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Logistic Regression Applied to Seismic Discrimination

Description: The usefulness of logistic discrimination was examined in an effort to learn how it performs in a regional seismic setting. Logistic discrimination provides an easily understood method, works with user-defined models and few assumptions about the population distributions, and handles both continuous and discrete data. Seismic event measurements from a data set compiled by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) of Chinese events recorded at station WMQ were used in this demonstration study. PNNL applied logistic regression techniques to the data. All possible combinations of the Lg and Pg measurements were tried, and a best-fit logistic model was created. The best combination of Lg and Pg frequencies for predicting the source of a seismic event (earthquake or explosion) used Lg{sub 3.0-6.0} and Pg{sub 3.0-6.0} as the predictor variables. A cross-validation test was run, which showed that this model was able to correctly predict 99.7% earthquakes and 98.0% explosions for this given data set. Two other models were identified that used Pg and Lg measurements from the 1.5 to 3.0 Hz frequency range. Although these other models did a good job of correctly predicting the earthquakes, they were not as effective at predicting the explosions. Two possible biases were discovered which affect the predicted probabilities for each outcome. The first bias was due to this being a case-controlled study. The sampling fractions caused a bias in the probabilities that were calculated using the models. The second bias is caused by a change in the proportions for each event. If at a later date the proportions (a priori probabilities) of explosions versus earthquakes change, this would cause a bias in the predicted probability for an event. When using logistic regression, the user needs to be aware of the possible biases and what affect they will have on the predicted probabilities.
Date: October 8, 1998
Creator: Amindan, BG & Hagedorn, DN
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microarcsecond relative astrometry from the ground with a diffractive pupil

Description: The practical use of astrometry to detect exoplanets via the reflex motion of the parent star depends critically on the elimination of systematic floors in imaging systems. In the diffractive pupil technique proposed for space-based detection of exo-earths, extended diffraction spikes generated by a dotted primary mirror are referenced against a wide-field grid of background stars to calibrate changing optical distortion and achieve microarcsecond astrometric precision on bright targets (Guyon et al. 2010). We describe applications of this concept to ground-based uncrowded astrometry using a diffractive, monopupil telescope and a wide-field camera to image as many as {approx}4000 background reference stars. Final relative astrometric precision is limited by differential tip/tilt jitter caused by high altitude layers of turbulence. A diffractive 3-meter telescope is capable of reaching {approx}35 {micro}as relative astrometric error per coordinate perpendicular to the zenith vector in three hours on a bright target star (I < 10) in fields of moderate stellar density ({approx}40 stars arcmin{sup -2} with I < 23). Smaller diffractive apertures (D < 1 m) can achieve 100-200 {micro}as performance with the same stellar density and exposure time and a large telescope (6.5-10 m) could achieve as low as 10 {micro}as, nearly an order of magnitude better than current space-based facilities. The diffractive pupil enables the use of larger fields of view through calibration of changing optical distortion as well as brighter target stars (V < 6) by preventing star saturation. Permitting the sky to naturally roll to average signals over many thousands of pixels can mitigate the effects of detector imperfections.
Date: September 8, 2011
Creator: Ammons, S M; Bendek, E & Guyon, O
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Abiotic Degradation Rates for Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform: Progress in FY 2010

Description: This report documents the progress made through FY 2010 on a project initiated in FY 2006 to help address uncertainties related to the rates of hydrolysis in groundwater at the Hanford Site for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF). The study also explores the possible effects of contact with minerals and sediment (i.e., heterogeneous hydrolysis) on these rates. The research was initiated to decrease the uncertainties in abiotic degradation rates of CT and chloroform CF associated with temperature and possible heterogeneous effects. After 2 years of data collection, the first evidence for heterogeneous effects was identified for hydrolysis of CT, and preliminary evidence for the effects of different mineral types on CF hydrolysis rates also was reported. The CT data showed no difference among mineral types, whereas significant differences were seen in the CF results, perhaps due to the fact that CF hydrolyzes by both neutral and base-catalyzed mechanisms whereas CT follows only the neutral hydrolysis path. In this report, we review the project objectives, organization, and technical approaches taken, update the status and results of the hydrolysis-rate experiments after 4 years of experimentation (i.e., through FY 2010), and provide a brief discussion of how these results add to scientific understanding of the behavior of the CT/CF plume at the Hanford Site.
Date: December 8, 2010
Creator: Amonette, James E.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Russell, Colleen K.; Humphrys, Daniel R.; Wietsma, Thomas W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A low-energy linear oxygen plasma source

Description: A new version of a Constricted Plasma Source is described,characterized by all metal-ceramic construction, a linear slit exit of180 mm length, and cw-operation (typically 50 kHz) at an average power of1.5 kW. The plasma source is here operated with oxygen gas, producingstreaming plasma that contains mainly positive molecular and atomic ions,and to a much lesser degree, negative ions. The maximum total ion currentobtained was about 0.5 A. The fraction of atomic ions reached more than10 percent of all ions when the flow rate was less then 10 sccm O2,corresponding to a chamber pressure of about 0.5 Pa for the selectedpumping speed. The energy distribution functions of the different ionspecies were measured with a combinedmass spectrometer and energyanalyzer. The time-averaged distribution functions were broad and rangedfrom about 30eV to 90 eV at 200 kHz and higher frequencies, while theywere only several eV broad at 50 kHz and lower frequencies, with themaximum located at about 40 eV for the grounded anode case. This maximumwas shifted down to about 7 eV when the anode was floating, indicatingthe important role of the plasma potential for the ion energy for a givensubstrate potential. The source could be scaled to greater length and maybe useful for functionalization of surfaces and plasma-assisteddeposition of compound films.
Date: January 8, 2007
Creator: Anders, Andre & Yushkov, Georgy Yu.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nitrogen implantation effects on the chemical bonding and hardness of boron and boron nitride coatings

Description: Boron nitride (BN) coatings are deposited by the reactive sputtering of fully dense, boron (B) targets utilizing an argon-nitrogen (Ar-N{sub 2}) reactive gas mixture. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure analysis reveals features of chemical bonding in the B 1s photoabsorption spectrum. Hardness is measured at the film surface using nanoindentation. The BN coatings prepared at low, sputter gas pressure with substrate heating are found to have bonding characteristic of a defected hexagonal phase. The coatings are subjected to post-deposition nitrogen (N{sup +} and N{sub 2}{sup +}) implantation at different energies and current densities. The changes in film hardness attributed to the implantation can be correlated to changes observed in the B 1s NEXAFS spectra.
Date: February 8, 1999
Creator: Anders, S; Felter, T; Hayes, J; Jankowski, A F; Patterson, R; Poker, D et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kalispel Resident Fish Project : Annual Report, 2008.

Description: In 2008, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) continued to implement its habitat enhancement projects for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi). Baseline fish population and habitat assessments were conducted in Upper West Branch Priest River. Additional fish and habitat data were collected for the Granite Creek Watershed Assessment, a cooperative project between KNRD and the U.S. Forest Service Panhandle National Forest (FS) . The watershed assessment, funded primarily by the Salmon Recovery Funding Board of the State of Washington, will be completed in 2009.
Date: July 8, 2009
Creator: Andersen, Todd
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Management of unconverted light for the National Ignition Facility target chamber

Description: The NIF target chamber beam dumps must survive high x-ray, laser, ion, and shrapnel exposures without excessive generation of vapors or particulate that will contaminate the final optics debris shields, thereby making the debris shields susceptible to subsequent laser damage. The beam dumps also must be compatible with attaining and maintaining the required target chamber vacuum and must not activate significantly under high neutron fluxes. Finally, they must be developed, fabricated, and maintained for a reasonable cost. The primary challenge for the beam dump is to survive up to 20 J/cm{sup 2} of lpm light and 1 - 2 J/cm{sup 2} of nominally 200 - 350 eV blackbody temperature x rays. Additional threats include target shrapnel, and other contamination issues. Designs which have been evaluated include louvered hot-pressed boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) or stainless steel (SS) panels, in some cases covered with transparent Teflon film, and various combinations of inexpensive low thermal expansion glasses backed by inexpensive absorbing glass. Louvered designs can recondense a significant amount of ablated material that would otherwise escape into the target chamber. Transparent Teflon was evaluated as an alternative way to capture ablated material. The thin Teflon sheet would need to be replaced after each shot since it exhibits both laser damage and considerable x- ray ablation with each shot. Uncontaminated B{sub 4}C, SS, and low thermal expansion glasses have reasonably small x-ray and laser ablation rates, although the glasses begin to fail catastrophically after 100 high fluence shots. Commercially available absorbing glasses require a pre-shield of either Teflon or low thermal expansion glass to prevent serious degradation by the x-ray fluence. Advantages of the hot-pressed B{sub 4}C and SS over glass are their performance against microshrapnel, their relative indifference to contamination, and their ability to be refurbished by aggressive cleaning using CO{sub 2} pellets, ...
Date: July 8, 1998
Creator: Anderson, A. T.; Bletzer, K.; Burnham, A. K.; Dixit, S; Genin, F. Y.; Hibbard, W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultrasonic texture characterization of aluminum, zirconium and titanium alloys

Description: This work attempts to show the feasibility of nondestructive characterization of non-ferrous alloys. Aluminum alloys have a small single crystal anisotropy which requires very precise ultrasonic velocity measurements for derivation of orientation distribution coefficients (ODCs); the precision in the ultrasonic velocity measurement required for aluminum alloys is much greater than is necessary for iron alloys or other alloys with a large single crystal anisotropy. To provide greater precision, some signal processing corrections need to be applied to account for the inherent, half-bandwidth offset in triggered pulses when using a zero-crossing technique for determining ultrasonic velocity. In addition, alloys with small single crystal anisotropy show a larger dependence on the single crystal elastic constants (SCECs) when predicting ODCs which require absolute velocity measurements. Attempts were made to independently determine these elastics constants in an effort to improve correlation between ultrasonically derived ODCs and diffraction derived ODCs. The greater precision required to accurately derive ODCs in aluminum alloys using ultrasonic nondestructive techniques is easily attainable. Ultrasonically derived ODCs show good correlation with derivations made by Bragg diffraction techniques, both neutron and X-ray. The best correlation was shown when relative velocity measurements could be used in the derivations of the ODCs. Calculation of ODCs in materials with hexagonal crystallites can also be done. Because of the crystallite symmetries, more information can be extracted using ultrasonic techniques, but at a cost of requiring more physical measurements. Some industries which use materials with hexagonal crystallites, e.g. zirconium alloys and titanium, have traditionally used texture parameters which provide some specialized measure of the texture. These texture parameters, called Kearns factors, can be directly related to ODCs.
Date: October 8, 1997
Creator: Anderson, A.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and Design of a User Interface for a Computer Automated Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning System

Description: A user interface is created to monitor and operate the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system. The interface is networked to the system's programmable logic controller. The controller maintains automated control of the system. The user through the interface is able to see the status of the system and override or adjust the automatic control features. The interface is programmed to show digital readouts of system equipment as well as visual queues of system operational statuses. It also provides information for system design and component interaction. The interface is made easier to read by simple designs, color coordination, and graphics. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermi lab) conducts high energy particle physics research. Part of this research involves collision experiments with protons, and anti-protons. These interactions are contained within one of two massive detectors along Fermilab's largest particle accelerator the Tevatron. The D-Zero Assembly Building houses one of these detectors. At this time detector systems are being upgraded for a second experiment run, titled Run II. Unlike the previous run, systems at D-Zero must be computer automated so operators do not have to continually monitor and adjust these systems during the run. Human intervention should only be necessary for system start up and shut down, and equipment failure. Part of this upgrade includes the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system (HVAC system). The HVAC system is responsible for controlling two subsystems, the air temperatures of the D-Zero Assembly Building and associated collision hall, as well as six separate water systems used in the heating and cooling of the air and detector components. The BYAC system is automated by a programmable logic controller. In order to provide system monitoring and operator control a user interface is required. This paper will address methods and strategies used to design and implement an effective user ...
Date: October 8, 1999
Creator: Anderson, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fueled viking generator S/N 106 acceptance vibration test report

Description: The Viking Generator S/N 106 was vibrated to the Teledyne Isotope Flight Acceptance Schedule (Random Only) with no deviation from normal generator functional output. Radiographic analysis and power tests before and after the vibration test indicated no change in the condition of the generator. The work was conducted in the Alpha Fuels Environmental Test Facility at Mound Laboratory.
Date: June 8, 1976
Creator: Anderson, C.; Brewer, C. O. & Abrahamson, S. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Input and decayed values of radioactive liquid wastes discharged to the ground in the 200 Areas through 1975

Description: Low and intermediate level liquid wastes from chemical separations processing of spent reactor fuel elements have been discharged to the ground in the 200-Areas since 1944. Large volumes of process cooling water, normally free of radioactive contaminants, are discharged to surface ditches or natural surface depressions (ponds). Lesser volumes of liquid waste such as steam condensates, process condensates, scavenged process waste supernatants, and plutonium processing wastes have been, or are being discharged to subsurface disposal sites (cribs). Only input volumes and radioactivity discharged to each disposal site have been reported periodically.
Date: July 8, 1976
Creator: Anderson, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration of the Robotic Gamma Locating and Isotopic Identification Device

Description: The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in decontaminating and decommissioning nuclear facilities. To this end, the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area of DOE's Office of Science and Technology sponsors Large-Scale Demonstration and Deployment Projects (LSDDP) to test new technologies. As part of these projects, developers and vendors showcase new products designed to decrease health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increase productivity, and lower costs. As part of the FY 2000 and 2001 LSDDP, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) collaborated with the Russian Research and Development Institute of Construction Technology (NIKIMT). This collaboration resulted in the development of the Robotic Gamma Locating and Isotopic Identification Device (RGL and IID) which integrated DOE Robotics Crosscutting (Rbx) technology with NIKIMT Russian gamma locating and isotopic identification technology. This paper will discuss the technologies involved in this integration and results from the demonstration including reduction of personnel exposure, increase in productivity, and reduced risk.
Date: May 8, 2002
Creator: Anderson, M.O.; Conner, C.C.; Daniel, V.E.; McKay, M.D. & Yancey, N.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stress Corrosion Cracking of Annealed and Cold Worked Titanium Grade 7 and Alloy 22 in 110 C Concentrated Salt Environments

Description: Stress corrosion crack growth studies have been performed on annealed and cold worked Titanium Grade 7 and Alloy 22 in 110 C, aerated, concentrated, high pH salt environments characteristic of concentrated ground water. Following a very careful transition from fatigue precracking conditions to SCC conditions, the long term behavior under very stable conditions was monitored using reversing dc potential drop. Titanium Grade 7 exhibited continuous crack growth under both near-static and complete static loading conditions. Alloy 22 exhibited similar growth rates, but was less prone to maintain stable crack growth as conditions approached fully static loading.
Date: November 8, 2000
Creator: Andresen, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research and development task plan: Shielded Cells Batch 1 campaign. Revision 2

Description: The primary objectives of this task are to characterize the sludge, to identify any unexpected processing problems, and to demonstrate the ability to make an acceptable glass product. Another objective is to determine the amount of washing that the sludge from Tank 42 requires. The 500 ml glass Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the 100 L stainless steel SRAT have already been used in the Shielded Cells to demonstrate the process using samples from other tanks. The melter and off-gas system have also been used in the Shielded Cells to vitrify sludge from Tanks 8 & 12 and from Tank 51.
Date: October 8, 1993
Creator: Andrews, M. K.; Bibler, N. E.; Ferrara, D. M.; Ha, B. C. & Hay, M. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transition Metal Catalyzed Reactions of Carbohydrates: a Nonoxidative Approach to Oxygenated Organics

Description: There is a critical need for new environmentally friendly processes in the United States chemical industry as legislative and economic pressures push the industry to zero-waste and cradle-to-grave responsibility for the products they produce. Carbohydrates represent a plentiful, renewable resource, which for some processes might economically replace fossil feedstocks. While the conversion of biomass to fuels, is still not generally economical, the selective synthesis of a commodity or fine chemical, however, could compete effectively if appropriate catalytic conversion systems can be found. Oxygenated organics, found in a variety of products such as nylon and polyester, are particularly attractive targets. We believe that with concerted research efforts, homogeneous transition metal catalyzed reactions could play a significant role in bringing about this future green chemistry technology.
Date: January 8, 1997
Creator: Andrews, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program Compilation of Project Summaries and Significant Accomplishments FY 1999

Description: For the past 10 years the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) has supported development of new and improved materials to enable U.S. industry to improve energy efficiency, increase productivity, and reduce waste. It has been a National Laboratory based program, with work currently under way at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories, in collaboration with industrial and university partners. With the advent of the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) and the scheduled completion of the Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) Program in FY 2002, an integrated materials program is being developed in OIT. So this represents the last summary of AIM research and development. The new program, Industrial Materials for the Future (IMF), will be competitive in operation, with solicitations for proposals for development of materials in accordance with the IOF Technology Roadmaps, followed by merit review and funding of the best proposals. Industry will take the lead in ''industry-specific'' research and development, in cooperation with National Laboratories, as needed. National Laboratories and universities will take the lead in maintaining a base technology program, for the purpose of maintaining a continuing flow of new materials technologies. The AIM and CFCC Programs will be replaced by the IMF program over a three year period, so that in FY 2004, all research and development will be in response to industry solicitations and Laboratory/university calls. The Program Manager believes that AIM has been an extremely successful program, thanks to the Laboratory investigators and their partners. For 10 years, the program has increased industrial participation from very little to nearly 100 percent. The CFCC Program, similarly, has been successful in advancing the knowledge of processing and property development in these materials, though much still can be done in advancing their uses ...
Date: August 8, 2000
Creator: Angelini, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LIFE: Recent Developments and Progress

Description: Test results from the NIF show excellent progress toward achieving ignition. Experiments designed to verify coupling of the laser energy to the fusion target have shown that the efficiency meets that needed for ignition. Several tests with the cryogenic targets needed for ignition have been performed, and world-record neutron output produced. The National Ignition Campaign is on schedule to meet its 2012 ignition milestone, with the next phase in the campaign due to start later this month. It has been a busy and very productive year. The NIF is in full 24/7 operations and has progressed markedly in the path toward ignition. The long-standing goal of the National Ignition Campaign to demonstrate ignition by the end of FY 2012 is on track. The LIFE plant design has matured considerably, and a delivery plan established based on close interactions with vendors. National-level reviews of fusion are underway, and are due to present initial findings later this year. A value proposition has been drafted for review. The LIFE project is ready to move into the delivery phase.
Date: April 8, 2011
Creator: Anklam, T M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Letter from J. Ann to Charles Moore, April 8, 1883]

Description: He was surprised, but glad to hear from Charles. He is sorry that Charles' brother John was suffering fro rheumatism. He believes everyone is doing well, and he mentions that they are suffering from dry weather. He hopes for good crops this year. There is a liquor prohibiting law and the Marshall takes drunk men to jail every few nights. He tells Charles that his son Will is still sheriff and the ages of aunts and uncles. He doesn't know if Willis is going to leave or not. He asks that they write soon. In the P.S. he asks some questions. He aks if Charles and Henry are the only ones to keep the Moore name. He mentions that the Boyd name rests on the second generation with one boy.
Date: April 8, 1883
Creator: Ann, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Overview of the Imperial Valley Environmental Project. [Environmental effects associated with development of geothermal resources]

Description: The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has been appointed by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration to be the lead laboratory for carrying out a long-term project to acquire complete understanding of the environmental quality in the Imperial Valley of California prior to any major developments. The purpose of this project is to ensure that the development of geothermal resources proceeds on an environmentally sound basis. Consequently, the Imperial Valley Environmental Project (IVP) is committed to an intensive and comprehensive study designed to establish an environmental baseline for the Imperial Valley as well as to develop an understanding of the environmental and other effects associated with development of geothermal resources. The IVP is organized into seven main study sections, which when taken together cover all the significant issues and concerns. The sections are: Air Quality; Water Quality; Ecosystem Quality (Soil, Plants, Animals, etc.); Subsidence and Induced Seismicity; Health Effects; Socio-Economics; and an Integrated Assessment. (auth)
Date: April 8, 1976
Creator: Anspaugh, L. R. & Phelps, P. L. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Letter from S. T. Appling to Sally Thornhill, May 8, 1899]

Description: This is a letter from the Charles B. Moore Collection. It is written by S. T. Appling to Sally Thornhill. In this letter, Appling discusses the current news in her community. She details the goings-on and well-being of family members. She notes to Sally that she has rheumatism in her hands, making it difficult to write. Appling states that the garden is all planted and details which crops are successful or failing at present. She mentions that Henry is currently shearing sheep, updates Sally on community news and family health, and mentions they do not have much fruit this season. She closes the letter by stating that the family should write to them as soon as they are able.
Date: May 8, 1899
Creator: Appling, S. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Progress and future plans for MPC and A at Chelyabinsk-70

Description: This paper describes that portion of the Nuclear Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) program that is directed specifically to the needs of the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Technical Physics (VNIITF), also called Chelyabinsk-70. Chelyabinsk-70 is located in the Ural Mountains, approximately 2000 km east of Moscow and 100 km south of Ekaterinburg. The MPC and A work that has been completed, is underway and planned at the facility will be described. During the first two years of the VNIITF project, emphasis was on the Pulse Research Reactor Facility (PRR), which contains one metal and two liquid pulse reactors and associated nuclear material storage rooms and a control center. A commissioning of the PRR was held in May of 1998. With the completion of the MPC and A work in the PRR, new physical protection work is focusing on other areas. VNIITF-wide physical protection initiatives underway include access control and computerized badging systems, and a central MPC and A control system. Measured physical inventory taking is a high priority for the VNIITF Project Team. A VNIITF-wide computerized accounting system is also being developed for the large and diverse inventory of nuclear material subject to MPC and A.
Date: July 8, 1999
Creator: Apt, K; Blasy, J; Bukin, D; Cahalane, P; Churikov, Y; Curtis, D et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department