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Load calculation and system evaluation for electric vehicle climate control

Description: This paper presents an analysis of the applicability of alternative systems for electric vehicle (EV) heating and air conditioning (HVAC). The paper consists of two parts. The first part is a cooling and heating load calculation for electric vehicles. The second part is an evaluation of several systems that can provide the desired cooling and heating in EVs. These systems are ranked according to their overall weight The overall weight is calculated by adding the system weight and the weight of the battery necessary to provide energy for system operation. The system with the minimum overall weight is considered to be the best, because minimum vehicle weight decreases the energy required for propulsion, and therefore increases the vehicle range. Three systems are considered as the best choices for EV HVAC. These are, vapor compression, ice storage and adsorption systems. These systems are evaluated, including calculations of system weight, system volume, and COP. The paper also includes a calculation on how the battery energy storage capacity affects the overall system weights and the selection of the optimum system. The results indicate that, at the conditions analyzed in this paper, an ice storage system has the minimum weight of all the systems considered. Vapor compression air conditioners become the system with the minimum weight for battery storage capacities above 230 kJ/kg.
Date: September 12, 1994
Creator: Aceves, S. M. & Comfort, W. J. III
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Nonlinear Absorption in BK7 and Color Glasses at 355 nm

Description: We have demonstrated a simple experimental technique that can be used to measure the nonlinear absorption coefficients in glasses. We determine BK7, UG1, and UG11 glasses to have linear absorption coefficients of 0.0217 {+-} 10% cm{sup -1}, 1.7 {+-} 10% cm{sup -1}, and 0.82 {+-} 10% cm{sup -1}, respectively, two-photon absorption cross-sections of 0.025 {+-} 20% cm/GW, 0.035 {+-} 20% cm/GW, and 0.047 {+-} 20% cm/GW, respectively, excited-state absorption cross-sections of 8.0 x 10{sup -18} {+-} 20% cm{sup 2}, 2.8 x 10{sup -16} {+-} 20% cm{sup 2}, and 5 x 10{sup -17} {+-} 20% cm{sup 2}, respectively, and solarization coefficients of 8.5 x 10{sup -20} {+-} 20% cm{sup 2}, 2.5 x 10{sup -18} {+-} 20% cm{sup 2}, and 1.3 x 10{sup -19} {+-} 20% cm{sup 2}, respectively. For our application, nonlinear effects in 10-cm of BK7 are small ({le} 2%) for 355-nm fluences < 0.2 J/cm{sup 2} for flat-top pulses. However, nonlinear effects are noticeable for 355-nm fluences at 0.8 J/cm{sup 2}. In particular, we determine a 20% increase in the instantaneous absorption from linear, a solarization rate of 4% per 100 shots, and a 10% temporal droop introduced in the pulse, for 355-nm flat-top pulses at a fluence of 0.8 J/cm{sup 2}. For 0.5-cm of UG1 absorbing glass the non-linear absorption has a similar effect as that from 10-cm of BK7 on the pulse shape; however, the effects in UG11 are much smaller.
Date: November 12, 2003
Creator: Adams, J J; McCarville, T; Bruere, J; McElroy, J & Peterson, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pseudorapidity Asymmetry and Centrality Dependence of Charged Hadron Spectra in d+Au collisions at sqrt(sNN) = 200 GeV

Description: The pseudorapidity asymmetry and centrality dependence of charged hadron spectra in d+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV are presented. The charged particle density at mid-rapidity, its pseudorapidity asymmetry and centrality dependence are reasonably reproduced by a Multi-Phase Transport model, by HIJING, and by the latest calculations in a saturation model. Ratios of transverse momentum spectra between backward and forward pseudorapidity are above unity for p{sub T} below 5 GeV/c. The ratio of central to peripheral spectra in d+Au collisions shows enhancement at 2 < p{sub T} < 6 GeV/c, with a larger effect at backward rapidity than forward rapidity. Our measurements are in qualitative agreement with gluon saturation and in contrast to calculations based on incoherent multiple partonic scatterings.
Date: January 12, 2005
Creator: Adams, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett, J.; Anderson, B.D.; Arkhipkin, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS FOR I-129 WASTES: EFFECT OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY

Description: Solid low-level radioactive wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are disposed in trenches. In order to determine the permissible radioactive inventory limits for such disposal facilities, it is required to assess the behavior of radioactive waste material over long periods of time. The sensitivity of flow and I-129 (and similar radionuclides) transport in groundwater in the vadose zone to the hydraulic conductivities of the vadose zone subregions and the low-level waste is identified and quantified. A trench configuration and simulation model have been developed to analyze the flow and transport of the radionuclide in the vadose zone as it migrates to the groundwater table. The analysis identifies and quantifies the major dependencies of the flow and radionuclide fractional flux on the subregion hydraulic conductivities. Analysis results indicate the importance of the hydraulic conductivity assigned to the materials modeled, thereby providing the modeler and decision makers with valuable insights on the potential impact of the hydraulic conductivity on flow and radionuclide transport.
Date: January 12, 2007
Creator: Ades, M & Leonard Collard, L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Compact X-Band Linac for an X-Ray FEL

Description: With the growing demand for FEL light sources, cost issues are being reevaluated. To make the machines more compact, higher frequency room temperature linacs are being considered, specifically ones using C-band (5.7 GHz) rf technology, for which 40 MV/m gradients are achievable. In this paper, we show that an X-band (11.4 GHz) linac using the technology developed for NLC/GLC can provide an even lower cost solution. In particular, stable operation is possible at gradients of 100 MV/m for single bunch operation and 70 MV/m for multibunch operation. The concern, of course, is whether the stronger wakefields will lead to unacceptable emittance dilution. However, we show that the small emittances produced in a 250 MeV, low bunch charge, LCLS-like S-band injector and bunch compressor can be preserved in a multi-GeV X-band linac with reasonable alignment tolerances. The successful lasing and operation of the LCLS [1] has generated world-wide interest in X-ray FELs. The demand for access to such a light source by researchers eager to harness the capabilities of this new tool far exceeds the numbers that can be accommodated, spurring plans for additional facilities. Along with cost, spatial considerations become increasingly important for a hard X-ray machine driven by a multi-GeV linac. The consequent need for high acceleration gradient focuses attention on higher frequency normal conducting accelerator technology, rather than the superconducting technology of a soft X-ray facility like FLASH. C-band technology, such as used by Spring-8, is a popular option, capable of providing 40 MV/m. However, more than a decade of R&D toward an X-band linear collider, centered at SLAC and KEK, has demonstrated that this frequency option can extend the gradient reach to the 70-100 MV/m range. The following design and beam dynamics calculations show an X-band linac to be an attractive choice on which to base an ...
Date: September 12, 2011
Creator: Adolphsen, Chris; Huang, Zhirong; Bane, Karl L.F.; Li, Zenghai; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Faya et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nanoscale investigation of polarization retention loss in ferroelectric thin films via scanning force microscopy.

Description: Scanning force microscopy (SFM) was applied to direct nanoscale investigation of the mechanism of retention loss in ferroelectric thin films. Experiments were conducted by performing local polarization reversal within an individual grain with subsequent imaging of a resulting domain structure at various time intervals. A conductive SFM tip was used for domain switching and imaging in the SFM piezoresponse mode.
Date: February 12, 1998
Creator: Aggarwal, S.; Auciello, O.; Gruverman, A.; Prakash, S. A.; Ramesh, R. & Tokumoto, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and testing of a method for efficient simulation of evaporation from a seepage face

Description: Evaporation from the surface of a porous medium is a complex process, governed by interplay between (1) coupled liquid and vapor flow in the porous medium, and (2) relative humidity, temperature, and aerodynamic conditions in the surrounding air. In order to avoid the computational expense of explicitly simulating liquid, gas, and heat flow in the porous medium (and the possible further expense of simulating the flow of water vapor in the atmosphere), evaporative potentials can be treated in a simplified manner within a model where liquid is the only active phase. In the case of limited air mixing, evaporation can be approximated as a diffusion process with a linear vapor-concentration gradient. We have incorporated a simplified scheme into the EOS9 module of iTOUGH2 to represent evaporation as isothermal Fickian diffusion. This is notable because the EOS9 module solves a single equation describing saturated and unsaturated flow, i.e., phase transitions and vapor flow are not explicitly simulated. The new approach was applied to three simple problems and the results were compared to those obtained with analytical solutions or the EOS4 module, which explicitly considers advective and diffusive vapor flow. Where vapor flow within the porous medium can be neglected, this new scheme represents significant improvement over the computational expense of explicitly simulating liquid, gas, and heat flow, while providing an adequate reproduction of the overall hydrologic system. The scheme is set up to allow parallel flow of liquid and vapor, so that evaporation from an actively seeping face can be simulated. In addition, dynamic relative humidity boundary conditions can be simulated using standard iTOUGH2 features.
Date: May 12, 2003
Creator: Ahlers, C. Fredrik; Ghezzehei, Teamrat & Finsterle, Stefan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory laser-fusion program

Description: The goals of the Laser-Fusion Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are to produce well-diagnosed, high-gain, laser-driven fusion explosions in the laboratory and to exploit this capability for both military applications and for civilian energy production. In the past year we have made significant progress both theoretically and experimentally in our understanding of the laser interaction with both directly coupled and radiation-driven implosion targets and their implosion dynamics. We have made significant developments in fabricating the target structures. Data from the target experiments are producing important near-term physics results. We have also continued to develop attractive reactor concepts which illustrate ICF's potential as an energy producer.
Date: July 12, 1982
Creator: Ahlstrom, H.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters

Description: In this work we report on thevacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuumultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH +, (CH 3OH)2 +, (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-9), and (CH 3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-9 ) as a function of photon energy. With an increase in the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.
Date: May 12, 2008
Creator: Ahmed, Musahid; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Belau, Leonid & Kostko, Oleg
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE RHIC INJECTOR ACCELERATORS CONFIGURATIONS, AND PERFORMANCE FOR THE RHIC 2003 AU - D PHYSICS RUN.

Description: The RHIC 2003 Physics Run [1] required collisions between gold ions and deuterons. The injector necessarily had to deliver adequate quality (transverse and longitudinal emittance) and quantity of both species. For gold this was a continuing evolution from past work [2]. For deuterons it was new territory. For the filling of the RHIC the injector not only had to deliver quality beams but also had to switch between these species quickly. This paper details the collider requirements and our success in meeting these. Some details of the configurations employed are given.
Date: May 12, 2003
Creator: Ahrens, L; Benjamin, J; Blaskiewicz, M; Brennan, J M; Brown, K A; Carlson, K A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quantification of absorption, retention and elimination of two different oral doses of vitamin A in Zambian boys using accelerator mass spectrometry

Description: A recent survey indicated that high-dose vitamin A supplements (HD-VAS) had no apparent effect on vitamin A (VA) status of Zambian children <5 y of age. To explore possible reasons for the lack of response to HD-VAS among Zambian children, we quantified the absorption, retention, and urinary elimination of either a single HDVAS (60 mg) or a smaller dose of stable isotope (SI)-labeled VA (5 mg), which was used to estimate VA pool size, in 3-4 y old Zambian boys (n = 4 for each VA dose). A 25 nCi tracer dose of [{sup 14}C{sub 2}]-labeled VA was co-administered with the HD-VAS or SI-labeled VA, and 24-hr stool and urine samples were collected for 3 and 7 consecutive days, respectively, and 24-hr urine samples at 4 later time points. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) was used to measure the cumulative excretion of {sup 14}C in stool and urine 3d after dosing to estimate, respectively, absorption and retention of the VAS and SI-labeled VA. The urinary elimination rate (UER) was estimated by plotting {sup 14}C in urine vs. time, and fitting an exponential equation to the data. Estimates of mean absorption, retention and the UER were 83.8 {+-} 7.1%, 76.3 {+-} 6.7%, and 1.9 {+-} 0.6%/d, respectively, for the HD-VAS and 76.5 {+-} 9.5%, 71.1 {+-} 9.4%, and 1.8 {+-} 1.2%/d, respectively for the smaller dose of SI-labeled VA. Estimates of absorption, retention and the UER did not differ by size of the VA dose administered (P=0.26, 0.40, 0.88, respectively). Estimated absorption and retention were negatively associated with reported fever (P=0.011) and malaria (P =0.010). HD-VAS and SI-labeled VA were adequately absorbed, retained and utilized in apparently healthy Zambian preschool-age boys, although absorption and retention may be affected by recent infections.
Date: October 12, 2009
Creator: Aklamati, E K; Mulenga, M; Dueker, S R; Buchholz, B A; Peerson, J M; Kafwembe, E et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Composition and Bonding in Amorphous Carbon Films Grown by Ion Beam Assisted Deposition: Influence of the Assistance Voltage

Description: Amorphous carbon films have been grown by evaporation of graphite with concurrent Ar+ ions bombardment assistance. The ion energy has been varied between 0-800 V while keeping a constant ion to carbon atom arrival ratio. Film composition and density were determined by ion scattering techniques (RBS and ERDA), indicating a negligible hydrogen content and a density dependence with the assistance voltage. The bonding structure of the films has been studied by Raman and X-ray Absorption Near-Edge (XANES) spectroscopy. Different qualitative effects have been found depending on the ion energy range. For ion energies below 300 eV, there is a densification of the carbon layer due to the increase in the sp3 content. For ion energies above 300 eV sputtering phenomena dominate over densification, and thinner films are found with increasing assistance voltage until no film is grown over 600 V. The films with the highest SP3 content are grown with intermediate energies between 200-300 V.
Date: November 12, 1998
Creator: Albella, J.M.; Banks, J.C.; Climent-Font, A.; Doyle, B.L.; Gago, R.; Jimenez, I. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supernova/Acceleration Probe: A Satellite Experiment to Study the Nature of the Dark Energy

Description: The Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) is a proposed space-based experiment designed to study the dark energy and alternative explanations of the acceleration of the Universes expansion by performing a series of complementary systematics-controlled astrophysical measurements. We here describe a self-consistent reference mission design that can accomplish this goal with the two leading measurement approaches being the Type Ia supernova Hubble diagram and a wide-area weak gravitational lensing survey. This design has been optimized to first order and is now under study for further modification and optimization. A 2-m three-mirror anastigmat wide-field telescope feeds a focal plane consisting of a 0.7 square-degree imager tiled with equal areas of optical CCDs and near infrared sensors, and a high efficiency low-resolution integral field spectrograph. The instrumentation suite provides simultaneous discovery and light-curve measurements of supernovae and then can target individual objects for detailed spectral characterization. The SNAP mission will discover thousands of Type Ia supernovae out to z = 3 and will obtain high-signal-to-noise calibrated light-curves and spectra for a subset of > 2000 supernovae at redshifts between z = 0.1 and 1.7 in a northern field and in a southern field. A wide-field survey covering one thousand square degrees in both northern and southern fields resolves {approx} 100 galaxies per square arcminute, or a total of more than 300 million galaxies. With the PSF stability afforded by a space observatory, SNAP will provide precise and accurate measurements of gravitational lensing. The high-quality data available in space, combined with the large sample of supernovae, will enable stringent control of systematic uncertainties. The resulting data set will be used to determine the energy density of dark energy and parameters that describe its dynamical behavior. The data also provide a direct test of theoretical models for the dark energy, including discrimination of vacuum energy due to ...
Date: May 12, 2004
Creator: Aldering, G.; Althouse, W.; Amanullah, R.; Annis, J.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rumination in major depressive disorder is associated with impaired neural activation during conflict monitoring

Description: This article examines behavioral and event-related potentials (ERP) indices of conflict monitoring during a modified flanker task and the allocation of attention during an attentional blink (AB) task, and whether their behavioral performance and ERPs varied with level of rumination.
Date: January 5, 2015
Creator: Alderman, Brandon L.; Olson, Ryan L.; Bates, Marsha E.; Selby, Edward A.; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Brush, Christopher J. et al.
Partner: UNT College of Education

Commissioning of the EBIS-based heavy ion preinjector at Brookhaven

Description: The status is presented of the commissioning of a new heavy ion preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This preinjector uses an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), and an RFQ and IH Linac, both operating at 100.625 MHz, to produce 2 MeV/u ions of any species for use, after further acceleration, at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Among the increased capabilities provided by this preinjector are the ability to produce ions of any species, and the ability to switch between multiple species in 1 second, to simultaneously meet the needs of both science programs. For initial setup, helium beam from EBIS was injected and circulated in the Booster synchrotron. Following this, accelerated Au{sup 32+} and Fe{sup 20+} beams were transported to the Booster injection point, fulfilling DOE requirements for project completion.
Date: September 12, 2010
Creator: Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Binello, S.; Hoff, L.; Kondo, K.; Lambiase, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam collimation system for a 16 GeV proton driver

Description: It is shown that with the appropriate lattice and collimation design, one can control beam loss in the 16 GeV Fermilab Proton Driver. Based on detailed Monte-Carlo simulations, a 3-stage collimation system is proposed which consists of primary, secondary and supplementary collimators located in a special 60 m long injection section along with a painting system. It allows localization of more than 99% of beam loss to this section with only a 0.3 W/m (on average) beam loss rate in the rest of the machine. As a result, beam loss and induced radiation effects in lattice elements can be reduced to levels which are defined as acceptable.
Date: September 12, 2000
Creator: Alexandr I. Drozhdin, Carol J. Johnstone and Nikolai V. Mokhov
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plasma experiments with 1. 06. mu. m lasers at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

Description: Recent laser fusion experiments at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory have provided basic data concerning laser beam propagation and absorption in high temperature plasmas, electron energy transport processes that transfer the absorbed laser energy to the high density ablation region, the general fluid dynamic expansion and compression of the heated plasma, and the processes responsible for the production of 14 MeV neutrons during implosion experiments. This paper reports results related to the propagation, absorption and scattering of laser light by spherical and planar targets.
Date: March 12, 1976
Creator: Alhlstrom, H. G.; Holzrichter, J. F.; Haas, R. A.; Storm, E. K.; Manes, K. R.; Phillion, D. W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the Significance of the Contribution of Multiple-Electron Capture Processes to Cometary X-Ray Emission

Description: We report laboratory studies of the role played by multiple-electron capture (MEC) in solar wind induced cometary X-ray emission. Collisions of Ne{sup 10+} with He, Ne, Ar, CO, and CO{sub 2} have been investigated by means of the traditional singles X-ray spectroscopy in addition to the triple-coincidence measurements of X-rays, scattered projectile, and target recoil ions for the atomic targets. The coincidence measurements enable the reduction of the singles X-ray spectra into partial spectra originating in single-electron capture (SEC) and MEC collisions. The measurements provide unequivocal evidence for a significant role played by MEC, and strongly suggest that models based solely on SEC are bound to yield erroneous conclusions on the solar wind composition and velocities and on cometary atmospheres. The experimental relative importance of MEC collisions is compared with molecular classical-over-the-barrier model (MCBM), classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC), and multi-channel Landau-Zener (MCLZ), calculations which can qualitatively reproduce the experimental trends.
Date: May 12, 2005
Creator: Ali, R; Neill, P A; Beiersdorfer, P; Harris, C L; Rakovi?, M J; Wang, J G et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scaling Breakdown: A Signature of Aging

Description: In this article, the authors prove that the Lévy walk is characterized by bilinear scaling. This effect mirrors the existence of a form of aging that does not require the adoption of nonstationary conditions.
Date: July 12, 2002
Creator: Allegrini, Paolo; Bellazzini, Jacopo; Bramanti, G.; Ignaccolo, Massimiliano; Grigolini, Paolo & Yang, J.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Energy storage and power conditioning system for the Shiva laser

Description: An optimal energy delivery system for the world's largest glass laser system has been designed based on computer modeling and operation of laser hardware. Components of the system have been tested on operating lasers at LLL. The Shiva system is now under construction and will be completed in 1977. The energy supply described here will provide cost-effective, reliable power and facilitate the gathering of data in pursuit of controlled thermonuclear reactions. (auth)
Date: November 12, 1975
Creator: Allen, G.R.; Gagnon, W.L.; Rupert, P.R. & Trenholme, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-duct countermeasures for reducing fire-generated-smoke-aerosol exposure to HEPA filters. [High efficiency particulate aerosol]

Description: An experimental program was conducted to assess the endurance and lifetime of HEPA filters exposed to fire-generated aerosols, and to reduce the aerosol exposure by installing engineering countermeasures in the duct between the fire source and HEPA filters. Large cribs of wood and other potential fuels of interest were ''forcefully burned'' in a partially ventilated enclosure. In a ''forceful burn'' the crib of fuel is continuously exposed to an energetic premixed methane flame during the entire experimental period. This tactic serves two purposes: it optimizes the production of smoke rich in unburned pyrolyzates which provides severe exposure to the filters, and it facilitates the ignition and enhances the combustion of cribs formed with synthetic polymers. The experiments were conducted in an enclosure specifically designed and instrumented for fire tests. The test cell has a volume of 100 m/sup 3/ and includes instrumentation to measure the internal temperature distribution, pressure, thermal radiation field, flow fields, gas concentration, particulate size distribution and mass, fuel weight loss, inlet and exit air velocities, and smoke optical density. The countermeasure techniques include the use of passively operated sprinkler systems in the fire test cell, of fine and dense water scrubbing sprays, and of rolling prefiltration systems in the exit duct of the fire test cell. Of the countermeasures surveyed, the rolling prefilter system showed the most promise. This paper concentrates on the effect of control variables; i.e., enclosure air supply, fuel composition and crib porosity on the combustion response; i.e., crib burning rate, enclosure temperature rise, oxygen consumption, and CO, CO/sub 2/ and total hydrocarbon production. A discussion of the attempts to rationalize smoke aerosol properties will be included along with results from the effect of countermeasure application on HEPA filter lifetimes.
Date: July 12, 1978
Creator: Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G. & Ford, H.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department