67 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Environmental monitoring report for Pantex Plant covering 1975

Description: During 1975 Pantex Plant conducted a monitoring program to determine the concentration of specific radioactive and non-radioactive species in the local environment. Although the plant activities involve the handling of significant quantities of uranium, plutonium and tritium, only small releases of uranium (depleted in the isotope /sup 235/U) and tritium occurred which could have affected the local environment. Monitoring data indicate that concentrations of these nuclides in the environment are below established criteria for air and water and therefore should not present a health hazard either to employees or to the public.
Date: March 5, 1976
Creator: Alexander, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monte Carlo simulation of turbulent atmospheric transport and comparisons with experimental data. [/sup 41/Ar continuously emitted from BNL reactor to atmosphere]

Description: In a previous paper Peterson presented measurements on the /sup 41/Ar emitted continuously into the atmosphere from a reactor at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Here, calculated results obtained with the Monte Carlo atmospheric transport model of Watson and Barr are presented and compared with the experimental data. The measured quantities with which comparisons are made are: the position north of Brookhaven where the maximum /sup 41/Ar concentration occurred for specific values of x (east of Brookhaven) and t, time; the standard deviation, sigma/sub y/, of the /sup 41/Ar concentration about the position of maximum concentration for specific values of x and t; and a quantity that is proportional to the maximum /sup 41/Ar concentration for specific values of x and t. The calculated results are in moderately good agreement with the experimental data at most distances (less than or equal to 300 km) and most times for which data are available.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Alsmiller, F. S.; Alsmiller, Jr., R. G.; Bertini, H. W. & Begovich, C. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emitted and decayed values of radionuclides in gaseous wastes discharged to the atmosphere from the separation facilities through calendar year 1972

Description: Gaseous wastes from the chemical separations processing of spent reactor fuel elements and product finishing operations have been discharged to the atmosphere since 1944. Data on plutonium, beta, iodine, and uranium emissions for the twenty-nine years are provided. The known radioactivity in gaseous wastes and estimated radioactivity in gaseous waste where prime data were not available are presented. Emission data are not included on gaseous wastes emitted from 200 Area facilities which are now under the jurisdiction of other Hanford contractors.
Date: March 1, 1974
Creator: Anderson, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

User's guide to the MESOI diffusion model: Version 1. 1 (for Data General Eclipse S/230 with AFOS)

Description: MESOI is an interactive, Langrangian puff trajectory model. The model theory is documented separately (Ramsdell and Athey, 1981). Version 1.1 is a modified form of the original 1.0. It is designed to run on a Data General Eclipse computer. The model has improved support features which make it useful as an emergency response tool. This report is intended to provide the user with the information necessary to successfully conduct model simulations using MESOI Version 1.1 and to use the support programs STAPREP and EXPLT. The user is also provided information on the use of the data file maintenance and review program UPDATE. Examples are given for the operation of the program. Test data sets are described which allow the user to practice with the programs and to confirm proper implementation and execution.
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Athey, G.F. & Ramsdell, J.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CRRIS: a methodology for assessing the impact of airborne radionuclide releases

Description: The Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) consists of six fully integrated computer codes which calculate environmental transport and resulting doses and risks to individuals or populations exposed to atmospheric radionuclide releases. The individual codes may be used alone for various assessment applications or may be run as a system. This presentation provides an overview and introduction to this system of computer codes and their use in conducting nuclear assessments. Radionuclides are handled by CRRIS either in terms of the released radionuclides or in terms of exposure radionuclides which consist of both the released nuclides and all (or a subset of) the decay daughters that grow in during environmental transport. The capability of CRRIS to handle radionuclide chains is accomplished through PRIMUS which serves as a preprocessor by accessing a library of radionuclide decay data and sets up matricies of decay constants which are used by the other CRRIS codes in all calculations involving transport and decay. PRIMUS may also be run independently by the user to define the decay chains, radionuclide decay constants, and branching ratios.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Baes, C.F. III & Miller, C.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Generating color terrain images in an emergency response system

Description: The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) provides real-time assessments of the consequences resulting from an atmospheric release of radioactive material. In support of this operation, a system has been created which integrates numerical models, data acquisition systems, data analysis techniques, and professional staff. Of particular importance is the rapid generation of graphical images of the terrain surface in the vicinity of the accident site. A terrain data base and an associated acquisition system have been developed that provide the required terrain data. This data is then used as input to a collection of graphics programs which create and display realistic color images of the terrain. The graphics system currently has the capability of generating color shaded relief images from both overhead and perspective viewpoints within minutes. These images serve to quickly familiarize ARAC assessors with the terrain near the release location, and thus permit them to make better informed decisions in modeling the behavior of the released material. 7 refs., 8 figs.
Date: August 1, 1985
Creator: Belles, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Real-time computing of the environmental consequences of an atmospheric accidental release of radioactive material: user's point of view

Description: All calculations of the consequences of an atmospheric release must start with atmospheric dispersion calculations. Time factors make external and inhalation dose estimates of immediate concern closely followed by ground contamination of land, pastures and onch agricultural crops. In general, the difficulties in modeling the source term and atmospheric transport and diffusion account for most of the error in calculating the dose to man. Thus, sophisticated treatment of the dose part of the calculating is not usually justified, though the relative distribution of dose in individual organs may be needed for correct decision marking. This paper emphasizes the atmospheric transport and diffusion part of the dose estimate and relates how this calculation can be used to estimate dose. 12 refs.
Date: July 1, 1985
Creator: Boeri, G.; Caracciolo, R. & Dickerson, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements and modeling of gamma absorbed doses due to releases from a linear proton accelerator: experimental design and preliminary results

Description: External radiation levels due to positron annihilation radiation from /sup 11/C, /sup 13/N, and /sup 15/O released by the 800 MeV linear proton accelerator at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) have been monitored at a fence-line location both by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and high pressure ionization chambers (HPICs). The accelerator is located in irregular terrain consisting of mesas and canyons. Fifteen-minute, accumulated external radiation levels were recorded with the HPICs. Instruments on a nerby meteorological tower concurrently measured wind speed and direction at three levels, temperature at two levels, solar radiation, and rainfall. Real-time radionuclide release rates and stack velocities were measured at the release point with in-stack monitors. This paper presents analyses of short-term radiation levels using HPICs and long-term levels using TLDs. Work being done to develop a computer model to predict external radiation levels based on meteorological data is also discussed.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Bowen, B.M.; Buhl, T.E.; Dewart, J.M.; Hansen, W.R.; Talley, D.; Chen, A.I. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement and modeling of external radiation during 1984 from LAMPF atmospheric emissions

Description: An array of three portable, pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) measured short-term external radiation levels produced by air activation products from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The monitoring was at the closet offsite location, 700-900 m north and northeast of the source, and across a large, deep canyon. A Gaussian-type atmospheric dispersion model, using onsite meteorological and stack release data, was tested during their study. Monitoring results indicate that a persistent, local up-valley wind during the evening and early morning hours is largely responsible for causing the highest radiation levels to the northeast and north-northeast of LAMPF. Comparison of predicted and measured daily external radiation levels indicates a high degree of correlation. The model also gives accurate estimates of measured concentrations over longer periods of time.
Date: July 1, 1986
Creator: Bowen, B.M.; Olsen, W.A.; Van Etten, D. & Chen, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions

Description: A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ respectively. U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future /sup 222/Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that /sup 222/Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total /sup 222/Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total /sup 222/Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate.
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O. & Young, J.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Background information on sources of low-level radionuclide emissions to air

Description: This report provides a general description and reported emissions for eight low-level radioactive source categories, including facilties that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Agreement States, and non-Department of Energy (DOE) federal facilities. The eight categories of low-level radioactive source facilities covered by this report are: research and test reactors, accelerators, the radiopharmaceutical industry, source manufacturers, medical facilities, laboratories, naval shipyards, and low-level commercial waste disposal sites. Under each category five elements are addressed: a general description, a facility and process description, the emission control systems, a site description, and the radionuclides released to air (from routine operations).
Date: September 1, 1983
Creator: Corbit, C.D.; Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Stout, L.A. & Corley, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lower limit of detection: definition and elaboration of a proposed position for radiological effluent and environmental measurements

Description: A manual is provided to define and illustrate a proposed use of the Lower Limit of Detection (LLD) for Radiological Effluent and Environmental Measurements. The manual contains a review of information regarding LLD practices gained from site visits; a review of the literature and a summary of basic principles underlying the concept of detection in Nuclear and Analytical Chemistry; a detailed presentation of the application of LLD principles to a range of problem categories (simple counting to multinuclide spectroscopy), including derivations, equations, and numerical examples; and a brief examination of related issues such as reference samples, numerical quality control, and instrumental limitations. An appendix contains a summary of notation and terminology, a bibliography, and worked-out examples. 100 references, 10 figures, 7 tables.
Date: September 1, 1984
Creator: Currie, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC): update 1977. [Atmospheric monitoring of effluents from DOE nuclear facilities]

Description: The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) is a service to facilities requiring a means of realtime prediction of the extent of health hazards that may result from a release of radionuclides or other toxic materials. The ARAC system, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE), consists of a network of serviced facilities and a central facility at the University of California, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL). Since 1973, when the concept was initiated, a joint feasibility study of the ARAC system has been conducted by LLL and the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and research and development was initiated to implement this service for DOE nuclear facilities. The present system of three sites (LLL, Savannah River Plant and the Rocky Flats Plant) is now being tested and evaluated with the Mound Laboratory scheduled to join the network in the fall of 1977. Plans are presently being formulated to implement the ARAC service for additional DOE sites during the next several years. This article briefly describes the ARAC concept, discusses progress to date and outlines future plans for completing the system's development and operating the service.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Dickerson, M.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of MATHEW/ADPIC model evaluation studies

Description: This report summarizes model evaluation studies conducted for the MATHEW/ADPIC transport and diffusion models during the past ten years. These models support the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability, an emergency response service for atmospheric releases of nuclear material. Field campaigns involving tracer releases used in these studies cover a broad range of meteorology, terrain and tracer release heights, the three most important aspects of estimating air concentration values resulting from airborne releases of toxic material. Results of these studies show that these models can estimate air concentration values within a factor of 2, 20% to 50% of the time and a factor of 5, 40% to 80% of the time. As the meteorology and terrain become more complex and the release height of the tracer is increased the accuracy of the model calculations degrades. This band of uncertainty appears to correctly represent the capability of these models at this time. 13 refs., 8 figs.
Date: October 1, 1985
Creator: Dickerson, M.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ARAC: a centralized computer assisted emergency planning, response, and assessment system for atmospheric releases of toxic material

Description: The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) is an emergency planning, response, and assessment service, developed by the US Departments of Energy and Defense, and focused, thus far, on atmospheric releases of nuclear material. For the past 14 years ARAC has responded to over 150 accidents, potential accidents, and major exercises. The most notable accident responses are the COSMOS 954 reentry, the Three Mile Island (TMI-2) accident and subsequent purge of /sup 85/Kr from the containment vessel, the recent UF/sub 6/ accident at the Kerr-McGee Plant, Gore, Oklahoma, and the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union. Based on experience in the area of emergency response, developed during the past 14 years, this paper describes the cost effectiveness and other advantages of a centralized emergency planning, response, and assessment service for atmospheric releases of nuclear material.
Date: October 1, 1986
Creator: Dickerson, M.H. & Knox, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) for long-term assessment of operating releases from the nuclear power industry

Description: The application of the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) methodology to the long-term assessment of operating releases from the nuclear power industry was investigated. Gaussian calculations had been previously compared with MATHEW/ADPIC calculations for a simulated 24-hr release in the Hudson River Valley and an area in the southeast. Considerable differences were noted in the comparisons, which were attributed to the more realistic simulation of the time and space varying wind fields by the MATHEW/ADPIC computer codes.
Date: November 1, 1978
Creator: Dickerson, M.H.; Walton, J.J. & Tuerpe, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of the radon concentrations in air caused by emissions from multiple sources in a uranium mining and milling region. A case study of the Ambrosia Lake region of New Mexico

Description: The Ambrosia Lake uranium mining and milling operations were selected to characterize the relative importance of these sources on ambient atmospheric radon concentrations. All uranium mines at Ambrosia Lake are underground. The comparisons of interest were both between the sources and between the sources and background concentrations. The results show that vents are by far the greatest source of the computed radon concentrations in the immediate area of the operations. The computed radon concentrations at receptor points were largely influenced by the closer sources, rather than by more distant stronger sources. The area where computed radon concentrations significantly exceed the background is confined to the general area around the vents and mills. A comparison between computed radon concentrations and monitoring data at selected points demonstrates order of magnitude agreement.
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: Droppo, J.G. & Glissmeyer, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health: Part 5, Nuclear and operational safety

Description: Part 5 of the 1986 Annual Report to the Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Operational Safety, and for the Office of Environmental Analysis. For each project, as identified by the Field Task Proposal/Agreement, articles describe progress made during fiscal year 1986. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from three of the seven research departments of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.
Date: February 1, 1987
Creator: Faust, L.G.; Kennedy, W.E.; Steelman, B.L. & Selby, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Filter testing and development for prolonged transuranic service and waste reduction

Description: The life of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters used in transuranic service is influenced greatly by the gaseous and particulate matter to which the filters are exposed. The most severe conditions encountered at Rocky Flats are at the ventilation systems serving the plutonium recovery operations in Bldg. 771. A project of filter testing and development for prolonged transuranic service and waste reduction was formally initiated at Rocky Flats on July 1, 1975. The project is directed toward improving filtration methods which will prolong the life of HEPA filter systems without sacrificing effectiveness. Another important aspect of the project is to reduce the volume of HEPA filter waste shipped from the plant for long-term storage. Progress to September 30, 1976, is reported.
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Geer, J. A.; Buttedahl, O. I.; Skaats, C. D.; Terada, K. & Woodard, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of models applicable to accident aerosols

Description: Estimations of potential airborne-particle releases are essential in safety assessments of nuclear-fuel facilities. This report is a review of aerosol behavior models that have potential applications for predicting aerosol characteristics in compartments containing accident-generated aerosol sources. Such characterization of the accident-generated aerosols is a necessary step toward estimating their eventual release in any accident scenario. Existing aerosol models can predict the size distribution, concentration, and composition of aerosols as they are acted on by ventilation, diffusion, gravity, coagulation, and other phenomena. Models developed in the fields of fluid mechanics, indoor air pollution, and nuclear-reactor accidents are reviewed with this nuclear fuel facility application in mind. The various capabilities of modeling aerosol behavior are tabulated and discussed, and recommendations are made for applying the models to problems of differing complexity.
Date: July 1, 1983
Creator: Glissmeyer, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report for 1982

Description: The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne Ntaional Laboratory for 1982 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and milk; for a variety of chemical constituents in air, surface water, ground water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and masurements were made at the site boundary and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. Some on-site measurements were made to aid in the interpretation of the boundary and off-site data. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated.
Date: March 1, 1983
Creator: Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L. & Sedlet, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department