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Potential Physical Processes Explaining the Observed Spectral Signature of Cloudy Column Solar Radiation Absorption

Description: The results presented here have shown that the spectral signature of absorption in a cloudy layer could be duplicated (except for the 1.06 {micro}m region) with a rather sophisticated radiative transfer model, if the absorption by both aerosol and cloud droplets was enhanced. In the case of aerosol, highly absorbing (imaginary part of refractive index between 0.1 and 0.01), small (2 - 5 nm) particles dramatically improved the match between observations and model computations. Duplication of the observed cloud absorption required a thin layer of drizzle (large droplets). The only feature remaining unexplained at this time is the enhanced absorption at 1.06 {micro}m. These results are only based on one day of observations and need to be verified. This study suggests the need for additional co-located broadband and spectral observations in clear and cloudy sky conditions in different atmospheric regimes. In-situ aerosol and cloud droplet microphysical measurements will be crucial to unravel the role of these particles in the ''enhanced absorption'' issue. Finally, accurate absorption measurements are needed at 1.06 {micro}m to understand observed absorption in that spectral region.
Date: June 1, 1960
Creator: Gautier, Catherine; O'Hirok, William & Ricchiazzi, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The electromagnetic interaction of an intense relativistic coasting beam with itself, including the effect of a confining nonperfect vacuum tank, or a quiescent rf cavity, is investigated theoretically. It is shown that the resonances that may occur between harmonics of the particle circulation frequencies and the electromagnetic modes of the cavities can lead to a longitudinal instability of the beam. A criterion for stability of the beam against such longitudinal bunching is obtained as a restriction on the shunt impedance of the rf cavity, or the Q of the vacuum tank. This criterion contains the energy spread and intensity of the coasting beam, as well as the parameters of the accelerator. Numerical examples are given which indicate that in general the resonances with the vacuum tank will not cause instabilities, while those with an rf cavity can be prevented from causing instabilities by choosing the shunt impedance at a sufficiently low but still convenient value.
Date: August 4, 1960
Creator: Laslett, L. J.; Neil, V. Kelvin & Sessler, A. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerosol research at Hanford and engineering applications to production reactors

Description: When the construction of the confinement facilities for Hanford production reactors is completed, the potential for contaminating the environment with accidentally released fission products will be greatly reduced. This was demonstrated already when rupture debris burned in the rear face area of one of the reactors in which the fog spray was installed and ready for service. The fog spray effectively prevented the spread of contamination to the ventilation equipment downstream of the rear face enclosure. Also, the commercially- available absolute filters and charcoal beds will significantly decontaminate the exhaust air, stream of all fission products except the noble gases. Laboratory studies indicate that the filter system should remove at least 50 percent of all fission product halogen vapors and over 90 percent of the particulate matter released from a nuclear incident. In addition, the charcoal beds should provide an additional 90 to 95 percent decontamination of the halogens that manage to pass through the filter. It is not expected that any of the noble gases released will be removed by this system. Laboratory studies, in general, substantiate previous estimates on the release of fission products from overheated uranium fuels. The theoretical estimates are quite accurate for the volatile and semi-volatile elements but were high for the non-volatiles. For all conditions tested in the laboratory, the measured release of strontium, barium, and zirconium was less than 0.5 percent. It was also found that most released fission products tended to deposit on any surface they contacted, a property which would cause a large fraction of fission products to be retained by the reactor and associated hardware. 11 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: October 24, 1960
Creator: Linderoth, C. E.; Heacock, H. W. & Schwendiman, L. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A Po/sup 210/ source was used to furnish a reliab1e ground for both electron and positron sources. This was done to prevent the electron and positron sources from charging during BETA spectral studies in magnetic lens spectrometers. An approximately 20- mu c Po/sup 210/ source was placed 1.2 in. behind a 4- mu c Na/sup 2 / 2>s positron emitter backed by 20- mu g/cm/sup 2/ Formvar in the spectrometer; this arrangement resulted in a charging rate decrease of approximately 80%. When the source was placed 0.5 in. away, no charging was detectable over a period of more than one week. The discharge is attributed mainly to the loss of electrons from the source and backing caused by ionization of alpha particles since few alpha particles are stopped near the source. (B.O.G.)
Date: December 1, 1960
Creator: Nichols, R.T. & Jensen, E.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Plutonium-Copper Phase Diagram

Description: The constitution of the plutonium-copper binary alloy as determined by differential thermal analysis is presented. The system is characterized by two congruent melting compounds, PuCu2 (m.p. 865 degrees C.) and Pu4Cu17 (m.p. 954 degrees C.); two incongruent melting compounds, PuCu4 (m.p. 906 degrees C.) and Pu2Cu11 (m.p. 926 degrees C.); three eutectics, 96 atom per cent copper (m.p. 626 degrees), 70.5 atom per cent copper (m.p. 849 degrees C.), and 91 atom per cent copper (m.p. 881 degrees C.); and two peritectics at 75 atom per cent (m.p. 906 degrees C.) and 85.5 atom per cent (m.p. 926 degrees C.). Solid solution was found above 97 atom per cent plutonium. The apparatus, the method of investigation, and the binary alloy phase diagram is discussed.
Date: January 1, 1960
Creator: Rhinehammer, T. B.; Etter, D. E. & Jones, L. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Viscosity of a Liquid Plutonium-Iron Eutectic Alloy

Description: The viscosity of a liquid plutonium-iron eutectic alloy, which contains 9.5 atom per cent iron and melts at 411 degrees C, was determined up to 808 degrees C at Mound Laboratory by an oscillating cup viscosimeter. This type of apparatus employed a right-circular cylindrical cup containing the liquid under investigation attached to a torsion fiber. The dampening effect of the liquid upon the normal oscillations of the pendululm was a function of the viscosity of the liquid. The amplitudes of the oscillations of the pendulum were measured by a photographic technique. The periods of the oscillations were determined by an automatic timing mechanism. The reliability of the viscosimeter was demonstrated by following the expected function of the viscosity of liquid lead and bismuth over a larger temperature range than was previously reported.
Date: April 1, 1960
Creator: Wittenberg, L. J., Jones, L. V., Ofte, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department