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Durability of glasses vitrified from high copper feed in the 774 Research Melter

Description: Small scale crucible studies were performed by Schumacher to examine the effects of formate and nitrate on glass redox at high copper levels. The results of the crucible studies were used to determine the regions where copper precipitates in the glass. However, durability tests were not performed on the glass samples. Studies were performed in the 774 Research Melter using a simulated feed from the Purex 4 Campaign in the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS). Three runs were performed with this simulated feed. The first used the feed as it was received to determine a baseline. The results from the second and third campaigns were compared to the baseline. The second run increased the copper concentration. The third increased the copper and formate concentrations. The purpose of these experiments was to investigate melter performance and glass durability using a feed with increased copper concentration. The Purex 4 feed did not contain the target amounts of sludge and Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA). Less than 20% of the feed slurry consisted of simulated sludge, making it a low waste-loading feed. The use of this feed with significantly more copper added than anticipated in the DWPF, showed no indication of copper precipitating in the melter. In addition, the glasses produced during the campaigns were more durable than the benchmark glass.
Date: April 28, 1993
Creator: Andrews, M. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Missile launch detection electric field perturbation experiment. Final report

Description: The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and SARA Inc. participated in the ATMD missile launch activities that occurred at WSMR during January 1993. LLNL and SARA deployed sensors for monitoring of basic phenomena. An attempt was made to measure perturbations of the earth geo-potential during the launch of a Lance missile. The occurrence of the perturbation is expected from the conducting body of the missile and the exhaust plume. A set of voltage-probe antennas were used to monitor the local electric field perturbation from the launch at ranges of approximately 1 km. Examination of the data acquired during the launch period failed to show identifiable correlation of the field variations with the launch event. Three reasons are ascribed to this lack of event data: (1) The electric field potential variations have a limited spatial correlation length - the fields measured in one region have little correlation to measurements made at distances of a kilometer away. The potential variations are related to localized atmospheric disturbances and are generally unpredictable. A value for the spatial correlation length is also not known. (2) The conductivity of the plume and missile body are not adequate to produce a field perturbation of adequate magnitude. Phenomena related to the exhaust plume and missile may exist and be outside of the collection range of the equipment employed for these measurements. (3) The presence of 60 Hz power line noise was of sufficient magnitude to irreversibly contaminate measurements.
Date: April 28, 1993
Creator: Kane, R. J. & Rynne, T. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of plutonium and americium volatilities under thermal process conditions. Final report

Description: We have used the transpiration method to measure volatilities of Pu and Am from PuO{sub 2}(s) and PuO{sub 2}/2% AmO{sub 2}(s) in the presence of steam and oxygen at temperatures of 1230--1430 K. We find the volatile species to be PuO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) and AmO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) at vapor pressures on the order of 10{sup {minus}10} atm and 10 {sup {minus}12} atm respectively under measurement conditions. For the Pu volatilization reaction, PuO{sub 2}(s) + 1/2 0{sub 2}(9) + H{sub 2}0(g) = PuO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g), we obtain a free energy of reaction of {Delta}G{sup O}{sub T} = 231.3--0.0109 T in kj/mol, and for the Am volatilization reaction, AmO{sub 2}(s.s. in PuO{sub 2}) + 1/2 0{sub 2}(9) + H{sub 2}0(g) = AmO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g), we obtain AG{sup O}{sub T} = 223.9--0.0109 T in kj/mol. We apply these results to the Rocky Flats Plant Fluidized Bed Incinerator to assess the amount of volatile Pu and Am produced in the secondary combustor chamber. Taking operating conditions of 550C combustor temperature, 40 kmols/h of total gas flow at 1 atm pressure, 0.1 atm 0{sub 2}(9), 0.05 atm H{sub 2}0(g), PuO{sub 2} (s) containing 200 ppm AmO{sub 2} in the bed, and 6000 h of operating time per year, gives volatilization rates of 7 {times} 10 {sup {minus}6}g Pu and 4 {times} 10 {sup {minus}9}g Am/y.
Date: April 28, 1993
Creator: Krikorian, O. H.; Condit, R. H.; Fontes, A. S. Jr.; Fleming, D. L.; Magana, J. W.; Morris, W. F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Testbed model and data assimilation for ARM. Progress report No. 3, 1 September 1992--30 April 1993

Description: The ultimate objectives of this research are to further develop ALFA (AER Local Forecast and Assimilation) model originally designed at AER for local weather prediction and apply it to several related purposes in connection with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program: (a) to provide a testbed that simulates a global climate model in order to facilitate the development and testing of new cloud parametrizations and radiation models; (b) to assimilate the ARM data continuously at the scale of a climate model, using the adjoint method, thus providing the initial conditions and verification data for testing parametrizations; (c) to study the sensitivity of a radiation scheme to cloud parameters, again using the adjoint method, thus demonstrating the usefulness of the testbed model. The data assimilation uses a variational technique that minimizes the difference between the model results and the observation during the analysis period. The adjoint model is used to compute the gradient of a measure of the model errors with respect to nudging terms that are added to the equations to force the model output closer to the data.
Date: April 28, 1993
Creator: Louis, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sperm cells as vectors in the production of transgenic animals

Description: Transgenic animals are used in industry and in biomedical research in order to provide in vivo experimental model systems. Sperm cells have been reported used as vectors in the production of transgenic animals before, however no approach has of yet proven to be successful. Fertilizing eggs with genetically modified sperm would be advantageous in that sperm are readily accessible and stable, and eggs can be fertilized by modified sperm cells in vivo. Recent elucidations regarding the unique manner of DNA packaging in sperm chromatin by protamines has provided us with the insight for developing a method of introducing foreign DNA into sperm which is likely to succeed where others have failed. We have developed a method for mimicking the in vivo system of sperm chromatin toroid subunits in vitro, concentrating these toroids, and fluorescent visualization. Our present work concerns development of a method to successfully deliver DNA across the cell membranes and into the nucleus.
Date: April 28, 1993
Creator: Prince, R. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A computer-based training system combining virtual reality and multimedia

Description: Training new users of complex machines is often an expensive and time-consuming process. This is particularly true for special purpose systems, such as those frequently encountered in DOE applications. This paper presents a computer-based training system intended as a partial solution to this problem. The system extends the basic virtual reality (VR) training paradigm by adding a multimedia component which may be accessed during interaction with the virtual environment: The 3D model used to create the virtual reality is also used as the primary navigation tool through the associated multimedia. This method exploits the natural mapping between a virtual world and the real world that it represents to provide a more intuitive way for the student to interact with all forms of information about the system.
Date: April 28, 1993
Creator: Stansfield, S. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel approaches to the production of higher alcohols from synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

Description: Several possible high-temperature reactor oils have been identified and are being evaluated. One candidate, Drakeol{reg_sign} 34 mineral oil, appeared to decompose rapidly during testing at 425{degree}C in the stirred autoclave. However, a thermal stability test in laboratory glassware showed that Drakeol{reg_sign} 34 was stable at about 360{degree}C, suggesting that the decomposition observed in the autoclave was not caused simply by high temperature. Another oil, Ethylflo{reg_sign} 180, also showed no signs of decomposition during thermal stability testing in the laboratory, also at a temperature of about 360{degree}C. The first of three methanol synthesis verification runs was conducted in the stirred autoclave, using the commercial BASF Cu/ZnO catalyst. Gas chromatograph failures and apparent catalyst deactivation prevented collection of any meaningful data during the run.
Date: April 28, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department