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Development of natural gas reburning for control of NO sub x from municipal waste combustors

Description: The Gas Research Institute (GRI) and the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), in cooperation with Riley Stoker Corporation (Riley), USA, and Takuma Company Ltd. (Takuma), Japan, have developed a gas reburn process for application to municipal waste combustors (MWCs). The reburn process is based on extensive full-scale MWC in-furnace characterization and furnace gas simulation experimental testing. The approach, based on the use of recirculated flue gas to inject and mix natural gas in the reburn zone and control the stoichiometry, was developed and tested in a pilot-scale MWC firing actual municipal waste at a rate of 5.5 metric tons/day. The furnace simulation and the pilot tests define the key process parameters and show that 50% to 70% NO{sub x} reduction can be achieved. A full-scale reburn system has been designed and retrofitted into a full-scale 100-ton/day commercial Riley/Takuma MWC. Field evaluation began in December 1990. This paper describes the results of the development studies and the plans for full-scale system testing. Although the results of full-scale testing are not available for inclusion in this transcript, they will be presented with conclusions at the conference. 2 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Abbasi, H.; Tarman, P.B. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)) & Linz, D.G. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of natural gas injection technology for NO sub x reduction from municipal waste combustors

Description: Natural gas injection (NGI) technology for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) is being developed. The approach involves the injection of natural gas, together with recirculated flue gases (for mixing), above the grate to provide reducing combustion conditions that promote the destruction of NO{sub x} precursors, as well as NO{sub x}. Extensive development testing was subsequently carried out in a 2.5 {times} 10{sup 6} Btu/h (0.7 MWth) pilot-scale MWC firing actual MSW. Both tests, using simulated combustion products and actual MSW, showed that 50% to 70% NO{sub x} reduction could be achieved. These results were used to define the key operating parameters. A full-scale system has been designed and retrofitted to a 100-ton/day Riley/Takuma mass burn system at the Olmsted County Waste-to-Energy facility. The system was designed to provide variation in the key parameters to not only optimize the process for the Olmsted unit, but also to acquire design data for MWCs of other sizes and designs. Extensive testing was conducted to December 1990 and January 1991 to evaluate the effectiveness of NGI. This paper concentrates on the METHANE de-NO{sub x} system retrofit and testing. The results show simultaneous reductions of 60% in NO{sub x}, 50% in CO, and 40% in excess air requirement with natural gas injection. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Abbasi, H.A.; Khinkis, M.J. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Penterson, C.A.; Zone, F. (Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States)); Dunnette, R. (Olmsted County Waste-to-Energy, Rochester, MN (United States)); Nakazato, K. (Itho Takuma Resource Systems, Inc., Osaka (Japan)) et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stabilization and/or regeneration of spent sorbents from coal gasification

Description: The objective of this investigation is to determine the effects of SO{sub 2} partial pressure and reaction temperature on the conversion of sulfide containing solid wastes from coal gasifiers to stable and environmentally acceptable calcium-sulfate, while preventing the release of sulfur dioxide through undesirable side reactions during the stabilization step. An additional objective of this program is to investigate the use of the Spent Sorbent Regeneration Process (SSRP) to regenerate spent limestone, from a fluidized-bed gasifier with in-bed sulfur capture, for recycling to the gasifier. To achieve these objectives, selected samples of partially sulfided sorbents will be reacted with oxygen at a variety of operating conditions under sufficient SO{sub 2} partial pressure to prevent release of sulfur from the solids during stabilization that reduces the overall sorbent utilization. Partially sulfided limestone will also be regenerated with water to produce calcium hydroxide and release sulfur as H{sub 2}S. The regenerated sorbent will be dewatered, dried and pelletized. The reactivity of the regenerated sorbent toward H{sub 2}S will also be determined. During this quarter sulfidation tests were conducted in a quartz fluidized-bed reactor in which the selected calcium-based sorbents were first calcined and then were reacted with hydrogen sulfide at ambient pressure and 1650{degree}F. These tests were conducted with each sorbent in two particle sizes. Chemical analyses of the partially sulfided sorbents indicate that the extent of sulfidation was in the range of 40--50%. The partially sulfided material will be reacted with oxygen to determine the effects of temperature and SO{sub 2} partial pressure on the stabilization of the calcium sulfide in solid waste materials. 23 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Abbasian, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of regenerable copper-based sorbents for hot gas cleanup: Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

Description: The overall objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the copper-chromite sorbent (developed in previous ICCI-funded projects) for longer duration application under optimum conditions in the temperature range of 550{degrees}-650{degrees}C to minimize sorbent reduction and degradation during the cyclic process. Three (3) formulations of attrition resistant granules of the copper chromite sorbent (i.e., CuCr-10, CuCr-21, and CuCr-29) as well as one (1) copper chromite sorbent in pellet form (i.e., CuCr-36) were selected for cyclic desulfurization tests. The desulfurization and regeneration capabilities of the selected formulations as well as the effects of operating parameters were determined, to identify the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} sorbent formulation and the optimum operating conditions. The durability of the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} sorbent formulation was determined in {open_quotes}long-term{close_quotes} multicycle tests conducted at the optimum operating conditions. The attrition resistance of the selected formulations were determined and compared with those of other sorbents, including a limestone, a dolomite, and a commercial zinc titanate sorbent. The results obtained in this study indicate that, the CuCr-29 sorbent has excellent attrition resistance and desulfurization performance, which are far superior to the commercial zinc titanate sorbents. The optimum desulfurization temperature in terms of sorbent efficiency and utilization appears to be about 600{degrees}C. Sorbent regeneration at 750{degrees}C ensured complete conversion of the copper sulfide to oxide without sulfate formation or reactivity deterioration in subsequent cycles.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B. & Wangerow, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT

Description: The overall objective of this program was to develop regenerable sorbents for use in the temperature range of 343 to 538 C (650 to 1000 F) to remove hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal-derived fuel gases in a fluidized-bed reactor. The goal was to develop sorbents that are capable of reducing the H{sub 2}S level in the fuel gas to less than 20 ppmv in the specified temperature range and pressures in the range of 1 to 20 atmospheres, with chemical characteristics that permit cyclic regeneration over many cycles without a drastic loss of activity, as well as physical, characteristics that are compatible with the fluidized bed application. This topical report focuses on the investigation directed toward preparation of zinc-based sorbents using the sol-gel approach that has been shown to require only a moderate temperature for calcination, while resulting in significantly more attrition-resistant sorbents. The sorbents prepared in this part of the investigation and the results from their evaluation in packed-bed and fluidized-bed reactors are described in this report.
Date: January 1, 2000
Creator: Abbasian, Javad
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NOVEL GAS CLEANING/CONDITIONING FOR INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE

Description: The objective of this program is to develop and evaluate novel sorbents for the Siemens Westinghouse Power Company's (SWPC's) ''Ultra-Clean Gas Cleaning Process'' for reducing to near-zero levels the sulfur- and chlorine-containing gas emissions and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) caused by fuel bound constituents found in carbonaceous materials, which are processed in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technologies.
Date: July 1, 2001
Creator: Abbasian, Javad
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stabilization of spent sorbents from coal-based power generation processes. Technical report, September 1, 1995--November 30,1995

Description: The overall objective of this study is to determine the effect of implementation of the new and more stringent EPA Protocol Test Method involving sulfide containing waste, on the suitability of the oxidized spent sorbents from gasification of of high sulfur coals for disposal in landfills, and to determine the optimum operating conditions in a ``final`` hydrolysis stage for conversion of the residual calcium sulfide in these wastes to materials that are suitable for disposal in landfills. An additional objective is to study the effect of ash on the regeneration and ash-sorbent separation steps in the Spent Sorbent Regeneration Process (SSRP). To achieve these objectives, a large set of oxidized samples of sulfided calcium-based sorbents (produced in earlier ICCI-funded programs) as well as oxidized samples of gasifier discharge (containing ash and spent sorbent) are tested according to the new EPA test protocol. Samples of the oxidized spent sorbents that do not pass the EPA procedure are reacted with water and carbon dioxide to convert the residual calcium sulfide to calcium carbonate. During this quarter, samples of oxidized sulfided calcium-based sorbents, including untreated calcium sulfide-containing feed materials, were analyzed using both weak acid and more stringent strong acid tests. Preliminary analysis of the H{sub 2}S leachability test results indicate that all samples (including those that were not oxidized) pass the EPA requirement of 500 mg H{sub 2}S per kg of solid waste. However, under the strong acid test procedure, samples containing more than 2.5% calcium sulfide fail the EPA requirement.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Abbassian, J. & Hill, A.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering evaluation of the proposed boiler addition for Minnegasco Energy Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Final draft report

Description: The results are reported of a technical evaluation of alternate fuels for the proposed oil and natural gas fired No. 3 boiler at the Minnegasco Energy Center (MEC) located in Minneapolis, Minnesota. This report has been prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Fuels Conversion for their use in considering an alternate fuel exemption petition submitted by MEC. The fuels considered for the proposed boiler include oil, natural gas, bituminous coal, petroleum coke/coal mixture, refuse-derived fuel (RDF), coal-oil mixtures, and coal/oil dual fuel fired. The purchase of steam from the Northern States Power Company (NSPCo) was also considered as an alternative to construction of another boiler at MEC. Evaluation of each fuel included review of the overall plant design, estimates of capital and O and M costs, salvage value, useful life, and quantities of solid waste produced. The MEC supplies steam and chilled water to the downtown Minneapolis area for building heating and cooling using two presently owned and operated 200,000 lb/h oil/natural gas fired boilers. If the proposed boiler is permitted to burn oil and natural gas, it will be identical in design to the existing boilers. The evaluation showed that the use of oil, natural gas, coal, petroleum coke-coal mixtures, coal-oil mixtures, and coal/oil dual fuel firing appear technically feasible as fuel choices for the proposed boiler. The purchase of steam from the NSPCo appears feasible as an alternative to the installation of a new boiler at the MEC. Offsite storage space would be required for receiving and storing coal, petroleum coke, or RDF Offsite fuel preparation facilities are required for preparing petroleum coke-coal mixtures and RDF.
Date: March 16, 1981
Creator: Abendroth, H.R. & Poon, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent regulatory experience of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume III. Supporting case studies

Description: The MITRE Corporation conducted a five-month study for the Office of Resource Applications in the Department of Energy on the regulatory requirements of low-Btu coal gasification. During this study, MITRE interviewed representatives of five current low-Btu coal gasification projects and regulatory agencies in five states. From these interviews, MITRE has sought the experience of current low-Btu coal gasification users in order to recommend actions to improve the regulatory process. This report is the third of three volumes. It contains the results of interviews conducted for each of the case studies. Volume 1 of the report contains the analysis of the case studies and recommendations to potential industrial users of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume 2 contains recommendations to regulatory agencies.
Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: Ackerman, E.; Hart, D.; Lethi, M.; Park, W. & Rifkin, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of improved building thermal efficiency on residential energy demand

Description: The impact of improved building shell thermal efficiency on residential energy demand is explored in a theoretical framework. The important economic literature on estimating the price elasticity of residential energy demand is reviewed. The specification of the residential energy demand model is presented. The data used are described. The empirical estimation of the residential energy demand model is described. (MHR)
Date: April 1, 1983
Creator: Adams, R.C. & Rockwood, A.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pricetown I underground coal gasification field test: operations report

Description: An Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) field test in bituminous coal was successfully completed near Pricetown, West Virginia. The primary objective of this field test was to determine the viability of the linked vertical well (LVV) technology to recover the 900 foot deep, 6 foot thick coal seam. A methane rich product gas with an average heating value of approximately 250 Btu/SCF was produced at low air injection flow rates during the reverse combustion linkage phase. Heating value of the gas produced during the linkage enhancement phase was 221 Btu/SCF with air injection. The high methane formation has been attributed to the thermal and hydrocracking of tars and oils along with hydropyrolysis and hydrogasification of coal char. The high heating value of the gas was the combined effect of residence time, flow pattern, injection flow rate, injection pressure, and back pressure. During the gasification phase, a gas with an average heating value of 125 Btu/SCF was produced with only air injection, which resulted in an average energy production of 362 MMBtu/day.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Agarwal, A.K.; Seabaugh, P.W. & Zielinski, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and evaluation of Cities Service/Rockwell hydrogasification commercial plant

Description: This report covers a preliminary conceptual design and economic evaluation of a commercial scale plant capable of converting high-sulfur bituminous caking coal to a high-Btu pipeline quality SNG. The plant, which has a rated capacity of 250 Billion Btu per day SNG, is based on Cities Service/Rockwell hydrogasification technology. Two cases of plant design were examined to produce cost estimates accurate to +-25% in 1979 dollars. The base case, designed for moderate production of liquids (5.8% conversion of carbon to liquid product), has a cost of SNG of $4.43/MMBtu using the utility financing method (UFM) and $6.42/MMBtu using the discounted cash flow method (DCFM) of financing. The alternate case, zero liquids production, has gas costs of $5.00 (UFM) and $6.96 (DCFM). Further tests by Rockwell have indicated that 11.4% carbon conversion to liquid products (99% benzene) is possible. If the plant is scaled up to produce the same amoung of SNG with this increased yield of liquid, and if the value of the benzene produced is estimated to be $0.90 per gallon, the costs of gas for this case are $4.38/MMBtu (UFM) and $6,48/MMBtu (DCFM). If the value of benzene is taken as $2.00 per gallon, these costs become $3.14/MMBtu (UFM) and $5.23/MMBtu (DCFM). The economic assumptions involved in these calculations are detailed.
Date: August 1, 1980
Creator: Agrawal, P.D.; Butt, N.M. & Sarma, K.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of ceramic membrane filters

Description: The objectives of this project include the development of analytical models for evaluating the fluid mechanics of membrane coated, dead-end ceramic filters, and to determine the effects of thermal and thermo-chemical aging on the material properties of emerging ceramic hot gas filters. A honeycomb cordierite monolith with a thin ceramic coating and a rigid candle filter were evaluated.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Ahluwalia, R.K.; Geyer, H.K. & Im, K.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory data in support of hydraulically fracturing EGSP OH Well No. 3. Final report

Description: Geologic and geophysical interpretations of data from the EGSP OH Well No. 3 show that an organically lean shale has a gradual transition with depth to an organically rich shale and that two layers (bound each shale formation. The laboratory test program was designed to understand the containment and productivity of a hydraulic fracture induced in this well to enhance gas production from the shale. The porosity in the formations of interest, including the upper barrier, the lower barrier, and the organic shales, varied from 6 to 10 percent. The porosity of each formation averaged about 8%. Densities and ultrasonic velocities were used to evaluate dynamic moduli. Over the tested intervals moduli consistently increased with depth. This indicates the possibility of upward migration of an induced fracture. Perforations, therefore, should be limited to the lower portion of the pay sand and it is also advisable to use low injection rates. Of the four fracturing fluids tested, the two code-named Dow II and Hal I caused, respectively, the least amount of matrix permeability damage to the organically lean and organically rich shales. However, the damage caused by the other fracturing fluids were not severe enough to cause any significant permanent reduction in well productivity. The fracture conductivity tests under the influence of fracturing fluids indicated that Hal I and Dow I caused, respectively, the least amount of multilayered fracture conductivity damage to the organically lean and organically rich samples. For monolayer fracture conductivities Dow I caused least damage to the organically lean shale. With the exception of Dow III all other fluids showed good results in the monolayer tests for organically rich shales. In the situation where both the lean and the rich shales are to be fractured together, the use of either Hal I or Dow I is indicated.
Date: December 1, 1980
Creator: Ahmed, U.; Swartz, G.C. & Scnatz, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research and evaluation of biomass resources/conversion/utilization systems (market/experimental analysis for development of a data base for a fuels from biomass model). Quarterly technical progress report, November 1, 1979-January 31, 1980

Description: The biomass allocation model has been developed and is undergoing testing. Data bases for biomass feedstock and thermochemical products are complete. Simulated data on process efficiency and product costs are being used while more accurate data are being developed. Market analyses data are stored for the biomass allocation model. The modeling activity will assist in providing process efficiency information required for the allocation model. Process models for entrained bed and fixed bed gasifiers based on coal have been adapted to biomass. Fuel product manufacturing costs will be used as inputs for the data banks of the biomass allocations model. Conceptual economics have been generated for seven of the fourteen process configurations via a biomass economic computer program. The PDU studies are designed to demonstrate steady state thermochemical conversions of biomass to fuels in fluidized, moving and entrained bed reactor configurations. Pulse tests in a fluidized bed to determine the effect of particle size on reaction rates and product gas composition have been completed. Two hour shakedown tests using peanut hulls and wood as the biomass feedstock and the fluidized bed reactor mode have been carried out. A comparison was made of the gas composition using air and steam - O/sub 2/. Biomass thermal profiles and biomass composition information shall be provided. To date approximately 70 biomass types have been collected. Chemical characterization of this material has begun. Thermal gravimetric, pyrogaschromatographic and effluent gas analysis has begun on pelletized samples of these biomass species.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Ahn, Y.K.; Chen, Y.C.; Chen, H.T.; Helm, R.W.; Nelson, E.T.; Shields, K.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hot gas desulfurization with sorbents containing oxides of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper

Description: The main objective of this research is to evaluate the desulfurization performance of novel sorbents consisting of different combinations of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper oxides; and to develop a sorbent which can reduce H{sub 2}S levels to less than 1 ppmv, which can stabilize zinc, making operations above 650{degrees}C possible, and which can produce economically recoverable amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration. This objective will be accomplished by evaluating the sorbent performance using fixed-bed and TGA experiments supported by sorbent characterization at various reaction extents. The work done in the fourth quarter can be summarized as follows: (1) Calibration of the gas chromatograph for low and high H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} is completed. (2) The determination of surface areas and densities of the promoted sorbents is completed. (3) Preliminary screening of the promoted sorbents in the packed bed reactor has started.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Akyurtlu, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hot gas desulfurization with sorbents containing oxides of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper

Description: The main objective of this research is to evaluate the desulfurization performance of novel sorbents consisting of different combinations of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper oxides; and to develop a sorbent which can reduce H{sub 2}S levels to less than 1 ppmv, which can stabilize zinc, making operations above 650{degrees}C possible, and which can produce economically recoverable amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration. This objective will be accomplished by evaluating the sorbent performance using fixed-bed and TGA experiments supported by sorbent characterization at various reaction extents. In the seventh quarter, the screening of the promoted sorbents in the packed bed reactor was continued. The results of this work were presented at the 1992 University Coal Research Contractors, Review Conference at Pittsburgh, PA.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Akyurtlu, A. & Akyurtlu, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hot gas desulfurization with oxides of zinc, iron, and vanadium

Description: The objective of this study is to develop an improved sorbent which can reduce H{sub 2}S levels up to 1 ppmv or less, which can stabilize zinc, and produce economically recoverable amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration. For this purpose, the desulfurization performance of sorbents prepared by the addition of various amounts of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} to the zinc ferrite sorbent is investigated.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Akyurtlu, J.F. & Akyurtlu, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Validation of the materials-process-product model (coal SNG). [Estimating method for comparing processes, changing assumptions and technology assessment]

Description: The use of coal as a source of high Btu gas is currently viewed as one possible means of supplementing dwindling natural gas supplies. While certain coal gasification processes have demonstrated technical feasibility, much uncertainty and inconsistency remains regarding the capital and operating costs of large scale coal conversion facilities; cost estimates may vary by as much as 50%. Studies conducted for the American Gas Association (AGA) and US Energy Research and Development Administration by C.F. Braun and Co. have defined technical specifications and cost guidelines for estimating costs of coal gasification technologies (AGA Guidelines). Based on the AGA Guidelines, Braun has also prepared cost estimates for selected coal gasification processes. Recent efforts by International Research and Technology Inc. (IR and T) have led to development of the Materials-Process-Product Model (MPPM), a comprehensive anaytic tool for evaluation of processes and costs for coal gasification and other coal conversion technologies. This validation of the MPPM presents a comparison of engineering and cost computation methodologies employed in the MPPM to those employed by Braun and comparison of MPPM results to Braun cost estimates. These comparisons indicate that the MPPM has the potential to be a valuable tool for assisting in the evaluation of coal gasification technologies.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Albanese, A.; Bhagat, N.; Friend, L.; Lamontagne, J.; Pouder, R. & Vinjamuri, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regenerative process for desulfurization of high temperature combustion and fuel gases. Progress report No. 14, October 1-December 31, 1979

Description: The characteristics of Portland Type III cement (PC III) as a potential sorbent for use in a regenerative process for desulfurization of coal in fluidized-bed combustion were examined. The sulfation rates for PC III + 5% amorphous SiO/sub 2/ at temperatures between 860 and 1100/sup 0/C and at 1 atm were studied thermogravimetrically, using a simulated combustion gas mixture containing 0.25% SO/sub 2/. The sulfation rates were found to be independent of temperature between 950 and 1050/sup 0/C. The isothermal regeneration with a mixture consisting of 5% CO, 15% CO/sub 2/ and the balance N/sub 2/, in this 100/sup 0/C temperature interval approached an equilibrium value of over 90% within thirty minutes. Sulfation/regeneration efficiency did not decrease with cycling and was unaffected by additives introduced to increase the porosity and/or conversion of free CaO in PC III to silicates which are known to be more regenerative than CaSO/sub 4/. Pressurized TGA experiments within the optimum sulfation temperature range were conducted at 5 and 10 atm to establish the viability of this sorbent for pressurized fluidized-bed combustion use. Within the experimental accuracy, no pressure dependence of sulfation rate was observed. Our experiments indicate that the attrition resistance of PC III is significantly better than natural limestones.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Albanese, A.S. & Sethi, D.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regenerative process for desulfurization of high temperature combustion and fuel gases. Progress report No. 15, January 1-March 31, 1980

Description: A new regenerative sorbent process for desulfurizing fluidized-bed combustion gases is presented. The sorbent was developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory and is prepared from commercial silicate bearing portland cement. The chemical reactions and mechanical procedures involved in preparing the sorbent, in desulfurizing the flue gas, in regenerating the spent sorbent, and in producing elemental sulfur from the regenerator product gas are discussed. The performance of natural limestone sorbents is compared with that of portland cement pellets in each of the above operations. Conceptual engineering designs and cost data for atmospheric fluidized-bed (AFB) power generation plants using limestone and portland cement sorbents are also presented. Cost and limestone process data were obtained from US Government publication PRS-23 EPA-600/7-77-126 which was prepared by General Electric, Bechtel and Foster Wheeler Energy Corporations and the Tennessee Valley Authority. The results of our analyses indicate that the cost of generating electricity by a regenerative portland cement sorbent plant would be about 12% lower than for once-through limestone AFB plants, about 17% lower than conventional power plants using wet limestone scrubbers and about 12% lower than regenerative magnesium oxide (MgO) scrubber plants.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Albanese, A.S. & Sethi, D.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluidized-Bed Retorting of Colorado Oil Shale: Topical Report.

Description: In support of the research program in converting oil shale into useful forms of energy, the US Department of Energy is developing systems models of oil shale processing plants. These models will be used to project the most attractive combination of process alternatives and identify future direction for R and D efforts. With the objective of providing technical and economic input for such systems models, Foster Wheeler was contracted to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates for commercial scale processing plants to produce syncrude from oil shales via various routes. This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of Colorado oil shale. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per operating day of syncrude product, derived from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 30 gallons per ton. The scope of the plant encompasses a grassroots facility which receives run of the mine oil shale, delivers product oil to storage, and disposes of the processed spent shale. In addition to oil shale feed, the battery limits input includes raw water, electric power, and natural gas to support plant operations. Design of the individual processing units was based on non-confidential information derived from published literature sources and supplemented by input from selected process licensors. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is similarly detailed by plant section and an estimate of the annual operating requirements and costs is provided. In addition, the process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed.
Date: June 1987
Creator: Albulescu, P. & Mazzella, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrating model of the Project Independence Evaluation System. Volume VI. Data documentation. Part I

Description: This documentation describes the PIES Integrating Model as it existed on January 1, 1978. This volume contains two chapters. In Chapter I, Overview, the following subjects are briefly described: supply data, EIA projection series and scenarios, demand data and assumptions, and supply assumptions - oil and gas availabilities. Chapter II contains supply and demand data tables and sources used by the PIES Integrating Model for the mid-range scenario target years 1985 and 1990. Tabulated information is presented for demand, price, and elasticity data; coal data; imports data; oil and gas data; refineries data; synthetics, shale, and solar/geothermal data; transportation data; and utilities data.
Date: February 1, 1979
Creator: Allen, B J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrating model of the Project Independence Evaluation System. Volume VI. Data documentation. Part II

Description: This documentation describes the PIES Integrating Model as it existed on January 1, 1978. This Volume VI of six volumes is data documentation, containing the standard table data used for the Administrator's Report at the beginning of 1978, along with the primary data sources and the office responsible. It also contains a copy of a PIES Integrating Model Report with a description of its content. Following an overview chapter, Chapter II, Supply and Demand Data Tables and Sources for the Mid-range Scenario for Target Years 1985 and 1990, data on demand, price, and elasticity; coal; imports; oil and gas; refineries; synthetics, shale, and solar/geothermal; transportation; and utilities are presented. The following data on alternate scenarios are discussed: low and high demand; low and high oil and gas supply; refinery and oil and gas data assuming a 5% annual increase in real world oil prices. Chapter IV describes the solution output obtained from an execution of PIES.
Date: February 1, 1979
Creator: Allen, B J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department