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Geological and petrophysical characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D simulation of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir. Deliverable 1.4.4: Ferron Sandstone lithofacies and case-study areas, Emery and Sevier Counties, Utah

Description: The types of dominantly sandstone lithofacies that characterize the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone reservoir types were tentatively identified before the project began. These reservoir types were defined and mapped at the regional scale and are the subject of the detailed, highly focused case studies. The purpose of conducting detailed case-study analysis is to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and quantitative characterization of fluvial-deltaic reservoirs which will allow realistic inter-well and reservoir-scale modeling to be used for improved oil-field development in actual reservoirs world-wide. The resulting benefits and value may: (1) increase recoverable reserves by identifying untapped compartments created by reservoir heterogeneity, (2) reduce development costs by more efficiently siting infill drilling locations, (3) increase deliverability by exploiting the reservoir along optimal fluid-flow paths, (4) enhance the application of new technologies, such as horizontal drilling, by identifying optimal drilling directions to maximize fluid-flow, and (5) identify reservoir trends for field extension drilling. Various geologic studies of the Ferron Sandstone were reviewed to compile a list of locations and types of lithofacies in the Ferron Sandstone to be examined in greater detail as part of the subsequent case studies. Preliminary regional interpretations were also used to help select the type and location of lithofacies for case studies. Potential case-study sites were delineated during several reconnaissance field trips by the geologic team. Two case-study sites were selected for the project: Ivie Creek and Willow Springs Wash, in the central and southern parts respectively of the project study area. Results are discussed.
Date: January 4, 1996
Creator: Allison, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved storage efficiency through geologic modeling and reservoir simulation

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE), through partnerships with industry, is demonstrating the importance of geologic modeling and reservoir simulation for optimizing the development and operation of gas storage fields. The geologic modeling and reservoir simulation study for the Natural Fuel Gas Supply Corporation CRADA was completed in September 1995. The results of this study were presented at the 1995 Society of Petroleum Engineers` (SPE) Eastern Regional Meeting. Although there has been no field verification of the modeling results, the study has shown the potential advantages and cost savings opportunities of using horizontal wells for storage enhancement. The geologic modeling for the Equitrans` CRADA was completed in September 1995 and was also presented at the 1995 SPE Eastern Regional Meeting. The reservoir modeling of past field performance was completed in November 1996 and prediction runs are currently being made to investigate the potential of offering either a 10 day or 30 day peaking service in addition to the existing 110 day base load service. Initial results have shown that peaking services can be provided through remediation of well damage and by drilling either several new vertical wells or one new horizontal well. The geologic modeling for the Northern Indiana Public Service Company CRADA was completed in November 1996 with a horizontal well being completed in January 1997. Based on well test results, the well will significantly enhance gas deliverability from the field and will allow the utilization of gas from an area of the storage field that was not accessible from their existing vertical wells. Results are presented from these three case studies.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Ammer, J.R.; Mroz, T.H. & Covatch, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated analysis of production potential and profitability of a horizontal well in the Lower Glen Rose Formation, Maverick County, Texas

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) awarded a contract in 1991 to Prime Energy Corporation (PEC) to demonstrate the benefit of using horizontal wells to recover gas from low permeability formations. The project area was located in the Chittim field of Maverick County, Texas. The Lower Glen Rose Formation in the Chittim field was a promising horizontal well candidate based on the heterogenous nature of the reservoir (suggested by large well-to-well variances in reserves) and the low percentage of economical vertical wells. Since there was substantial evidence of reservoir heterogeneity, it was unknown whether the selected, wellsite would penetrate a reservoir with the desired properties for a horizontal well. Thus, an integrated team was formed to combine geologic analysis, seismic interpretation, reservoir engineering, reservoir simulation, and economic assessment to analyze the production potential and profitability of completing a horizontal well in the Lower Glen Rose formation.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Ammer, J.R.; Mroz, T.H.; Zammerilli, A.M.; Yost, A.B. II; Muncey, J.G. & Hegeman, P.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Innovative technology demonstrations

Description: Environmental Management Operations (EMO) is conducting an Innovative Technology Demonstration Program for Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB). Several innovative technologies are being demonstrated to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ. The bioremediation demonstration will evaluate a bioventing process in which the naturally occurring consortium of soil bacteria will be stimulated to aerobically degrade soil contaminants, including fuel and TCE, in situ.
Date: August 1, 1992
Creator: Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Hartley, J.N. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Management Operations) & Hinchee, R. (Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Productivity and Injectivity of Horizontal Wells

Description: This quarterly report is based on the last activity above. It gives a brief account of the work and the complete study will be included in the next Annual Report of the project.
Date: November 8, 1999
Creator: Arababi, Sepehr; Aziz, Khalid; Hayashida, Yasuyuki & Hewett, Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Productivity and injectivity of horizontal wells. Quarterly report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

Description: A reservoir simulator solves the flow equations numerically on grids defining a reservoir region. However, when a well is located in a grid-block, the block pressure is not equal to the well pressure. In order to join the well to the grid blocks in which the well is located, it is usual to use a single phase model to obtain the appropriate Well Index. The Well Index is based on the concept of an effective well radius at which the pressure of the block applies. This approach requires the flow in the area around the well to be radial. Peaceman has proposed more general expressions for the effective radius, but all based on 2D flow. As reservoirs are generally thin, a horizontal well cannot be far from the top or bottom boundary. In the case of multilateral wells, the situation is even worse, since the flow is perturbed not only by the boundaries but also by the other wells. Moreover, horizontal wells can be efficient in low permeability reservoirs, where the steady-state (or pseudo-steady-state) regime does not establish rapidly. This means that a single constant value for the well index cannot be used for all times. The objective of this study is then to evaluate well indices for different configurations of horizontal wells. The well index will be computed for a homogeneous anisotropic single-phase flow and will then be reintroduced in the simulator for the full three-phase study. The well index relates the pressure in the block to the pressure in the well for a given flow rate. If these two pressures are known, the well index can be deduced easily. The block pressure can be evaluated by a simulator. The well pressure for a three-dimensional single-phase flow is not known analytically in general, but can be computed by the ...
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Aziz, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Productivity and injectivity of horizontal wells. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

Description: As the length of a horizontal well is increased, its contact with the reservoir increases. But at the same time, the resistance to the flow in the well also increases which has a direct negative effect on the productivity of the well. The overall performance of horizontal wells depends on the balance of these two opposing factors. No reliable tools are currently available that account for both these factors in the evaluation of horizontal well performance. An analytical well-model is developed which can quantify the effects of pressure loss in the well on the overall well performance. A sensitivity study is conducted on the effect of various reservoir, fluid and well parameters on well performance.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Aziz, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coorelations for cresting behavior in horizontal wells. Quarterly report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

Description: The following activities have been carried out in the last three months. (1) The fourth review meeting of the Horizontal Well Industrial Affiliates Program was held on October 10-11 at Stanford. The meeting was well attended and well received. In addition to the project presentations, a number of member presentations were also made at the meeting. (2) Draft plans for the continuation of the two-phase flow experiments were drawn up and sent to Marathon and other members for their review and comments. Series of new experiments with and without the wire wrapped screens used in 1996 are being considered for 1997. (3) Work on the application of horizontal wells for producing gas condensate reservoirs was continued. After verification of the black oil formulation, emphasis is being put on the compositional case where simulation runs have been set up to check the results against a semi-analytical solution. (4) The previous work on the effects of heterogeneities on horizontal well performance was continued and a paper on the subject was completed. Future work in this area will deal with a careful analysis of the interaction of heterogeneity and production performance. (5) Research work on developing coarse grid methods to study cresting in horizontal wells was continued. The previous correlations for optimum grid size, breakthrough time, and post breakthrough behavior (i.e., water-oil ratio) were further tested and optimized. Procedures to derive pseudo-functions either using numerical correlations or coarse grid simulations have been proposed and successfully tested.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Aziz, K. & Hewett, T. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Productivity and injectivity of horizontal wells. Quarterly report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

Description: The following activities have been carried out in the last three months: Work on developing a three-dimensional Voronoi grid simulator is progressing. Extensive testing of the grid generation and visualization modules of the simulator is continuing while modifications and improvements are being made to these capabilities; The recently developed semi-analytical method for calculating critical cresting rates is being extended for the case of simultaneous gas and water coning toward a horizontal well; The accuracy of available correlations and analytical models for breakthrough times of horizontal wells is being investigated through simulations of a field case; Work on developing methods for coupling between reservoir and the werbore through a network modeling approach is progressing. The current stage of the study involves evaluation of available analytical methods; The necessary modifications have been made to the rig at the Marathon facility and the high rate two-phase flow experiments are about to commence; new correlations for wall friction and interfacial friction factors have been developed for the stratified flow in horizontal and inclined pipes. After further testing this new approach will be used in our mechanistic model; and this quarterly report has been entirely devoted to the task fisted in the last item above and we only present an abridged version of the Masters report of Mr. Liang-Biao Ouyang on which it is based. The complete study will be included in the next Annual Report of the Project.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Aziz, K. & Hewett, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Productivity and injectivity of horizontal wells. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

Description: A number of activities have been carried out during this quarter of research. A list outlining these efforts is presented including: (1) The design and planning of the next phase of the two-phase flow experiments have moved forward. The necessary modifications to allow the use of wire-wrapped screens have been made. The flow loop and the data acquisition system are currently being tested and the new experiments are about to commence. (2) Work on obtaining exact well models for a horizontal well or a well of any general profile has continued. (3) Work on the application of horizontal wells in gas condensate reservoirs has progressed. The available methods and models are being critically evaluated with the aid of simulation runs. (4) Research work on developing coarse grid methods to study cresting in horizontal wells has continued. Correlations for optimum grid size, breakthrough time, and post breakthrough behavior (i.e. water-oil ratio) are being developed and tested for the problem of water cresting. (5) The Ph.D. project on three-dimensional flexible grid simulator (FLEX) was successfully defended in June. The FLEX simulator will be used in future studies as well as in future developments. The dissertation report will be submitted soon to the US DOE. This quarterly report is based on the last activity listed above. It shows the advantage of the new flexible grid simulator.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Aziz, K. & Hewett, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Productivity and injectivity of horizontal wells. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1995

Description: During this quarter the authors have extended their earlier semi-analytical method for determining critical cresting rates in horizontal wells to the case of both water and gas cresting. The method and the procedure will be briefly described below. They also show the application of the method to an example problem and compare the results with direct numerical simulation.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Aziz, K. & Hewett, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Productivity and injectivity of horizontal wells. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1996

Description: This quarterly report reports on the efforts on Task 2, effects of reservoir heterogeneities on performance prediction of horizontal wells. Performance prediction of horizontal and non-conventional wells based on both analytical and numerical tools rarely match actual performance. Even a history matched case with sufficient production data fails to give reliable predictions for long times. In this study the authors explore reasons for the inability of predictive tools to make accurate predictions. They consider a case where a vertical well has been drilled and cored. Then, they generate twenty consistent geostatistical descriptions of permeability and porosity that are all constrained to hard data obtained from the vertical well. Simulations with these realizations show large differences in production rate, WOR and GOR predictions as a result of variations in reservoir properties. It is also shown that the effect of well index (WI) on simulation results is large. Furthermore, for the example considered, analytical models for critical rate and productivity calculations were found to have limited practical use.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Aziz, K. & Hewett, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Productivity and injectivity of horizontal wells. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996

Description: This report describes progress on Tasks 1 and 4, Correlations for cresting behavior in horizontal wells. Research work on developing coarse grid methods to study cresting in horizontal wells was continued. The previous correlations for optimum grid size, breakthrough time, and post breakthrough behavior (i.e., water-oil ratio) were further tested and optimized. Procedures to derive pseudo-functions either using numerical correlations or coarse grid simulations have been proposed and successfully tested. The results reported here and other calculations show that the correlations developed in this work can be applied to a wide range of conditions for predicting the water break-through time (BT) and the water-oil-ratio (PBB) for horizontal wells. All of the correlations are based on the assumption of two-phase, two-dimensional flow in homogeneous reservoirs.
Date: January 30, 1997
Creator: Aziz, K. & Hewett, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Productivity and injectivity of horizontal wells

Description: One of the key issues addressed was pressure drop in long horizontal wells and its influence on well performance. Very little information is available in the literature on flow in pipes with influx through pipe walls. Virtually all of this work has been in small diameter pipes and with single-phase flow. In order to address this problem new experimental data on flow in horizontal and near horizontal wells have been obtained. Experiments were conducted at an industrial facility on typical 6 1/8 ID, 100 feet long horizontal well model. The new data along with available information in the literature have been used to develop new correlations and mechanistic models. Thus it is now possible to predict, within reasonable accuracy, the effect of influx through the well on pressure drop in the well.
Date: March 6, 2000
Creator: Aziz, Khalid
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Productivity and Injectivity of Horizontal Wells

Description: The generation of suitable simulation grids for heterogeneous media and specific discretization issues that arise. Streamlines and equipotentials are used to define our base grids. Since streamlines are concentrated in high velocity regions they provide a natural means of clustering fine grid cells in crucial flow regions. For complex configurations and particularly for strongly heterogeneous regions the resulting grid cells can become very distorted due to extremely high curvatures. Two types of cell centered formulation are examined together with a cell vertex-point distributed scheme. Important distinctions are found for highly distorted cells. The new grids are tested for accuracy in terms of critical breakthrough parameters and it is shown that a much higher level of grid resolution is required by conventional simulators in order to achieve results that are comparable with those computed on relatively coarse streamline-potential grids.
Date: November 16, 1999
Creator: Aziz, Khalid; Hewett, Thomas A.; Arbabi, Sepehr & Smith, Marilyn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sandia/DOE geothermal drilling and completion technology development program

Description: The high cost of drilling and completing geothermal wells is an impediment to the development of geothermal energy resources. Technological deficiencies in rotary drilling techniques are evidenced when drilling geothermal wells. The Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a program aimed at developing new drilling and completion techniques for geothermal wells. The goals of this program are to reduce well costs 25% by 1982 and 50% by 1986. Sandia Laboratories has managed this technology development program since October 1977, and this paper presents an overview of the program. A statement of program goals and structure is given. The content of the FY-79 program is presented and recent results of R and D projects are given. Plans for development of an advanced drilling and completion system are discussed.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Barnette, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alaska: a guide to geothermal energy development

Description: Alaska's geothermal potential, exploration, drilling, utilization, and legal and institutional setting are covered. Economic factors of direct use projects are discussed. (MHR)
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Basescu, N.; Bloomquist, R.G.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D. & Simpson, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field Demonstration of Horizontal Infill Drilling Using Cost-effective Integrated Reservoir Modeling--Mississippian Carbonates, Central Kansas

Description: Mississippian carbonate reservoirs have produced in excess of 1 billion barrels of oil in Kansas accounting for over 16% of the state's production. With declining production from other age reservoirs, the contribution of Mississippian reservoirs to Kansas's oil production has risen to 43% as of 2004. However, solution-enhanced features such as vertical shale intervals extending from the karst erosional surface at the top introduce complexities/compartmentalizations in Mississippian carbonate reservoirs. Coupled with this, strong water drives charge many of these reservoirs resulting in limited drainage from vertical wells due to high water cuts after an initial period of low water production. Moreover, most of these fields are operated by small independent operators without access to the knowledge bank of modern research in field characterization and exploitation/development practices. Thus, despite increasing importance of Mississippian fields to Kansas production, these fields are beset with low recovery factors and high abandonment rates leaving significant resources in the ground. Worldwide, horizontal infill wells have been successful in draining compartmentalized reservoirs with limited pressure depletion. The intent of this project was to demonstrate the application of horizontal wells to successfully exploit the remaining potential in mature Mississippian fields of the mid-continent. However, it is of critical importance that for horizontal wells to be economically successful, they must be selectively targeted. This project demonstrated the application of initial and secondary screening methods, based on publicly available data, to quickly shortlist fields in a target area for detailed studies to evaluate their potential to infill horizontal well applications. Advanced decline curve analyses were used to estimate missing well-level production data and to verify if the well produced under unchanging bottom-hole conditions--two commonly occurring data constraints afflicting mature Mississippian fields. A publicly accessible databank of representative petrophysical properties and relationships was developed to overcome the paucity of such data ...
Date: August 31, 2005
Creator: Bhattacharya, Saibal
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Post waterflood CO{sub 2} miscible flood in light oil fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs, 1st quarter, Fiscal year 1996

Description: The Port Neches Marg Area I production stabilized at 215 BOPD for this quarter. CO{sub 2} purchase has been discontinued since November of 1995. Currently the project performance is being evaluated using a reservoir model in order to justify additional CO{sub 2} purchases, especially with the production rate being below expectation. CO{sub 2} purchases will be justified based on continuous operations. Water injection is continuing in the horizontal well to maintain reservoir pressure. Wells Kuhn {number_sign}17 and Stark {number_sign} I0 continue to inject CO{sub 2} in the vicinity of the producing wells Kuhn {number_sign}15R and Kuhn {number_sign}38. reservoir production and yield will be monitored for additional WAG cycles.
Date: January 31, 1996
Creator: Bou-Mikael, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Post Waterflood CO2 Miscible Flood in Light Oil, Fluvial-Dominated Deltaic Reservoir (Pre-Work and Project Proposal - Appendix)

Description: The main objective of the Port Neches Project was to determine the feasibility and producibility of CO2 miscible flooding techniques enhanced with horizontal drilling applied to a Fluvial Dominated Deltaic reservoir. The second was to disseminate the knowledge gained through established Technology Transfer mechanisms to support DOE's programmatic objectives of increasing domestic oil production and reducing abandonment of oil fields.
Date: February 5, 2002
Creator: Bou-Mikael, Sami
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Post Waterflood CO2 Miscible Flood in Light Oil, Fluvial-Dominated Deltaic Reservoir (Pre-Work and Project Proposal), Class I

Description: This project outlines a proposal to improve the recovery of light oil from waterflooded fluvial dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoir through a miscible carbon dioxide (CO2) flood. The site is the Port Neches Field in Orange County, Texas. The field is well explored and well exploited. The project area is 270 acres within the Port Neches Field.
Date: February 5, 2002
Creator: Bou-Mikael, Sami
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Directional drilling equipment and techniques for deep hot granite wells

Description: Conventional directional drilling technology has been extended and modified to drill the first well of a subsurface geothermal energy extraction system at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot dry Rock (HDR) experimental site. Completing the first of a two-wellbore HDR system has resulted in the definition of operational limitations of many conventional directional drilling tools, instrumentation and techniques. The successful completion of the first wellbore, Energy Extraction Well No. 2 (EE-2), to a measured depth of 15,300 ft (4.7 km) in granite reservoir rock with a bottomhole temperature of 530/sup 0/F (275/sup 0/C) required the development of a new high temperature downhole motor and modification of existing wireline-conveyed steering tool systems. Conventional rotary-driven directional assemblies were successfully modified to accommodate the very hard and abrasive rock encountered while drilling nearly 8500 ft (2.6 km) of directional hole to a final inclination of 35/sup 0/ from the vertical at a controlled azimuthal orientation.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Brittenham, T.L.; Sursen, G.; Neudecker, J.W.; Rowley, J.C. & Williams, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Los Alamos Hot-Dry-Rock Project: Recent Results

Description: A new deeper reservoir is presently being investigated at the Laboratory's Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock (HDR) site. The region surrounding the lower of two inclined boreholes, directionally-drilled to about 4 km in hot crystalline rock, has been pressurized in a sequence of injection tests. Based primarily on the measurements made by two close-in microseismic detectors, two similar volumetric reservoir regions have been developed by massive hydraulic fracturing, but with no significant hydraulic communication with the upper borehole as yet.
Date: 1982
Creator: Brown, D. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hot dry rock geothermal energy development program. Semiannual report, October 1, 1978-March 31, 1979

Description: The potential of energy extracted from hot dry rock (HDR) was investigated as a commercailly feasible alternate energy source. Run Segments 3 and 4 were completed in the prototype reservoir of the Phase I energy-extraction system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. Results of these tests yielded significant data on the existing system and this information will be applicable to future HDR systems. Plans and operations initiating a Phase II system are underway at the Fenton Hill site. This system, a deeper, hotter commercial-size reservoir, is intended to demonstrate the longevity and economics of an HDR system. Major activity occurred in evaluation of the national resource potential and in characterizing possible future HDR geothermal sites. Work has begun in the institutional and industrial support area to assess the economics and promote commercial interest in HDR systems as an alternate energy source.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Brown, M.C.; Nunz, G.J.; Cremer, G.M. & Smith, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department