts as animal feeds, more information is available on how these coproducts replace conventional animal feeds. To glean this information, it is also important to understand how industry selects feed. Because of the wide variety of available feeds, animal nutritionists use commercial software (such as Brill Formulation{trademark}) for feed formulation. The software recommends feed for the animal on the basis of the nutritional characteristics, availability, and price of various animal feeds, as well as on the nutritional requirements of the animal (Corn Refiners Association 2006). Therefore, feed formulation considers both the economic and the nutritional characteristics of feed products.
Date: February 1, 2011
Creator: Arora, S.; Wu, M.; Wang, M. & Systems, Energy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Self-Feeder for Hogs

Description: "With the ingredients of a good ration constantly before them, placed so that they may eat at will, hogs will make gains more rapidly and more economically than when fed by hand. The time needed to bring them to a certain weight will be shortened and the labor of feeding them will be reduced. Results of experiments proving these facts are stated briefly in this bulletin, and plans for constructing self-feeders of several kinds are given, together with lists of materials needed." -- p. 2
Date: 1917
Creator: Ashbrook, F. G. (Frank Getz), 1892- & Gongwer, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal source potential and utilization for methane generation and alcohol production

Description: A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of integrating a geothermally heated anaerobic digester with a fuel alcohol plant and cattle feedlot. Thin stillage produced from the alcohol production process and manure collected from the cattle feedlot would be digested in anaerobic digesters to produce biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, and residue. The energy requirements to maintain proper digester temperatures would be provided by geothermal water. The biogas produced in the digesters would be burned in a boiler to produce low-pressure steam which would be used in the alcohol production process. The alcohol plant would be sized so that the distiller's grains byproduct resulting from the alcohol production would be adequate to supply the daily cattle feed requirements. A portion of the digester residue would substitute for alfalfa hay in the cattle feedlot ration. The major design criterion for the integrated facilty was the production of adequate distiller's grain to supply the daily requirements of 1700 head of cattle. It was determined that, for a ration of 7 pounds of distiller's grain per head per day, a 1 million gpy alcohol facility would be required. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared for the proposed project, operating costs were calculated for a facility based on a corn feedstock, the economic feasibility of the proposed project was examined by calculating its simple payback, and an analysis was performed to examine the sensitivity of the project's economic viability to variations in feedstock costs and alcohol and distiller's grain prices.
Date: November 1, 1981
Creator: Austin, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uses of Sorghum Grain

Description: This report discusses the uses of sorghum grain for human food and animal feed, including information about nutrition, digestibility, and storage and preparation. Sorghum is grown primarily in the southern Great Plains of the United States.
Date: 1915
Creator: Ball, Carleton R. (Carleton Roy), 1873-1958 & Rothgeb, Benton E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Minnesota agri-power project. Quarterly report, January--March 1997

Description: This project involves the growing of trial quantities of alfalfa for gasification pilot plant tests and the use of by-products of alfalfa plants as animal feeds for beef and dairy cattle and turkeys. The various tasks under this project are described. Tasks are: design; review and confirm feedstock supply plan; performance guarantees and warranties; sales contracts; site plan construction and environmental permits report; environmental monitoring plan; and project management, engineering, and administration.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Baloun, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Minnesota agripower project. Quarterly report, April--June 1997

Description: The Minnesota Valley Alfalfa Producers (MnVAP) propose to build an alfalfa processing plant integrated with an advanced power plant system at the Granite Falls, Minnesota Industrial Park to provide 75 MW of base load electric power and a competitively priced source of value added alfalfa based products. This project will utilize air blown fluidized bed gasification technology to process alfalfa stems and another biomass to produce a hot, clean, low heating value gas that will be used in a gas turbine. Exhaust heat from the gas turbine will be used to generate steam to power a steam turbine and provide steam for the processing of the alfalfa leaf into a wide range of products including alfalfa leaf meal, a protein source for livestock. The plant will demonstrate high efficiency and environmentally compatible electric power production, as well as increased economic yield from farm operations in the region. The initial phase of the Minnesota Agripower Project (MAP) will be to perform alfalfa feedstock testing, prepare preliminary designs, and develop detailed plans with estimated costs for project implementation. The second phase of MAP will include detailed engineering, construction, and startup. Full commercial operation will start in 2001.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Baloun, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Livestock Feed Costs: Concerns and Options

Description: Sharply higher feed costs, fueled by competing use demands for corn and soybeans and by rising energy prices, are affecting the beef, pork, dairy, and poultry industries. In contrast, wholesales prices for most animal products have held steady. Some analysts argue that current public policies, including financial incentives that divert corn from feed uses into ethanol production, have exacerbated if not caused these higher costs. Other factors include crop production declines due to weather, and higher global demand for consumption. Proposed options aimed at easing the impacts of higher feed costs include changes in ethanol incentives, use of conservation land for forage use, and direct aid to producers.
Date: June 30, 2008
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Poultry Management

Description: "This paper is confined entirely to the chicken industry, as it was found that to treat thoroughly all phases of poultry raising would make a bulletin of undue length, and furthermore, turkeys, ducks, geese, guinea fowls, etc., are covered in a satisfactory manner by other publications of the Department. The bulletin has been prepared from the practical standpoint, and technicalities have been avoided as much as possible. In all respects the effort has been made to bring the discussion of methods and appliances down to date, including such subjects as dry feeding, curtain-front houses, colony houses, etc.... The methods used on some of these farms are described, and some of the houses and appliances are illustrated." -- p. 2
Date: 1907
Creator: Bell, George A. (George Arthur), b. 1879
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feeding Horses

Description: "This bulletin explains the computation of rations for horses, suggests certain feed combinations which approximately meet the needs of horses under differing conditions, and reviews such factors of feeding as tend to make the horse more efficient." -- p. 2
Date: 1916
Creator: Bell, George A. (George Arthur), b. 1879 & Williams, J. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feeding Horses

Description: Revised edition. "This bulletin explains the computation of rations for horses, suggests certain feed combinations which approximately meet the needs of horses under differing conditions, and reviews such factors of feeding as tend to make the horse more efficient." -- p. ii
Date: 1924
Creator: Bell, George A. (George Arthur), b. 1879 & Williams, J. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feeding Horses

Description: Revised edition. "This bulletin explains the computation of rations for horses, suggests certain feed combinations which approximately meet the needs of horses under differing conditions, and reviews such factors of feeding as tend to make the horse more efficient." -- p. ii
Date: 1934
Creator: Bell, George A. (George Arthur), b. 1879 & Williams, J. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feeding Horses

Description: Revised edition. "This bulletin explains the computation of rations for horses, suggests certain feed combinations which approximately meet the needs of horses under differing conditions, and reviews such factors of feeding as tend to make the horse more efficient." -- p. ii
Date: 1941
Creator: Bell, George A. (George Arthur), b. 1879 & Williams, J. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beef Production in the Corn Belt

Description: This bulletin discusses beef production in the Corn Belt of the United States with special regard to feed preparation, cattle selection, and methods for fattening cattle.
Date: 1921
Creator: Black, W. H. (William Henry), 1888-1949
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feed-Lot and Ranch Equipment for Beef Cattle

Description: "Practical equipment which is more or less essential in the successful handling of beef cattle on the range and in the feed lot is discussed in this bulletin and illustrated by drawings and photographs. Details concerning silos, barns, and concrete work which have previously been presented in other publications are not included, but reference is made to the publication containing such details." -- p. ii. Includes discussion of sheds, windbreaks, feeders, troughs, tanks, silos, scales, corrals, and dipping vats.
Date: 1929
Creator: Black, W. H. 1888-1949 & Parr, V. V.; 1888-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of wetlands for treating wastes: wisdom in diversity. [Kissimmee Valley, Florida wetland management model]

Description: Preliminary analysis of data from two Kissimmee Valley, Florida wetland models operating continuously over the past four years suggest that increased diversity may be one of the major factors in the startling ability of certain wetland systems to retain high amounts of nutrients. According to preliminary analysis of total phosphorus, increasing the number of biotopes, or ecocomponents, in a flow sequence will increase the ability of systems to take up and retain a greater amount of nutrients than would a continuous, single ecosystem of the same size. Increasing the number of compartments is, to begin with, an increase in structural diversity, and any biotic diversity is extended by the presence of different ecosystems adjacent to each other in linear sequence, thus providing habitat diversity. The increased number of barriers between ecocomponents increases the possibility for diversity by providing physical traps for nutrients and greater spatial heterogeneity. It is important to note that barriers may be distinct physical impediments to the movement of water, sediments or organisms between ecocomponents, such as a dam, or may be more subtle biological impediments, such as a gently sloping benthic gradient, which create slight habitat differences (water depth, light, temperature, etc.) favoring one plant or animal over another. The increase of habitat and species diversity as a means of improving nutrient uptake may provide a number of practical applications to recreating wetlands in the Kissimmee Valley. Implications of the findings for improving socio-economic conditions in the region are discussed.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Blumer, K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for corn refining plants.

Description: Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing their plant's performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing facilities can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the corn refining industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for facilities that produce a variety of products--including corn starch, corn oil, animal feed, corn sweeteners, and ethanol--for the paper, food, beverage, and other industries in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for corn refining plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.
Date: July 31, 2006
Creator: Boyd, G. A.; Sciences, Decision and Information & USEPA
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1985-1986 Progress (Annual) Report.

Description: This investigation tests the hypothesis that ration protein quality can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The general approach being used involves a comparison of coho and chinook salmon reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and commercial rations relying on commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of replicate brood-years of coded wire tagged test and control fish are being used to determine the influence of ration on survival. Project rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, and 1984-brood replicates of coho salmon; the 1983 and 1984-brood replicates of fall chinook (tule stock salmon; and the 1985-brood of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. The 1985-brood year replicate of coho salmon is presently being reared and has been tagged for release in April 1987. The rearing of the 1986-brood replicate of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon has been initiated. This report covers the rearing and release of the 1984-brood coho and the 1985-brood fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. Plasma cortisol and thyroxine (T/sub 4/) level, gill Na/sup +//K/sup +/-ATPase, osmoregulatory performance, immunocompetency and total hepatic/gill microsomal lipid content were monitored from early June to mid-October 1986 to assess the physiological condition of fall chinook salmon. Results indicated that on several sampling dates early in the 1986 rearing period fish supplied the control ration were physiologically different than fish receiving the salmon meal ration. Incomplete recovery of coded wire tags from 1982 and 1983-broods of coho salmon (Sandy stock) revealed an improved (P greater than or equal to .05) survival for fish supplied test rations.
Date: April 1, 1987
Creator: Bradford, C. Samuel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department