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Energy modeling and data support for the Electric Power Research Institute. Annual report, July 1977

Description: Progress for the period from July 1, 1976 to June 30, 1977 is reviewed in this second annual report in support of the Energy Modeling and Data Support program for EPRI. Reference Energy Systems were formulated for the base year 1972 and projections developed for the years 1980, 1985, and 2000 for the area serviced by the New York Power Pool. In addition, Brookhaven, EPRI, and the Tennessee Valley Authority have entered into a cooperative effort to develop demand projections for the area serviced by TVA. The RES and associated data will provide a baseline against which TVA can evaluate the effect of substituting alternate technologies and policies for one another. Development of the Dynamic Energy Systems Optimization Model is continuing, with effort this year directed toward better representation of the electrical sector within the model. The model has been reformulated such that the year is divided into three seasons and two daily divisions, thus allowing the model to choose whether a summer or winter peak will occur and better depict the yearly time dependence of demands.
Date: July 1, 1977
Creator: Abilock, H; Beller, M; Cherniavsky, E A; Hermelee, A; Juang, L L & Marcuse, W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Daily snow depth measurements from 195 stations in the United States

Description: This document describes a database containing daily measurements of snow depth at 195 National Weather Service (NWS) first-order climatological stations in the United States. The data have been assembled and made available by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina. The 195 stations encompass 388 unique sampling locations in 48 of the 50 states; no observations from Delaware or Hawaii are included in the database. Station selection criteria emphasized the quality and length of station records while seeking to provide a network with good geographic coverage. Snow depth at the 388 locations was measured once per day on ground open to the sky. The daily snow depth is the total depth of the snow on the ground at measurement time. The time period covered by the database is 1893--1992; however, not all station records encompass the complete period. While a station record ideally should contain daily data for at least the seven winter months (January through April and October through December), not all stations have complete records. Each logical record in the snow depth database contains one station`s daily data values for a period of one month, including data source, measurement, and quality flags.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Allison, L. J.; Easterling, D. R.; Jamason, P.; Bowman, D. P.; Hughes, P. Y. & Mason, E. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

Description: The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ``ventilation rate`` of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Allwine, K. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

Description: The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ventilation rate'' of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Allwine, K.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An evaluation of thermal energy storage options for precooling gas turbine inlet air

Description: Several approaches have been used to reduce the temperature of gas turbine inlet air. One of the most successful uses off-peak electric power to drive vapor-compression-cycle ice makers. The ice is stored until the next time high ambient temperature is encountered, when the ice is used in a heat exchanger to cool the gas turbine inlet air. An alternative concept would use seasonal thermal energy storage to store winter chill for inlet air cooling. The objective of this study was to compare the performance and economics of seasonal thermal energy storage in aquifers with diurnal ice thermal energy storage for gas turbine inlet air cooling. The investigation consisted of developing computer codes to model the performance of a gas turbine, energy storage system, heat exchangers, and ancillary equipment. The performance models were combined with cost models to calculate unit capital costs and levelized energy costs for each concept. The levelized energy cost was calculated for three technologies in two locations (Minneapolis, Minnesota and Birmingham, Alabama). Precooling gas turbine inlet air with cold water supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage system provided lower cost electricity than simply increasing the size of the turbine for meteorological and geological conditions existing in the Minneapolis vicinity. A 15 to 20% cost reduction resulted for both 0.05 and 0.2 annual operating factors. In contrast, ice storage precooling was found to be between 5 and 20% more expensive than larger gas turbines for the Minneapolis location. In Birmingham, aquifer thermal energy storage precooling was preferred at the higher capacity factor and ice storage precooling was the best option at the lower capacity factor. In both cases, the levelized cost was reduced by approximately 5% when compared to larger gas turbines.
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Antoniak, Z. I.; Brown, D. R. & Drost, M. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An evaluation of thermal energy storage options for precooling gas turbine inlet air

Description: Several approaches have been used to reduce the temperature of gas turbine inlet air. One of the most successful uses off-peak electric power to drive vapor-compression-cycle ice makers. The ice is stored until the next time high ambient temperature is encountered, when the ice is used in a heat exchanger to cool the gas turbine inlet air. An alternative concept would use seasonal thermal energy storage to store winter chill for inlet air cooling. The objective of this study was to compare the performance and economics of seasonal thermal energy storage in aquifers with diurnal ice thermal energy storage for gas turbine inlet air cooling. The investigation consisted of developing computer codes to model the performance of a gas turbine, energy storage system, heat exchangers, and ancillary equipment. The performance models were combined with cost models to calculate unit capital costs and levelized energy costs for each concept. The levelized energy cost was calculated for three technologies in two locations (Minneapolis, Minnesota and Birmingham, Alabama). Precooling gas turbine inlet air with cold water supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage system provided lower cost electricity than simply increasing the size of the turbine for meteorological and geological conditions existing in the Minneapolis vicinity. A 15 to 20% cost reduction resulted for both 0.05 and 0.2 annual operating factors. In contrast, ice storage precooling was found to be between 5 and 20% more expensive than larger gas turbines for the Minneapolis location. In Birmingham, aquifer thermal energy storage precooling was preferred at the higher capacity factor and ice storage precooling was the best option at the lower capacity factor. In both cases, the levelized cost was reduced by approximately 5% when compared to larger gas turbines.
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Antoniak, Z.I.; Brown, D.R. & Drost, M.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some atmospheric tracer experiments in complex terrain at LASL: experimental design and data. [Fluorescent particle tracer study]

Description: Two series of atmospheric tracer experiments were conducted in complex terrain situations in and around the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Fluorescent particle tracers were used to investigate nighttime drainage flow in Los Alamos Canyon and daytime flow across the local canyon-mesa complex. This report describes the details of these experiments and presents a summary of the data collected. A subsequent report will discuss the analysis of these data.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Archuleta, J.; Barr, S.; Clements, W.E.; Gedayloo, T. & Wilson, S.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OBSERVATIONS OF RECENT NEW PARTICLE FORMATION IN HOUSTON DURING TEXAQS-2000.

Description: Particle number size distribution measurements were conducted at a tall building site and on a research aircraft during the TexAQS-2000 study. High concentrations of nucleation mode particles were observed during the early morning hours at the same time as the top of the developing boundary layer reached the sampling altitude. Transport of primary emissions from traffic and other local sources, as well as secondary formation processes, was observed. Growth of particles from the nucleation to Aitken modes appears to significantly impact the observed diurnal variation in the number size distribution. As these particles grow to larger sizes they may become more effective at scattering radiation and could act as cloud condensation nuclei, resulting in visibility and climate effects.
Date: October 1, 2001
Creator: BUZORIUS,G.; BRECHTEL,F.; ZELENYUK,A.; IMRE,D. & ANGEVINE,W.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Los Alamos synchronous orbit data set

Description: Energetic electron (30-15000 keV) and proton 145 keV to 150 MeV) measurements made by Los Alamos National Laboratory sensors at geostationary orbit (6.6 R/sub E/) are summarized. The instrumentation employed and the satellite positions are described. The spacecraft have been variously located, but in their present configuration the Los Alamos satellites designated 1976-059, 1977-007, and 1979-053 are located, respectively, at approx. 70/sup 0/W, approx. 70/sup 0/E, and approx. 135/sup 0/W longitude. Several examples of the high temporal and full three-dimensional spatial measurement capabilities of these instruments are illustrated by examples from the published literature. Discussion is also given for the Los Alamos Synoptic Data Set (SDS) which gives a broad overview of the Los Alamos geostationary orbit measurements. The SDS data are plotted in terms of daily average spectra, 3-hour local time averages, and in a variety of statistical formats. The data summarize conditions from mid-1976 through 1978 (S/C 1976-059) and from early 1977 through 1978 (S/C 1977-007). The SDS compilations presented correspond to measurements at 35/sup 0/W, 70/sup 0/W, and 135/sup 0/W geographic longitude and thus are indicative of conditions at 9/sup 0/, 11/sup 0/, and 4.8/sup 0/ geomagnetic latitude, respectively. The bulk of the SDS report presents data plots which are organized according to Carrington solar rotations and, as such, the data are readily comparable to solar rotation-dependent interplanetary conditions. Potential applications of the Synoptic Data Set (available to all interested users in June 1981) are discussed.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Baker, D.N.; Higbie, P.R.; Belian, R.D.; Hones, E.W. & Klebesadel, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prediction of internal temperature swings in direct-gain passive-solar buildings

Description: The diurnal heat capacity method is presented for estimating inside-temperature swings attributable to direct winter solar gain. The procedures are simplified to be suitable for hand analysis, aided by tables of diurnal heat capacity for various materials. The method has been spot checked against computer simulation and has been used successfully by a group of 20 builders in New Mexico to analyze whether temperature swings would be excessive in their designs.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Balcomb, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal network reduction

Description: A method is presented for reducing the number of elements required in a thermal network representation of a building. The method is based on matching the actual building response at two frequencies, the diurnal response and 3-day response. The procedure provides a straightforward methodology for combining all the various materials inside a discrete building zone into a few nodes while retaining a high degree of accuracy in the dynamic response. An example is given showing a comparison between a large network and the reduced network.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Balcomb, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Diurnal heat storage in direct-gain passive-solar buildings

Description: This paper presents a simplified method for predicting temperature swings in direct-gain buildings. It is called the DHC method due to the use of a diurnal heat capacity (DHC). Diurnal heat capacity is a measure of the effective amount of heat stored during a sunny day and then released at night - the typical 24-hour diurnal cycle. This enables prediction of the maximum temperature swings experienced in the building and can be calculated using a single 24-hour harmonic. The advantage is that closed-form analytic solutions can be obtained for a variety of simple and layered-wall configurations. Higher harmonic components are accounted for by a correction factor. The method is suitable for us by hand or on a programmable calculator.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Balcomb, J.D. & Neeper, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Large scale meteorological influence during the Geysers 1979 field experiment

Description: A series of meteorological field measurements conducted during July 1979 near Cobb Mountain in Northern California reveals evidence of several scales of atmospheric circulation consistent with the climatic pattern of the area. The scales of influence are reflected in the structure of wind and temperature in vertically stratified layers at a given observation site. Large scale synoptic gradient flow dominates the wind field above about twice the height of the topographic ridge. Below that there is a mixture of effects with evidence of a diurnal sea breeze influence and a sublayer of katabatic winds. The July observations demonstrate that weak migratory circulations in the large scale synoptic meteorological pattern have a significant influence on the day-to-day gradient winds and must be accounted for in planning meteorological programs including tracer experiments.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Barr, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Meteorological analysis for Fenton Hill, 1979

Description: Three years of meteorological data have been collected at the Fenton Hill site to establish a local climatic baseline, transport and diffusion climatology, and an initial site for an eventual Valles Caldera meteorological network. Tower-based wind and temperature data at 15 m above ground were supplemented during 1979 with precipitation, humidity and pressure measurements, and a limited program of upper winds. Preliminary analysis of the data has been made to identify major topographic and meteorological driving forces affecting the local climatic variations on diurnal and seasonal time scales. The site is quite high and exposed enough tht external influences such as gradient wind flow and thunderstorms tend to dominate over purely local driving forces in determining climate. Locally generated wind circulations are identifiable at night but tend to be weak and sporadic. The presence of topographic obstacles on the 10- to 100-km scale is observed in the winds.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Barr, S. & Wilson, S.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Division of Biological and Medical Research annual research summary, 1983

Description: This research summary contains brief descriptions of research in the following areas: (1) mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis; (2) role of metals in cocarcinogenesis and the use of liposomes for metal mobilization; (3) control of mutagenesis and cell differentiation in cultured cells by tumor promoters; (4) radiation effects in mammalian cells; (5) radiation carcinogenesis and radioprotectors; (6) life shortening, tumor induction, and tissue dose for fission-neutron and gamma-ray irradiations; (7) mammalian genetics and biostatistics; (8) radiation toxicity studies; (9) hematopoiesis in chronic toxicity; (10) molecular biology studies; (11) chemical toxicology; (12) carcinogen identification and metabolism; (13) metal metabolism and toxicity; and (14) neurobehavioral chronobiology. (ACR)
Date: August 1, 1984
Creator: Barr, S.H. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Suspended particulate matter in New York City: element concentrations as a function of particle size and elevation above street. [Determinations made by proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analysis]

Description: Aerosol samples were simultaneously collected at two street-level locations and the 16th floor, on two sides of a Manhattan city block. The results of PIXE analysis, together with CO and SO/sub 2/ data, show that the concentrations of substances emitted at street level (CO, Pb, etc) are significantly less at the 16th floor whereas particulate sulfur shows little variation. Other conclusions are presented.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Bauman, S.E.; Williams, E.T.; Finston, H.L.; Bond, A.H. Jr.; Lesser, P.M.S. & Ferrand, E.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Time-of-day pricing of electrical energy: does it promote the National interest

Description: Time-of-day pricing of electrical energy involves rate incentives designed to encourage a shift of user demand from a utility's peak periods to its off-peak periods. Low ''off-peak'' rates may also serve as an incentive that encourages large, new, inelastic and/or inefficient uses of electrical energy. In the Long Island, New York area, installation of air-to-air heat pumps for space heating and cooling may be stimulated by currently proposed time-of-day pricing structures. Possible consequences of a significant market penetration of the Long Island home-heating market by the air-to-air heat pump are considered. In this case, serious questions are raised regarding the ability of the time-of-day rate structure to achieve its espoused aims. This case may be typical of others throughout the country.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Berlad, A L; Salzano, F J; Hoppe, R J & Batey, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessing Cumulative Thermal Stress in Fish During Chronic Exposure to High Temperature

Description: As environmental laws become increasingly protective, and with possible future changes in global climate, thermal effects on aquatic resources are likely to receive increasing attention. Lethal temperatures for a variety of species have been determined for situations where temperatures rise rapidly resulting in lethal effects. However, less is known about the effects of chronic exposure to high (but not immediately lethal) temperatures and even less about stress accumulation during periods of fluctuating temperatures. In this paper we present a modeling framework for assessing cumulative thermal stress in fish. The model assumes that stress accumulation occurs above a threshold temperature at a rate depending on the degree to which the threshold is exceeded. The model also includes stress recovery (or alleviation) when temperatures drop below the threshold temperature as in systems with large daily variation. In addition to non-specific physiological stress, the model also simulates thermal effects on growth.
Date: November 14, 1999
Creator: Bevelhimer, M.S. & Bennett, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

POPULATION DISTRIBUTION DURING THE DAY

Description: Population distribution during the day can be defined as distribution of population in an area during the daytime hours. However, a precise definition of daytime hours is challenging given the geographic variability in the length of a day or daylight hours. The US Census Bureau used "normal business hours" as the span of time to describe daytime population. Given that Censuses typically estimates residential population, it represents a nighttime population distribution. In that respect, daytime population in an area may be broadly defined as distribution of population at times other than when they are expected to be at their residences at night which extends the duration from business hours to include the evening hours as well.
Date: January 1, 2008
Creator: Bhaduri, Budhendra L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water-bearing minerals on mars: source of observed mid-latitude water?

Description: The Odyssey spacecraft documented the existence of heterogeneously distributed hydrogen at martian mid-latitudes, suggesting that large areas of the near-equatorial highlands contain near-surface deposits of 'chemically and/or physically bound H20 and/or OH' in amounts up to 3 .8% equivalent H20. Shallow occurrences of water ice are not stable near the martian equator, making the hydrogen deposits at these latitudes somewhat enigmatic. Clay minerals and zeolites have both been proposed as possible water-bearing constituents on Mars, and both are common terrestrial alteration products of hydrovolcanic basaltic ashes and palagonitic material comparable to those that may be widespread on Mars. Smectites within martian meteorites, attributed to hydrous alteration on Mars rather than on Earth, provide direct evidence of clay minerals from Mars. In addition, new thermal emission spectrometer (TES) data provide good evidence for unspecified zeolites in martian surface dust [6] . The nature of the hydrogen-containing material observed in the equatorial martian regolith is of particular importance to the question of whether hydrous minerals have formed in the past on Mars. Also, whether these minerals exist in a hydrated (i .e., containing H2O molecules in their structures) or dehydrated state is a crucial question . The existence of hydrous minerals is also important in connection with their possible role in affecting the diurnal variation of the martian atmosphere, in their potential role in unraveling the paleohydrology and paleobiology of Mars, and in their possible use as a water resource to support exploration of the martian mid-latitudes.
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: Bish, D. L. (David L.); Carey, J. W. (James W.) & Fialips, C. I. (Clair I.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of daytime and upper tropospheric water vapor profiles by Raman lidar

Description: One of the most important atmospheric constituents needed for climate and meteorological studies is water vapor. Water vapor plays an important role in driving atmospheric circulations through latent heat release and in determining the earth`s radiation budget, both through its radiative effects (water vapor is the major greenhouse gas) and cloud formation. The vertical distribution of water vapor is particularly important because it not only determines convective stability but radiative effects are also strongly altitude dependent. At present, considerable controversy exists over the nature of the vertical redistribution of water vapor in a changing climate, and particularly the distribution of water vapor in the upper troposphere. Understanding upper tropospheric moistening processes such as deep convection are therefore of prime importance in addressing the water vapor feedback question. A powerful, proven technique for the continuous measurement of nighttime water vapor profiles (in clear skies or up to the lowest cloud level) with high spatial and temporal resolution is Raman lidar. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, a high performance dual field-of-view (fov), narrowband Raman lidar system capable of both daytime and nighttime operation has been developed. In this paper, the Sandia Raman lidar system is discussed along with its application to two problems of current interest: daytime tropospheric water vapor profile measurements and upper tropospheric water vapor. We present recent measurements of upper tropospheric moisture made at the DOE Cloud and Radiation Testbed site (CART) in Oklahoma. Recent daytime measurements are also presented.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Bisson, S.E. & Goldsmith, J.E.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations derived from flask samples collected at USSR-operated sampling sites

Description: This document presents daily atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations from four USSR-operated sampling sites (Teriberka Station, Ocean Station Charlie, Bering Island, and Kotelny Island). The period of record varies by station with the earliest measurements dating back to 1983 and recent estimates from early 1991. These CO{sub 2} concentrations are derived from air samples collected in 1.5-L stainless steel electropolished flasks and later analyzed at the Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg, USSR) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer. Measurements not meeting wind direction, wind speed, inter-flask agreement, and climate condition criteria were either discarded or flagged. All measurements have been corrected for drift biases introduced during flask storage. These atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are considered indicative of regional background air conditions and are directly traceable to the World Meteorological Organization`s primary CO{sub 2} standards. These measurements support the rising trend in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations measured at other monitoring sites around the world and may be compared with similar measurements made by various monitoring programs at other northern latitude sites. The document presents the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations in graphical and tabular form, describes the sampling methods, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, and describes the information on the magnetic media.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Boden, T. A.; Brounshtein, A. M.; Faber, E. V. & Shashkov, A. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations -- Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii 1958--1986

Description: Since 1958, CO{sub 2} concentrations at Mauna Loa Observatory have been obtained using a nondispersive, dual detector, infrared gas analyzer. Air samples are obtained from air intakes at the top of four 7m towers and one 27m tower. Those involved in the monitoring project have attempted to improving sampling techniques, reduce possible contamination sources, and adjust data to represent uncontaminated, true conditions throughout the twenty-eight year sampling period. The gas analyzer is calibrated by standardized CO{sub 2}-in-nitrogen reference gases twice daily. Flask samples are taken twice a month for comparison to the data recorded using the infrared gas analyzer. Data are scrutinized daily for possible contamination and archived on magnetic tape for further scrutiny and adjustment. Daily, monthly, and annual averages are computed for the Mauna Loa data after deletion of contaminated samples and readjustment of the data. These averages have shown a steady rise in annual average concentration from 316 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in 1959 to 346 ppmv in 1986.
Date: September 1, 1986
Creator: Boden, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department