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Power Contro Energy Management and Market Systems

Description: More efficient use of the nation's electrical energy infrastructure will result in minimizing the cost of energy to the end user. Using real time electrical market information coupled with defined rules, market opportunities can be identified that provide economic benefit for both users and marketers of electricity. This report describes the design of one such system and the features a fully functional system would provide. This report documents several investigated methods of controlling load diversity or shifting.
Date: December 15, 2005
Creator: Addison, Tom & Stanbury, Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lifecycle Assessment of Beijing-Area Building Energy Use and Emissions: Summary Findings and Policy Applications

Description: Buildings are at the locus of three trends driving China's increased energy use and emissions: urbanization, growing personal consumption, and surging heavy industrial production. Migration to cities and urban growth create demand for new building construction. Higher levels of per-capita income and consumption drive building operational energy use with demand for higher intensity lighting, thermal comfort, and plug-load power. Demand for new buildings, infrastructure, and electricity requires heavy industrial production. In order to quantify the implications of China's ongoing urbanization, rising personal consumption, and booming heavy industrial sector, this study presents a lifecycle assessment (LCA) of the energy use and carbon emissions related to residential and commercial buildings. The purpose of the LCA model is to quantify the impact of a given building and identify policy linkages to mitigate energy demand and emissions growth related to China's new building construction. As efficiency has become a higher priority with growing energy demand, policy and academic attention to buildings has focused primarily on operational energy use. Existing studies estimate that building operational energy consumption accounts for approximately 25% of total primary energy use in China. However, buildings also require energy for mining, extracting, processing, manufacturing, and transporting materials, as well as energy for construction, maintenance, and decommissioning. Building and supporting infrastructure construction is a major driver of industry consumption--in 2008 industry accounted for 72% of total Chinese energy use. The magnitude of new building construction is large in China--in 2007, for example, total built floor area reached 58 billion square meters. During the construction boom in 2007 and 2008, more than two billion m{sup 2} of building space were added annually; China's recent construction is estimated to account for half of global construction. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) developed an integrated LCA model to capture the energy and emissions implications of all ...
Date: September 15, 2010
Creator: Aden, Nathaniel; Qin, Yining & Fridley, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Urban Form Energy Use and Emissions in China: Preliminary Findings and Model Proof of Concept

Description: Urbanization is reshaping China's economy, society, and energy system. Between 1990 and 2008 China added more than 300 million new urban residents, bringing the total urbanization rate to 46%. The ongoing population shift is spurring energy demand for new construction, as well as additional residential use with the replacement of rural biomass by urban commercial energy services. This project developed a modeling tool to quantify the full energy consequences of a particular form of urban residential development in order to identify energy- and carbon-efficient modes of neighborhood-level development and help mitigate resource and environmental implications of swelling cities. LBNL developed an integrated modeling tool that combines process-based lifecycle assessment with agent-based building operational energy use, personal transport, and consumption modeling. The lifecycle assessment approach was used to quantify energy and carbon emissions embodied in building materials production, construction, maintenance, and demolition. To provide more comprehensive analysis, LBNL developed an agent-based model as described below. The model was applied to LuJing, a residential development in Jinan, Shandong Province, to provide a case study and model proof of concept. This study produced results data that are unique by virtue of their scale, scope and type. Whereas most existing literature focuses on building-, city-, or national-level analysis, this study covers multi-building neighborhood-scale development. Likewise, while most existing studies focus exclusively on building operational energy use, this study also includes embodied energy related to personal consumption and buildings. Within the boundaries of this analysis, food is the single largest category of the building energy footprint, accounting for 23% of the total. On a policy level, the LCA approach can be useful for quantifying the energy and environmental benefits of longer average building lifespans. In addition to prospective analysis for standards and certification, urban form modeling can also be useful in calculating or verifying ex ...
Date: December 15, 2010
Creator: Aden, Nathaniel; Qin, Yining & Fridley, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spent Fuel Transportation Package Response to the Baltimore Tunnel Fire Scenario

Description: On July 18, 2001, a freight train carrying hazardous (non-nuclear) materials derailed and caught fire while passing through the Howard Street railroad tunnel in downtown Baltimore, Maryland. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), one of the agencies responsible for ensuring the safe transportation of radioactive materials in the United States, undertook an investigation of the train derailment and fire to determine the possible regulatory implications of this particular event for the transportation of spent nuclear fuel by railroad. Shortly after the accident occurred, the USNRC met with the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB, the U.S. agency responsible for determining the cause of transportation accidents), to discuss the details of the accident and the ensuing fire. Following these discussions, the USNRC assembled a team of experts from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine the thermal conditions that existed in the Howard Street tunnel fire and analyze the effects of this fire on various spent fuel transportation package designs. The Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) code, developed by NIST, was used to determine the thermal environment present in the Howard Street tunnel during the fire. The FDS results were used as boundary conditions in the COBRA-SFS and ANSYS® computer codes to evaluate the thermal performance of different package designs. The staff concluded that larger transportation packages resembling the HOLTEC Model No. HI STAR 100 and TransNuclear Model No. TN-68 would withstand a fire with thermal conditions similar to those that existed in the Baltimore tunnel fire event with only minor damage to peripheral components. This is due to their sizable thermal inertia and design specifications in compliance with currently imposed regulatory requirements. The staff also concluded that some components of smaller transportation packages resembling ...
Date: November 15, 2006
Creator: Adkins, Harold E.; Cuta, Judith M.; Koeppel, Brian J.; Guzman, Anthony D. & Bajwa, Christopher S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of the ILC Crab Cavity System

Description: The International Linear Collider (ILC) has a 14 mrad crossing angle in order to aid extraction of spent bunches. As a result of the bunch shape at the interaction point, this crossing angle at the collision causes a large luminosity loss which can be recovered by rotating the bunches prior to collision using a crab cavity. The ILC baseline crab cavity is a 9-cell superconducting dipole cavity operating at a frequency of 3.9 GHz. In this paper the design of the ILC crab cavity and its phase control system, as selected for the RDR in February 2007 is described in fuller detail.
Date: August 15, 2007
Creator: Adolphsen, C.; Beard, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Burt, G.; Carter, R.; Chase, B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Next Generation Bipolar Plates for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells

Description: The results of a successful U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) funded two-year $2.9 MM program lead by GrafTech International Inc. (GrafTech) are reported and summarized. The program goal was to develop the next generation of high temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell bipolar plates for use in transportation fuel cell applications operating at temperatures up to 120 °C. The bipolar plate composite developed during the program is based on GrafTech’s GRAFCELL resin impregnated flexible graphite technology and makes use of a high temperature Huntsman Advanced Materials resin system which extends the upper use temperature of the composite to the DoE target. High temperature performance of the new composite is achieved with the added benefit of improvements in strength, modulus, and dimensional stability over the incumbent resin systems. Other physical properties, including thermal and electrical conductivity of the new composite are identical to or not adversely affected by the new resin system. Using the new bipolar plate composite system, machined plates were fabricated and tested in high temperature single-cell fuel cells operating at 120 °C for over 1100 hours by Case Western Reserve University. Final verification of performance was done on embossed full-size plates which were fabricated and glued into bipolar plates by GrafTech. Stack testing was done on a 10-cell full-sized stack under a simulated drive cycle protocol by Ballard Power Systems. Freeze-thaw performance was conducted by Ballard on a separate 5-cell stack and shown to be within specification. A third stack was assembled and shipped to Argonne National Laboratory for independent performance verification. Manufacturing cost estimate for the production of the new bipolar plate composite at current and high volume production scenarios was performed by Directed Technologies Inc. (DTI). The production cost estimates were consistent with previous DoE cost estimates performed by DTI for the DoE on metal ...
Date: April 15, 2010
Creator: Adrianowycz, Orest; Norley, Julian; Stuart, David J.; Flaherty, David; Wayne, Ryan; Williams, Warren et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ACIR (Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations) Home Page

Description: The Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations (ACIR) is a permanent, independent, bipartisan intergovernmental agency established by Public Law 86-380 in 1959. As it was established, ACIR's mission is:To strengthen the American federal system and improve the ability of federal, state, and local governments to work together cooperatively, efficiently, and effectively.
Date: May 15, 1996
Creator: Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Magnetic correlations in doped transition metal oxides

Description: The authors review recent reactor- and spallation-source-based neutron scattering experiments on the magnetic fluctuations and order in a variety of doped transition metal oxides. In particular, data are shown for the NiO chain compound, Y{sub 2{minus}x}Ca{sub x}BaNiO{sub 5}, the two-dimensional cuprate superconductors La{sub 2{minus}x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3} O{sub 6+x}, and the classical three-dimensional ``Mott-Hubbard`` system V{sub 2{minus}y}O{sub 3}.
Date: February 15, 1995
Creator: Aeppli, G.; Bao, W. & Broholm, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MODELING THE CATHODIC REGION IN CREVICE CORROSION UNDER A THIN ELECTROLYTE FILM INCLUDING PARTICULATES

Description: The present state of understanding of localized corrosion of passive metals is based primarily upon behavior under fully immersed solutions. There has been limited analysis of localized corrosion in moist layers of dust, particulate and deposits. This work as part of a multi-university Corrosion Cooperative of the DOE-OCRWM Science and Technology Program established to enhance the understanding of corrosion processes and materials performance. The objective of this project is to develop models to simulate localized corrosion. The present analysis focuses specifically on the cathodic region near a corrosion crevice with the objective of characterizing the effects of the critical process parameters on the required current to sustain the crevice corrosion. Previous related analytical and numerical studies have focused on galvanic corrosion where the rates of the anodic and cathodic processes are comparable, analyzing mostly the effects of the electrode kinetics and the thickness of the electrolyte layer. A recent study considers the cathodic region for crevice corrosion. The work here determines two and three dimensional current and potential distributions over the cathode. The analyzed cathodic oxygen reduction region adjacent to the crevice is depicted in Fig. 1. This region is modeled for the presence of extremely thin (G{sub r} = 1-2000 {micro}m) electrolyte film. The electrolyte film may become discontinuous thus limiting the cathode behavior. Spatial variation of pH affecting the oxygen reduction kinetics, and oxygen diffusion limitations in the film are analyzed. Additionally, the presence of particulates is considered. The effects of macroscopic scale parameters, including the extent of the cathodic region (L = 0.1-30 mm), the crevice gap (G{sub a} = 1-25 {micro}m) and the film conductivity (0.012-1.2 mS/cm) on the current and potential distributions were modeled using an electrochemical CAD software. The total current which a specific cathode can provide to sustain the crevice corrosion, was calculated ...
Date: June 15, 2005
Creator: Agarwal, A.S.; Landau, U.; Shan, X. & Payer, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Collaboration tools for the global accelerator network: Workshop Report

Description: The concept of a ''Global Accelerator Network'' (GAN) has been put forward as a means for inter-regional collaboration in the operation of internationally constructed and operated frontier accelerator facilities. A workshop was held to allow representatives of the accelerator community and of the collaboratory development community to meet and discuss collaboration tools for the GAN environment. This workshop, called the Collaboration Tools for the Global Accelerator Network (GAN) Workshop, was held on August 26, 2002 at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The goal was to provide input about collaboration tools in general and to provide a strawman for the GAN collaborative tools environment. The participants at the workshop represented accelerator physicists, high-energy physicists, operations, technology tool developers, and social scientists that study scientific collaboration.
Date: September 15, 2002
Creator: Agarwal, Deborah; Olson, Gary & Olson, Judy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

Description: The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this segment of work, our goal was to review methods for estimating tree survival, growth, yield and value of forests growing on surface mined land in the eastern coalfields of the USA, and to determine the extent to which carbon sequestration is influenced by these factors. Public Law 95-87, the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), mandates that mined land be reclaimed in a fashion that renders the land at least as productive after mining as it was before mining. In the central Appalachian region, where prime farmland and economic development opportunities for mined land are scarce, the most practical land use choices are hayland/pasture, wildlife habitat, or forest land. Since 1977, the majority of mined land has been reclaimed as hayland/pasture or wildlife habitat, which is less expensive to reclaim than forest land, since there are no tree planting costs. As a result, there are now hundreds of thousands of hectares of grasslands and scrublands in various stages of natural succession located throughout otherwise forested mountains in the U.S. A literature review was done to develop the basis for an economic feasibility study of a range of land-use conversion scenarios. Procedures were developed for both mixed hardwoods and white pine under a set of low product prices and under a set of high product prices. Economic feasibility is based on land expectation values. Further, our review shows that three types of incentive schemes might be important: (1) lump sum payment at planting (and equivalent series of annual payments); (2) revenue incentive at harvest; and (3) benefit based ...
Date: December 15, 2003
Creator: Aggett, Jonathan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimization of the Transport Shield for Neutrinoless Double Beta-decay Enriched Germanium

Description: This document presents results of an investigation of the material and geometry choice for the transport shield of germanium, the active detector material used in 76Ge neutrinoless double beta decay searches. The objective of this work is to select the optimal material and geometry to minimize cosmogenic production of radioactive isotopes in the germanium material. The design of such a shield is based on the calculation of the cosmogenic production rate of isotopes that are known to cause interfering backgrounds in 76Ge neutrinoless double beta decay searches.
Date: April 15, 2012
Creator: Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.; Reid, Douglas J. & Fast, James E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice

Description: Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.
Date: July 15, 2007
Creator: Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Adiabatic Matching Section Solution for the Source Injector

Description: Typical designs for a Heavy Ion Fusion Power Plant require the source injector to deliver 100 beams, packed into an array with a spacing of 7 cm. When designing source injectors using a single large aperture source for each beam, the emitter surfaces are packed into an array with a spacing of 30 cm. Thus, the matching section of the source injector must not only prepare the beam for transport in a FODO lattice, but also funnel the beams together. This can be accomplished by an ESQ matching section in which each beam travels on average at a slight angle to the axis of the quadrupoles and uses the focusing effect of the FODO lattice to maintain the angle. At the end of the matching section, doublet steering is used to bring the beams parallel to each other for injection into the main accelerator. A specific solution of this type for an 84-beam source injector is presented. PACS: 41.75.Ak,41.85.Ar, 41.85.Ja
Date: September 15, 2000
Creator: Ahle, L.; Grote, D.P.; Halaxa, E.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W. & Mac Laren, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent progress in inertial confinement fusion at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

Description: The Shiva and Argus laser systems at Livermore have been developed to study the physics of inertial confinement fusion. Both laser system designs are predicated on the use of large aperture Nd-glass disk amplifiers and high power spatial filters. During the past year we have irradiated DT filled microshell targets with and without polymer coatings. Recently new instruments have been developed to investigate implosion dynamics and to determine the maximum fuel density achieved by these imploded fusion pellets. A series of target irradiations with thin wall microshells at 15 to 20 TW, exploding pusher designs, resulted in a maximum neutron yield of 3 x 10/sup 10/. Polymer coated microshells designed for high compression were subjected to 4 kJ for 0.2 ns and reached fuel densities of 2.0 to 3.0 gm/cm/sup 3/. Results of these and other recent experiments will be reviewed.
Date: October 15, 1979
Creator: Ahlstrom, H.G. & Manes, K.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GCtool for fuel cell systems design and analysis : user documentation.

Description: GCtool is a comprehensive system design and analysis tool for fuel cell and other power systems. A user can analyze any configuration of component modules and flows under steady-state or dynamic conditions. Component models can be arbitrarily complex in modeling sophistication and new models can be added easily by the user. GCtool also treats arbitrary system constraints over part or all of the system, including the specification of nonlinear objective functions to be minimized subject to nonlinear, equality or inequality constraints. This document describes the essential features of the interpreted language and the window-based GCtool environment. The system components incorporated into GCtool include a gas flow mixer, splitier, heater, compressor, gas turbine, heat exchanger, pump, pipe, diffuser, nozzle, steam drum, feed water heater, combustor, chemical reactor, condenser, fuel cells (proton exchange membrane, solid oxide, phosphoric acid, and molten carbonate), shaft, generator, motor, and methanol steam reformer. Several examples of system analysis at various levels of complexity are presented. Also given are instructions for generating two- and three-dimensional plots of data and the details of interfacing new models to GCtool.
Date: January 15, 1999
Creator: Ahluwalia, R.K. & Geyer, H.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department